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Two Types of Task Analysis

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  1. Teaching Sequential Tasks Companion PowerPoint to the Teaching Sequential Skills DVD and Coach’s Manual Utah Personnel Development Center Cathy Longstroth – Patti Haning – Cindy Myers February 5, 2010 revision

  2. Two Types of Task Analysis • Discrete Trial • Chained Activities

  3. Discrete Trial Examples • Each trial is separate and distinct from other trials • Learning numbers 0-20 • Coin identification • Learning functional words and phrases

  4. Sequential Tasks (Behavioral Chains) • Steps are performed in sequence such that each step acts as the cue for the next one (skills are taught on 2 dimensions) • Dressing skills • Leisure skills • Self-Care skills • Classroom and family routines

  5. Adult Younger students may spend more time in discrete trial training and link the skills learned to functional activities. Older students may spend more time in routines and activities and work on discrete trial tasks that originate from those activities.

  6. Do we need a formal program for all the sequential tasks we teach?

  7. Steps to Teaching Sequential Skills • Step 1. Perform a task analysis • Step 2. Take baseline data • Step 3. Determine whether you will use a forward chain, backward chain or total task presentation.

  8. Steps to Teaching Sequential Skills • Step 4. Determine a plan for fading prompts • Step 5. Set up the data collection system and schedule • Step 6. Use evidence based instructional strategies to teach the skills • Step 7. Use the data for problem solving

  9. When do we need a Task Analysis? • Most students with autism or significant disabilities can learn most classroom routines by the SHOW - TELL - HELP method • If the student cannot do this- Do a Task Analysis

  10. Step 1 The Task Analysis

  11. Step 1. The Task Analysis • 1. Perform the activity or have another person perform the activity. • 2. Record the steps of the activity. • 3.Customize the steps for the student.

  12. Step 2 Baseline Data

  13. Step 2. Baseline Data Determine the present levels of performance of all steps by following the task analysis and providing least to most assistance. At this point you will not be providing instruction, just seeing what the student can and cannot do and how much assistance is necessary for correct performance.

  14. Step 3 Determine the Chaining Type

  15. Step 3: Determine if the skill will be taught in a forward, backward, or total task presentation.The difference depends on where you focus the “point of instruction”

  16. Total Task Chain • All steps in the chain are taught simultaneously, as compared to one step at a time to criterion in forward and backward chaining. • Most often used when the student has mastered most of the steps in the chain. This type is most often used in vocation/community instruction. • Examples: Clearing table, making sandwich, brushing teeth, shopping for groceries, vacuuming carpets, sweeping floors, washing and drying clothes, riding the bus

  17. Forward Chain • The Point of Instruction and reward begins with the FIRST unmastered step and progresses to the LAST unmastered step • Examples: Writing first name, saying full name, counting, learning a poem, navigating to a site on the computer

  18. Learning to Make Peanut Butter Sandwich without Visual Guide

  19. Forward Chain

  20. Forward Chain • Examples: Writing first name, saying full name, counting, navigating to a site on the computer

  21. Backwards Chain • Point of instruction and reward begins with the LAST unmastered step in the chain and progresses to the FIRST unmastered step. • After the last step is mastered, instruction begins at the second to last step • The student still does the skill from the first to last step, but the emphasis of instruction is on the last step, then last two steps, then last three steps, etc.

  22. Backwards Chain

  23. Backward Chain • Examples: Zipping zipper, buttoning, putting on shirt, putting on socks, eating with a spoon, drinking from cup or glass, drinking with a straw, tying shoelaces, putting on a jacket, operating a CD player, moving object from one container to another, washing and drying hands, saying telephone number, putting together a puzzle, counting backwards

  24. Backwards Chain • Backwards chains are generally preferred because the end of the routine is always the same and more clearly signals the opportunity for the reward. • e.g. After hands are dry, the task is done (and rewarded) • However, different learners may be more or less successful with difference methods

  25. Is this a forward, backward, or total task chain?

  26. Directionof Instruction Instructional Step Untaught Steps Mastered Step

  27. Directionof Instruction Instructional Step Untaught Steps Mastered Step

  28. Directionof Instruction Instructional Step Untaught Steps Mastered Step

  29. Directionof Instruction Instructional Step Untaught Steps Mastered Step

  30. Total Task Chain • All steps in the chain are taught simultaneously, as compared to one step at a time to criterion in forward and backward chaining. • Most often used when the student has mastered most of the steps in the chain. This type is most often used in vocational/community instruction.

