# Information Mining: Ideas and Procedures Mining grouping designs in value-based databases - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Information Mining: Ideas and Procedures Mining grouping designs in value-based databases

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## Information Mining: Ideas and Procedures Mining grouping designs in value-based databases

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1. Data Mining: Concepts and TechniquesMining sequence patterns in transactional databases

2. Sequence Databases & Sequential Patterns • Transaction databases, time-series databases vs. sequence databases • Frequent patterns vs. (frequent) sequential patterns • Applications of sequential pattern mining • Customer shopping sequences: • First buy computer, then CD-ROM, and then digital camera, within 3 months. • Medical treatments, natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes), science & eng. processes, stocks and markets, etc. • Telephone calling patterns, Weblog click streams • DNA sequences and gene structures

3. What Is Sequential Pattern Mining? • Given a set of sequences, find the complete set of frequent subsequences A sequence : < (ef) (ab) (df) c b > A sequence database An element may contain a set of items. Items within an element are unordered and we list them alphabetically. <a(bc)dc> is a subsequence of <a(abc)(ac)d(cf)> Given support thresholdmin_sup =2, <(ab)c> is a sequential pattern

4. Challenges on Sequential Pattern Mining • A huge number of possible sequential patterns are hidden in databases • A mining algorithm should • find the complete set of patterns, when possible, satisfying the minimum support (frequency) threshold • be highly efficient, scalable, involving only a small number of database scans • be able to incorporate various kinds of user-specific constraints

5. Sequential Pattern Mining Algorithms • Concept introduction and an initial Apriori-like algorithm • Agrawal & Srikant. Mining sequential patterns, ICDE’95 • Apriori-based method: GSP (Generalized Sequential Patterns: Srikant & Agrawal @ EDBT’96) • Pattern-growth methods: FreeSpan & PrefixSpan (Han et al.@KDD’00; Pei, et al.@ICDE’01) • Vertical format-based mining: SPADE (Zaki@Machine Leanining’00) • Constraint-based sequential pattern mining (SPIRIT: Garofalakis, Rastogi, Shim@VLDB’99; Pei, Han, Wang @ CIKM’02) • Mining closed sequential patterns: CloSpan (Yan, Han & Afshar @SDM’03)

6. Seq. ID Sequence 10 <(bd)cb(ac)> 20 <(bf)(ce)b(fg)> 30 <(ah)(bf)abf> 40 <(be)(ce)d> 50 <a(bd)bcb(ade)> The Apriori Property of Sequential Patterns • A basic property: Apriori (Agrawal & Sirkant’94) • If a sequence S is not frequent • Then none of the super-sequences of S is frequent • E.g, <hb> is infrequent  so do <hab> and <(ah)b> Given support thresholdmin_sup =2

7. GSP—Generalized Sequential Pattern Mining • GSP (Generalized Sequential Pattern) mining algorithm • proposed by Agrawal and Srikant, EDBT’96 • Outline of the method • Initially, every item in DB is a candidate of length-1 • for each level (i.e., sequences of length-k) do • scan database to collect support count for each candidate sequence • generate candidate length-(k+1) sequences from length-k frequent sequences using Apriori • repeat until no frequent sequence or no candidate can be found • Major strength: Candidate pruning by Apriori

8. Seq. ID Sequence min_sup =2 10 <(bd)cb(ac)> 20 <(bf)(ce)b(fg)> 30 <(ah)(bf)abf> 40 <(be)(ce)d> 50 <a(bd)bcb(ade)> Finding Length-1 Sequential Patterns • Examine GSP using an example • Initial candidates: all singleton sequences • <a>, <b>, <c>, <d>, <e>, <f>, <g>, <h> • Scan database once, count support for candidates

9. GSP: Generating Length-2 Candidates 51 length-2 Candidates Without Apriori property, 8*8+8*7/2=92 candidates Apriori prunes 44.57% candidates

