Improvement OF NANOTECH WITH Utilization OF Techniques For POWDER METALLURGY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

development of nanotech with use of methods of powder metallurgy l.
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Improvement OF NANOTECH WITH Utilization OF Techniques For POWDER METALLURGY

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  1. DEVELOPMENT OF NANOTECH WITH USE OF METHODS OF POWDER METALLURGY A. Ph. ILYUSCHENKO National Academy of Science of Belarus BELORUSSIAN STATE POWDER METALLURGY SCIENTIFIC AND PRODUCTIONAL CONCERN STATE SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTION Powder Metallurgy Institute 41 Platonov str., 220071, Minsk, Republic of Belarus POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  2. The creation of new materials which work in the conditions of high loadings, speed and temperatures, aggressive media during the next ten years will depend on result on fundamental investigation and rate of researching of new materials with special qualities: • high temperature strength, • corrosion-resistant, • magnetic, • antifriction, • contact, • friction and so on. • In manufacture of these materials powder metallurgy gradually begin to play a dominant role. THE INFLUENCE OF POWDER METALLURGY IN CREATION OF NEW MATERIALS POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  3. INVENTING OF NEW MATERIALS The development of new technical equipment will promote the inventing of new materials: To set of nano clusters (sometimes named ultra disperse materials) concern midget (less than 100 nanometers) the particles consisting of tens, hundreds or thousand atoms. Properties of nano clusters cardinally differ from properties of macroscopically volumes of materials of the same structure. From nano clusters as from large building blocks, it is possible to design purposefully materials with preset properties and to use them in catalytic reactions. Quantum character nano processes makes them extremely high technology and stimulates development of such applied directions, as: atomic-molecular design, technologies based on mathematical modeling, metrology and the models based on special sections of biology, computing chemistry and physics, etc. POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  4. FEATURES OF REALIZATION NANOPROCESSES Nano-technological reactions can occur in vacuum, gas or in a liquid. The type of reactions is not always connected to type of environment in the chamber and can depend on other conditions (an electric field, pressure, temperature, allocation of energy, properties of substances). Such properties (the moment of dipole, presence of impurity, capillary effect, etc.) determine character of proceeding reactions. Additional influences (for example, a coherent laser irradiation with program-controlled length of a wave) can considerably change a course and even a direction of chemical reactions. These opportunities (controlled process) in a combination to the listed above variants of selection of materials and conditions of carrying out of nano processes - make nano-technology independent and even by refined area of a science and the industry of XXI century. An integral part of this sphere of knowledge is mathematical modeling the nano processes, connected with such new directions, as computing chemistry, computing physics and computing biology. POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  5. Fundamental investigations: • - computer modeling of powder metallurgy processes , including formation of powder coatings and forming of combined vacuum coatings using beam of charged particles, processes of producing of powder-porous materials; • - micro kinetics nano- and ultra dispersive powder materials on metal and ceramic bases; • - micromechanics of processes of destruction of powder and composite materials; • fractal aspects of materiology of powder and composite materials; • processes of mechanical alloying; • - non-contact diagnostics of materials behavior while thermal and mechanical actions and processes of thermal spraying coatings; • - modeling of thermal and mass transfer processes in porous materials; • - development new composite powders for thermal spraying and for PM ; • - investigations of surface and under-surface layers of materials by methods of electron work on escaping measuring. PERSPECTIVE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS OF POWDER METALLURGY POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  6. “NANO-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND NANO-TECHNOLOGIES” 5. Composite nanomaterials and certification of production 5.1. synthesis ofnanopowders for composite materialsby sol-gel technology, high-energy crushing, other technologies, including powders with bioactive and medical properties; 5.2. consolidation and sintering of composite nanomaterials in conditions: pulse influence; self-propagated high-temperature