  31. Total Task Chain

  32. Total Task Chain • Examples: Clearing table, making sandwich, brushing teeth, shopping for groceries, vacuuming carpets, sweeping floors, washing and drying clothes, riding the bus

  33. Check for Understanding • Practice with a peer as a student • Teach saying the alphabet as a forward chain - begin to withdraw verbal prompts using a time delay* on the A, (help student say B through Z), then AB (help student say the whole alphabet C through Z), then ABC (help the student say D through Z) *See information on “Time Delay” in this PowerPoint

  34. Check for Understanding • Practice with a peer as a student • Teach saying the alphabet as backward chain - begin to withdraw verbal prompts using a time delay* on the Z, (help student say A through Y), then YZ (help student say the whole alphabet A through X), then XYZ (help the student say A through W) *See information on “Time Delay” in this PowerPoint

  35. Check for Understanding • Practice with a peer as a student • Teach saying the alphabet using a total task approach. Only give verbal prompts on letters the student is having difficulty stating correctly. For instance, the student may say “elemeno” instead of L,M, N, O. Have the student say the alphabet A to Z, but verbally prompt the correct letters before the error occurs. Gradually withdraw the verbal prompts.

  36. Step 4 Prompts and Prompt Fading

  37. Step 4: Determine the most effective prompts and outline a strategy for fading prompts out. • PLAN the fading out of added help.

  38. Prompts Enable Errorless Learning • Full physical prompts • Partial physical prompts • Gesture • Verbal prompts • Indirect prompts • Visual prompts

  39. A prompt is extra information that you provide to a student that helps them learn some skill. • It is also meant to be temporary. • The goal of prompting should be to help the student learn some skill so that they can then perform that skill independently. Amy Peters

  40. At some point, all students will need some form of prompting • Careful prompting is most important with students with moderate, severe or profound disabilities • This is because these students are more at risk for becoming dependent on the assistance provided Amy Peters

  41. There are lots of different types of prompting. Different methods are appropriate for different situations and students. Amy Peters

  42. Verbal prompting is when • Spoken cues are given to a student that instruct a student to perform a certain activity • Verbal prompts are usually paired with other types of prompting • and it can be difficult to fade • The student must be able to understand and follow verbal directions Amy Peters

  43. Verbal Prompts can be helpful for: • Teaching the labeling of actions (e.g., “check schedule”) • Creating a verbal “chain” so that a child can self-talk the steps of the chain (e.g., Annie can learn the letters of her name are “A…n….n…i…e”)

  44. The student copies the action(s) of another person performing the desired behavior • The student must be able to imitate and • Modeling is usually paired with other types of prompting • Modeling is when Amy Peters

  45. physical prompting from another person • It is most effective when the prompter cues the learner from behind • Types of manual guidance include • Hand over hand • Forearm and • Shoulder • It can be used in the absence of other types of prompting and it is the easiest to fade. • Manual guidance is Amy Peters

  46. Used in combination with other types of prompting • It is using some action to cue the learner like • Pointing • Nodding • Motioning • Approving or disapproving looks • This form of prompting may be difficult to fade • Gestural prompting is usually Amy Peters

  47. Textual prompts are • Written forms of information or instructions • They include things like • Checklists • Scripts • And pictures Amy Peters

  48. Spatial prompting is • Arranging the materials to highlight the correct response • An example in classroom might be saying to a student to “get out your blue folder” and the blue folder is on top of the other materials inside of the students desk Amy Peters