10. Seq. ID Sequence Cand. cannot pass sup. threshold 5th scan: 1 cand. 1 length-5 seq. pat. <(bd)cba> 10 <(bd)cb(ac)> 20 <(bf)(ce)b(fg)> Cand. not in DB at all <abba> <(bd)bc> … 4th scan: 8 cand. 6 length-4 seq. pat. 30 <(ah)(bf)abf> 3rd scan: 46 cand. 19 length-3 seq. pat. 20 cand. not in DB at all <abb> <aab> <aba> <baa><bab> … 40 <(be)(ce)d> 2nd scan: 51 cand. 19 length-2 seq. pat. 10 cand. not in DB at all 50 <a(bd)bcb(ade)> <aa> <ab> … <af> <ba> <bb> … <ff> <(ab)> … <(ef)> 1st scan: 8 cand. 6 length-1 seq. pat. <a> <b> <c> <d> <e> <f> <g> <h> The GSP Mining Process min_sup =2

11. Candidate Generate-and-test: Drawbacks • A huge set of candidate sequences generated. • Especially 2-item candidate sequence. • Multiple Scans of database needed. • The length of each candidate grows by one at each database scan. • Inefficient for mining long sequential patterns. • A long pattern grow up from short patterns • The number of short patterns is exponential to the length of mined patterns.

12. The SPADE Algorithm • SPADE (Sequential PAttern Discovery using Equivalent Class) developed by Zaki 2001 • A vertical format sequential pattern mining method • A sequence database is mapped to a large set of • Item: <SID, EID> • Sequential pattern mining is performed by • growing the subsequences (patterns) one item at a time by Apriori candidate generation

14. Bottlenecks of GSP and SPADE • A huge set of candidates could be generated • 1,000 frequent length-1 sequences generate s huge number of length-2 candidates! • Multiple scans of database in mining • Breadth-first search • Mining long sequential patterns • Needs an exponential number of short candidates • A length-100 sequential pattern needs 1030 candidate sequences!

15. Prefix and Suffix (Projection) • <a>, <aa>, <a(ab)> and <a(abc)> are prefixes of sequence <a(abc)(ac)d(cf)> • Given sequence <a(abc)(ac)d(cf)>

16. Mining Sequential Patterns by Prefix Projections • Step 1: find length-1 sequential patterns • <a>, <b>, <c>, <d>, <e>, <f> • Step 2: divide search space. The complete set of seq. pat. can be partitioned into 6 subsets: • The ones having prefix <a>; • The ones having prefix <b>; • … • The ones having prefix <f>

17. Finding Seq. Patterns with Prefix <a> • Only need to consider projections w.r.t. <a> • <a>-projected database: <(abc)(ac)d(cf)>, <(_d)c(bc)(ae)>, <(_b)(df)cb>, <(_f)cbc> • Find all the length-2 seq. pat. Having prefix <a>: <aa>, <ab>, <(ab)>, <ac>, <ad>, <af> • Further partition into 6 subsets • Having prefix <aa>; • … • Having prefix <af>

18. Completeness of PrefixSpan SDB Length-1 sequential patterns <a>, <b>, <c>, <d>, <e>, <f> Having prefix <c>, …, <f> Having prefix <a> Having prefix <b> <a>-projected database <(abc)(ac)d(cf)> <(_d)c(bc)(ae)> <(_b)(df)cb> <(_f)cbc> <b>-projected database … Length-2 sequential patterns <aa>, <ab>, <(ab)>, <ac>, <ad>, <af> … … Having prefix <aa> Having prefix <af> … <aa>-proj. db <af>-proj. db

19. Efficiency of PrefixSpan • No candidate sequence needs to be generated • Projected databases keep shrinking • Major cost of PrefixSpan: constructing projected databases • Can be improved by pseudo-projections

20. Speed-up by Pseudo-projection • Major cost of PrefixSpan: projection • Postfixes of sequences often appear repeatedly in recursive projected databases • When (projected) database can be held in main memory, use pointers to form projections • Pointer to the sequence • Offset of the postfix s=<a(abc)(ac)d(cf)> <a> s|<a>: ( , 2) <(abc)(ac)d(cf)> <ab> s|<ab>: ( , 4) <(_c)(ac)d(cf)>