synthesis, microwave-sintering; 5.3. constructional nano and the sub microcrystalline materials received by methods of intensive plastic deformation; the nanomaterials received by crystallization from an amorphous condition; 5.4. polymeric nanocomposites; 5.5. manufacture of composite nanomaterials with anisotropic structure, including ceramic two-layer membranes for sterilization and ultra thin clearing of biological environments, solutions of medical preparations; catalysts; 5.6. research and certification of properties nanosized powders, structures and properties of composite nanomaterials. STATE PROGRAM OF FOCUSED BASIC RESEARCHES (2003): POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  7. CURRENT ACTIVITIES OF THE PMI In PM Institute the investigation in the field of nanomaterials are conducted by some research laboratories and are concentrated in 5 directions: • producing of initial nano-powders; • 2) compact materials for the targets used for deposition of coatings in microelectronics; • 3) compact materials forconstructional products; • 4) creation of pseudo-crystal structures with selective optical properties in the set range. • 5) reception of composite nanomaterials with anisotropic structure, including ceramic two-layer membranes. POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  8. TECHNICAL APPROACH ANDMETHODOLOGY Within the framework of the basic directions of researches in institute works on reception nanodispersed ceramic composite powders by a method of a crushing (grinding) in vertical and jet devices are carried out. Thus not less than 50 % of an output makes particles in the sizes less than 300 nanometers. Sol-gel technology receives mono-disperse nanopowders various structure, including materials from them with the structure of a photon crystal showing selective properties in optical area of a spectrum. Laws of formation of structure and properties nanocrystalline materials in conditions static both dynamic loading and sintering are investigated in the field of the temperatures which are not causing intensive re-crystallization. Methods of deposition of coatings in vacuum receive multilayered nanosized (thickness of one layer 10 nm) metal, ceramic-metal and composite coatings on the titan and substrates from other materials. In institute development of carbon materials (on a basis nanosized diamonds – ultra dispersed diamonds UDD) and special oxides ceramics, including corundum, directed on reception of materials with density close to theoretical, with uniform structure, high durability, hardness, wear resistance, a high level of physical properties, heat conductivities and thermo stability are conducted. Lack of traditional technology of reception of such materials is the high temperature of their roasting (1700 – 1750 ОС), that essentially limits volumes of their manufacture and application. POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  9. THIN FILM MATERIAL AND APPLICATION POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  10. PRODUCING OF INITIAL NANO-POWDERS Influence of different methods of compacting and press-powders compound on relative density of blanks In2O3-SnO2 POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  11. COMPACTING OF MATERIALS FOR THE TARGETS USED FOR DEPOSITION OF COATINGS • static pressing (UP) (in an interval of pressure 50-700 МПа), • static pressing is carried out at a high pressure (40 KBar) and temperature (1300-1500 С) (HPTC), • Impulse - hydrodynamic pressing (HDP), • dynamic pressing (brisant explosives under the flat circuit of loading at pressure 3-7 GPa) nanosized powders(EP). POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  12. Microstructure of a break of samples of targets In2O3-SnO2 after various modes of consolidation: а) explosion; b) a statics (complex binding) + 1550 0С, 5h.; c) a statics (Р =3 GPa, Т =1400 0С,  =30 sec.); d) explosion + 1600 0С, 1 h. b) a) c) d) POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  13. Static pressing without a sheaf receives relative density of samples no more than 50 %, with use of a sheaf – more than 55 % (for plasma-chemical powder), up to 65-73 % (for the powders received by electric explosion of a wire and hydrolysis of sheet aluminum). Dynamic pressing without use of a sheaf and without preliminary granulation achieves relative density of 84-89 %. Influence of modes of sintering on density, porosity, phase structure, electro physical and physical-mechanical properties, and also on a microstructure of the received materials is investigated. Powders, which were compacted with use of energy of explosion at the subsequent sintering, were condensed much faster and at lower temperature, than pressed in a static mode. Comparison of efficiency of various methods of consolidation of samples from nanosized powders Та2О5 is made: traditional static, static at a high pressure and temperature (40 кBаr, 1400оС, 2 mines) and