21. Pseudo-Projection vs. Physical Projection • Pseudo-projection avoids physically copying postfixes • Efficient in running time and space when database can be held in main memory • However, it is not efficient when database cannot fit in main memory • Disk-based random accessing is very costly • Suggested Approach: • Integration of physical and pseudo-projection • Swapping to pseudo-projection when the data set fits in memory

22. Constraint-Based Seq.-Pattern Mining • Constraint-based sequential pattern mining • Constraints: User-specified, for focused mining of desired patterns • How to explore efficient mining with constraints? — Optimization • Classification of constraints • Anti-monotone: E.g., value_sum(S) < 150, min(S) > 10 • Monotone: E.g., count (S) > 5, S  {PC, digital_camera} • Succinct: E.g., length(S)  10, S  {Pentium, MS/Office, MS/Money} • Convertible: E.g., value_avg(S) < 25, profit_sum (S) > 160, max(S)/avg(S) < 2, median(S) – min(S) > 5 • Inconvertible: E.g., avg(S) – median(S) = 0

23. From Sequential Patterns to Structured Patterns • Sets, sequences, trees, graphs, and other structures • Transaction DB: Sets of items • {{i1, i2, …, im}, …} • Seq. DB: Sequences of sets: • {<{i1, i2}, …, {im,in, ik}>, …} • Sets of Sequences: • {{<i1, i2>, …, <im,in, ik>}, …} • Sets of trees: {t1, t2, …, tn} • Sets of graphs (mining for frequent subgraphs): • {g1, g2, …, gn} • Mining structured patterns in XML documents, bio-chemical structures, etc.

24. Episodes and Episode Pattern Mining • Other methods for specifying the kinds of patterns • Serial episodes: A  B • Parallel episodes: A & B • Regular expressions: (A | B)C*(D  E) • Methods for episode pattern mining • Variations of Apriori-like algorithms, e.g., GSP • Database projection-based pattern growth • Similar to the frequent pattern growth without candidate generation

25. Periodicity Analysis • Periodicity is everywhere: tides, seasons, daily power consumption, etc. • Full periodicity • Every point in time contributes (precisely or approximately) to the periodicity • Partial periodicit: A more general notion • Only some segments contribute to the periodicity • Jim reads NY Times 7:00-7:30 am every week day • Cyclic association rules • Associations which form cycles • Methods • Full periodicity: FFT, other statistical analysis methods • Partial and cyclic periodicity: Variations of Apriori-like mining methods

26. Ref: Mining Sequential Patterns • R. Srikant and R. Agrawal. Mining sequential patterns: Generalizations and performance improvements. EDBT’96. • H. Mannila, H Toivonen, and A. I. Verkamo. Discovery of frequent episodes in event sequences. DAMI:97. • M. Zaki. SPADE: An Efficient Algorithm for Mining Frequent Sequences. Machine Learning, 2001. • J. Pei, J. Han, H. Pinto, Q. Chen, U. Dayal, and M.-C. Hsu. PrefixSpan: Mining Sequential Patterns Efficiently by Prefix-Projected Pattern Growth. ICDE'01 (TKDE’04). • J. Pei, J. Han and W. Wang, Constraint-Based Sequential Pattern Mining in Large Databases, CIKM'02. • X. Yan, J. Han, and R. Afshar. CloSpan: Mining Closed Sequential Patterns in Large Datasets. SDM'03. • J. Wang and J. Han, BIDE: Efficient Mining of Frequent Closed Sequences, ICDE'04. • H. Cheng, X. Yan, and J. Han, IncSpan: Incremental Mining of Sequential Patterns in Large Database, KDD'04. • J. Han, G. Dong and Y. Yin, Efficient Mining of Partial Periodic Patterns in Time Series Database, ICDE'99. • J. Yang, W. Wang, and P. S. Yu, Mining asynchronous periodic patterns in time series data, KDD'00.