pulse. It is shown, that last two methods give most microcrystalline structure (500-600 nanometers and 800-1200 nanometers accordingly) and close values К1С ~ 1,3-1,4 MPa* м1/2 and Нv ~ 7-8 ГПа. For statically pressed samples at the given stage of researches achieve the minimal size of grains ~1000-2000нм, Нv ~6 GPa and К1С ~ 0,8-1 MPa* м1/2. For samples from nanosized powders Al2O3after sintering at 1400-1500 оС the samples received by a method of explosive pressing (98-99 %) had the maximal relative density. According to electronic microscopy the average size of crystallite for the samples received from hydrolytic(ds~30 nanometer) and electro explosive powders (ds~14 nanometer), treated by explosion and sintered at 1350оС, 2h made 100-200 nanometers. COMPACT NANOMATERIALS FOR THE TARGETS USED FOR DEPOSITION OF COATINGS POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  14. Influence of performances of initial powders А12О3 and technological conditions of manufacture samples on their density POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  15. Initial powders А12О3 Fig.2 Photographs and electrongrams of the initial UDP A1203 produced by explosion of aluminum wires a)-A1, b)-A2 Fig 1. SEM photos of powders A1203 produced by different methods: a), b) electric explosion of aluminum wire (A1 and A2 accordingly); c) hydrolysis of sheet aluminum (к); d) plasma-chemical synthesis POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  16. POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  17. Density and durability of the experimental samples received from various nanopowders Та2О5 and А12О3 POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  18. POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  19. Dielectric properties of experimental samples from nano powdersТа2О5 and А12О3, pressed by a static method POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  20. POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  21. Fig.6. Microstructure of fracture of samples from UDP Ta205 produced by different methods: a) traditional static compaction and the following sintering (1350oC , 4hours) b) explosive compaction and the following sintering (1350oC , 4hours), c) static compaction at high pressure and temperature (40 kbar, 1400oC, 2min). POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  22. Fig.7. Microstructure of fracture of samples from UDP Al203 produced by different methods: a) traditional static compaction of electric-explosive powder A1 and the following sintering (1500oC, 2h), b) traditional static compaction of plasma-chemical powder T and the following sintering(1500oC, 2h), c) explosive compaction of A1 powder and the following sintering(1350oC, 2h), d) explosive compaction of plasma-chemical powder T and the following sintering(1500oC, 2h) POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  23. Fig.8.Microstructure of fracture of samples from UDP Al203 produced by electric explosion of wires (A1) after different methods of compaction and sintering: a) explosion compaction, b) explosive compaction and the following sintering (1350oC 2h), c) explosive compaction and the following sintering (1450oC 2h), d) explosive compaction and the following sintering (1550oC 2h), e) traditional static compaction and the following sintering ( 1550oC 2h), f) traditional static compaction and the following sintering ( 1600oC 2h) POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  24. During the first experiments the initial UDD powders have been rafined by means of heating up to 700 K for 30 minutes in the vacuum of 10-2 Ra. They are hermetically sealed in stainless body using vacuum hydraulic press to make the density of powder sample 50% from the theoretical value. The container with samples is put into the preservation ampoule and is loaded by steel striker with the speed of 2,6 km/s. The striker is accelerated by the generator of flat wave or by contract charge of powerful high-speed VV (trinitrotoluene-RDX or PVV-4). Metallographic investigations have proved our prepositions with respect to properties and quality of the produced consolidated materials. Powders of ultra-disperse diamond contrary as compared with micro-crystal powders are well consolidated. Screen electron microscopy has shown the presence of total sintering of powder particles forming unified structure (fig. 5). It is determined that particles size of the diamond can be increased in 1000 times under the dynamic loading in 30-40 Gpa and endurance for a few tens of microseconds. Out put includes high pressure phase of cubic and hexagonal diamond. Investigations of phase composition have shown small (up to 6%) diamond graphitization. COMPACT NANOMATERIALS (UDD) FOR TOOLS Fracture of ultra-disperse diamond powder consolidated by the explosion with the initial size of particles of 5 nanometers. POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  25. SOL-GEL TECHNOLOGY RECEIVES MONO-DISPERSE NANOPOWDERS Investigations have shown that spherical particles of silica look like densely packed aggregates of amorphous particles with the size in a few nano-meters. During thermal treatment (800C-900C – this is the temperature of material sintering) a transfer from silica to a small-crystal b-crystobalite with crystals size up to 5 nano-meters have taken place. Methods based on forced particles deposition in centrifugal and some other physical fields are not studied well but they are perspective. The possibility of regular structures production at the forced deposition at high speeds is limited by high requirements to mono-disperse particles, to the absence of their aggregates. We have investigated the processes of forming pseudo-crystal structures using the developed powders in centrifugal field at the acceleration up to 10000m/s2. To achieve this aim in the field of centrifugal forces action a special device is put in (fig.9). Inside the device a dense body made from reaction mixture is formed. The body is formed on the substrate made from optical glass. At the acceleration less than 5000 m/s2 structure is not ordered. At the increasing of acceleration pseudo-crystallites are formed. These materials can be used for selection of electric-magnetic radiation and for dividing nano- and ultra disperse particles in fractions (filtration in liquid or gas media). It is supposed to develop materials with the controllable structure and selective properties influencing on inherited factors of the synthesized oxide powders and studying its influence on structural parameters and properties of ceramics. The technology of such materials production includes several main stages: synthesis of spherical particles SiO2 with the size 200-380 nano-meters (length value of half-wave of visible light) with high degree of mono-dispersity; forming of regular 3 dimensional super-lattice that takes at the expense of disperse system self-ordering; thermal treatment. Fig. 9. Devices for centrifuging POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by Fig. 10. A typical structure of colloid crystals on the base of UDP silica: a) fracture, b) upper layer.

  26. PERSPECTIVE DIRECTIONS OF APPLIED RESEARCHES It is planned to develop technologies of targets production, fuel elements and dies on the base of composite powders: aluminum oxides, zirconium and titanium etc. Due to a fine structure products will have the increased wear resistance of products with a micron scale of structure. Technologies of making nano-structural ceramics for the targets, dies and fuel elements with the necessary high functional properties include stages of nano-powders production of metal oxides by the method of electric explosion, grinding, nano-powders compacting and the following products sintering. Nano-powders compaction enables production of compacts in the shape of plates and pipes with high density before sintering-up to 70-80%. The present devices enable to begin at once pilot works as for production the necessary products from nanostructural ceramics with grain sizes of 10-300 nano-meters. Pilot batches of products with the shape of plates and pipes will be produced on the base of nano-powders of the oxides Al2O3, ToO2, ZrO2. Thermal-mechanical and functional properties of these products necessary for their application as targets, wear resistant dies and hard-oxide fuel elements will be studied. POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  27. HIGH TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS The main functional element of a fuel element is the layer of solid oxide electrolyte which is non-permeable for gases and is characterized by high ion conductivity. There will be developed a technology of products production from stabilized nano-crystallite zirconium dioxide which is a more advanced material for TOTE. Due to a nano-dimensional structure this material has a high ion conductivity, 10 ohm-1 cm-1 minimum, with high mechanical strength under operating temperatures. This ensures high capacity density up to 0,5 W/cm2 which is higher than the present level more than in two times. Therewith the expected resource of the new electrolyte reaches 50000 hours (6 years) that is somewhat 5 times higher than the level of the TOTE resource which are made up to the present time. POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  28. HIGH TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS During last ten years PMI collaborate with Research Institute of Physical Chemical Problems in field of development of production oxide ceramics for high-temperature electrochemical devices. The most interesting developments in this field are technology for manufacturing parts for low-cost solid oxide fuel cell (so-called SOFC) (Fig 1). This devices are high-effective power-sources, based on consumption of ordinary hydrocarbon fuels. Electrochemical cells efficiency may reach 70% and more, whole device efficiency including heat recuperation module- up to 75%. Our developments in this direction were initiated by successful elaboration of technology for production of bearing cathode from lanthanum-strontium manganites (Fig 2). Our collaborators from Research Institute of Physical Chemical Problems assembled small SOFC device from ceramics we produce (Fig 3). This SOFC reached current density up to 0.3 A/cm2. But this cell used solid electrolyte ceramics with thickness more than 0.4 mm, and it limited effectiveness of current generation. Fig.1. Design and principle of planar SOFC Fig.3. Schematic drawing of SOFC with manganite current collectors: 1 – Zr0.9Y0.1O1.95 tube, 2 – La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 cathode, 3 - Ni-cermet anode, 4 - high-porosity La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 ceramics, 5 - dense La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 tube, 6 - metallic spring, 7 - metallic tube, 8 - porous ceramic insertions, 9 - thermocouple, 10 - copper current collectors, 11 - furnace. POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by Fig.2. Bearing cathode from lanthanum-strontium manganites

  29. HIGH TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Table 1 Spraying parameters of nano AI2O3 and ZrO2 coatings. Fig.1. (a) zirconia; (b)alumina Table 2 Mechanical properties of nanostructured zir­conia and alumina coatings Microhardness Porosity Nano zirconia coating 13.23.1 Nano alumina coating 11.85.4 Conventional alumina 8.2coating POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  30. HVOF AND SPHTSTECHNOLOGIES AND COATINGS POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  31. Structure of SHS FeAl-FexAly Powder Typical micrographs of SHS FeAlpowder with FeAl2и Fe2Al5inclusions X-ray Diffraction Pattern of SHS FeAlpowder with FeAl2и Fe2Al5inclusions • No cracks; • High hardness; • Good oxidation resistance. POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  32. CONCLUSION • The ideology of new scientific and technical revolution will essentially differ from the habitual industrial (texnocratic) model allowing economic growth by anyone (including plunders) uses natural and manpower resources. • Comprehension of limitation of these resources makes expedient new (though and not quite realized now) a system policy, basing on information, ecologically faultless "high" technologies. Thus the purposes of progress appear connected with intelligence of the person, with his interests and the increased needs for education, freedom and self-expression. • This policy can be determined as required new (humane), strate-gically stable system approach to management of development of a society. • Introduction nano technologies renders main influence on scientific and technical, economic and social development of the countries, and also on interstate relations. POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  33. WAYS OF COOPERATION • 1. Joint research within the international scientific-technical programs. • 2. Participation in the work of major scientific centres. • 3. Parallel testing of developed ceramic materials in specialised testing centres. • 4. Studying scientific activities, research equipment used and methods of testing. • 5.Direct contracts referring to research and pilot works and exchange of materials and products. • 6.Leasing research and pilot equipment. POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by

  34. OUR PARTNERS • 1. CIS Partners: • Institute of Physics State Solid Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Russia; • Institute of Chemistry Physics Russian Academy of Sciences , Chernogolovka, Russia; • Institute of Electrophisics Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg, Russia; • Military Medicine Academy, St.-Petersburg, Russia; • Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia; • Republican Engineering-Technical Centre for Powder Metallurgy, Perm, Russia; • Institute of Physical Chemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Russia; • Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev; • Institute of Low Temperature National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Charkiv; • Institute of Monocristalls National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Charkiv; • Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev; • Institute of Organic Catalysis and Electrochemistry, Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan, Almaty • 2.Other Partners: • Aachen University of Technology, Germany; • Drexel University, USA; • Lulleo University of Technology, Sweden; • Tampere University, Finland; • Instituto di Scienze Fisiche Universita degli Studi di Ancona, Italy • Institute of Glass and Ceramics, Poland; POWDER METALLURGY INSTITUTE 41, Platonov str., Minsk, 220071, Republic of Belarus Tel. (017) 232-82-71, 232 5691 Fax (8-017) 2100 574, E-Mail: alexil@ srpmi.belpak.minsk.by