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Society Regions

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  1. Culture Regions • Urban culture regions • Cultural diffusion in the city • The cultural ecology of the city • Cultural integration and models of the city • Urban landscapes

  2. Six processes at work in the city • Concentration — differential distribution of population and economic activities in a city, and the manner in which they have focused on the center of the city • Decentralization — the location of activity away from the central city • Segregation — the sorting out of population groups according to conscious preferences for associating with one group or another through bias and prejudice

  3. Six processes at work in the city • Specialization — similar to segregation only refers to the economic sector • Invasion — traditionally, a process through which a new activity or social group enters an area • Succession — a new use or social group gradually replaces the former occupants • The following models were constructed to examine single cities and do not necessarily apply to metropolitan coalescences so common in today’s world

  4. Concentric zone model • Developed in 1925 by Ernest W. Burgess • A model with five zones.

  5. Concentric zone model • A model with five zones. • Zone 1 • The central business district (CBD) • Distinct pattern of income levels out to the commuters’ zone • Extension of trolley lines had a lot to do with this pattern)

  6. Concentric zone model • A model with five zones. • Zone 2 • Characterized by mixed pattern of industrial and residential land use • Rooming houses, small apartments, and tenements attract the lowest income segment • Often includes slums and skid rows, many ethnic ghettos began here • Usually called the transition zone

  7. Concentric zone model • A model with five zones. • Zone 3 • The “workingmen’s quarters” • Solid blue-collar, located close to factories of zones 1 and 2 • More stable than the transition zone around the CBD • Often characterized by ethnic neighborhoods — blocks of immigrants who broke free from the ghettos • Spreading outward because of pressure from transition zone and because blue-collar workers demanded better housing

  8. Concentric zone model • A model with five zones. • Zone 4 • Middle class area of “better housing” • Established city dwellers, many of whom moved outward with the first streetcar network • Commute to work in the CBD

  9. Concentric zone model • A model with five zones. • Zone 5 • Consists of higher-income families clustered together in older suburbs • Located either on the farthest extension of the trolley or commuter railroad lines • Spacious lots and large houses • From here the rich pressed outward to avoid congestion and social heterogeneity caused by expansion of zone 4

  10. Concentric zone model • Theory represented the American city in a new stage of development • Before the 1870s, cities such as New York had mixed neighborhoods where merchants’ stores and sweatshop factories were intermingled with mansions and hovels • Rich and poor, immigrant and native-born, rubbed shoulders in the same neighborhoods

  11. Concentric zone model • In Chicago, Burgess’s home town, the great fire of 1871 leveled the core • The result of rebuilding was a more explicit social patterning • Chicago became a segregated city with a concentric pattern • This was the city Burgess used for his model • The actual map of the residential area does not exactly match his simplified concentric zones

  12. Concentric zone model • Critics of the model • Pointed out even though portions of each zone did exist, rarely were they linked to totally surround the city • Burgess countered there were distinct barriers, such as old industrial centers, preventing the completion of the arc • Others felt Burgess, as a sociologist, overemphasized residential patterns and did not give proper credit to other land uses

  13. Sector model • Homer Hoyt, an economist, presented his sector model in 1939 • Maintained high-rent districts were instrumental in shaping land-use structure of the city • Because these areas were reinforced by transportation routes, the pattern of their development was one of sectors or wedges

  14. Sector model • Hoyt suggested high-rent sector would expand according to four factors • Moves from its point of origin near the CBD, along established routes of travel, toward another nucleus of high-rent buildings • Will progress toward high ground or along waterfronts, when these areas are not used for industry • Will move along the route of fastest transportation • Will move toward open space

  15. Sector model • As high-rent sectors develop, areas between them are filled in • Middle-rent areas move directly next to them, drawing on their prestige • Low-rent areas fill remaining areas • Moving away from major routes of travel, rents go from high to low • There are distinct patterns in today’s cities that echo Hoyt’s model • He had the advantage of writing later than Burgess — in the age of the automobile

  16. Sector model • Today, major transportation arteries are generally freeways • Surrounding areas are often low-rent districts • Contrary to Hoyt’s theory • Freeways were imposed on existing urban pattern • Often built through low-rent areas where land was cheaper and political opposition was less

  17. Multiple nuclei model • Suggested by Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman in 1945 • Maintained a city developed with equal intensity around various points • The CBD was not the sole generator of change

  18. Multiple nuclei model • Equal weight must be given to: • An old community on city outskirts around which new suburbs clustered • An industrial district that grew from an original waterfront location • Low-income area that began because of some social stigma attached to site

  19. Multiple nuclei model • Rooted their model in four geographic principles • Certain activities require highly specialized facilities • Accessible transportation for a factory • Large areas of open land for a housing tract • Certain activities cluster because they profit from mutual association • Certain activities repel each other and will not be found in the same area • Certain activities could not make a profit if they paid the high rent of the most desirable locations

  20. Multiple nuclei model • More than any other model takes into account the varied factors of decentralization in the structure of the North American city • Many criticize the concentric zone and sector theories as being rather deterministic because they emphasize one single factor • Multiple nuclei theory encompasses a larger spectrum of economic and social possibilities • Most urban scholars feel Harris and Ullman succeeded in trying to integrate the disparate element of culture into workable model

  21. Feminist critiques • Most criticisms of above models focus or their inability to account for all the complexities of urban forms • All three models assume urban patterns are shaped by economic trade-offs between: • Desire to live in suburban neighborhood appropriate to one’s economic status • Need to live close to the city center for employment opportunities

  22. Feminist critiques • Models assume only one person is a wage worker — the male head • Ignore dual-income families and households headed by single women • Women contend with a larger array of factors in making locational decisions • Distances to child care and school facilities • Other important services important for different members of a family • Traditional models that assume a spatial separation of workplace and home are no longer appropriate

  23. Feminist critiques • Results of a study of activity patterns of working parents • Women living in a city have access to wider array of employment opportunities • Better able to combine domestic and wage labor than women in suburbs • Many middle class women choose a gentrified inner-city location to live • Hope this area will offer amenities of suburbs—good schools and safety • Accommodate their activity patterns • Other research has shown some businesses locate offices in suburbs because they rely on labor of highly educated, middle class women spatially constrained by domestic work

  24. Feminist critiques • Most women seek employment closer to home than men even those without small children • Criticism of models by women • Most families require two real wage earners • Models tend to reflect an urban structure that isolates women who do not participate in the urban labor market • Raises problems of timing and organization for those who combine waged and domestic labor • Created by men who shared certain assumptions about how cities operate, and represent a partial view of urban life

  25. Feminist critiques • Other theories incorporated alternative perspective of female scholars • Studies using mostly female students, focused on “race,” ethnicity, class, and housing in Chicago • Emphasized role of landlords in shaping discrimination in the housing market • Study by urban historian Raymond Mohl • Follows the making of black ghettos in Miami between 1940 and 1960 • Reveals role of public policy decisions, landlordism, and discrimination

  26. Apartheid and post-apartheid city • Apartheid —state-sanctioned policies of segregating “races” • Intended effects of these policies on urban form are delineated in next slide

  27. Apartheid and post-apartheid city • Important components of the apartheid state • Policies of economic and political discrimination were formalized under National Party rule after 1948 • Government passed two major pieces of legislation in 1950 • First was the Population Registration Act — mandated classification of population into discrete racial groups: white, black, and colored • Second called the Group Areas Act — goal was to divide cities into sections that could be inhabited only by members of one population group

  28. Apartheid and post-apartheid city • Important components of the apartheid state • Policies of economic and political discrimination were formalized under National Party rule after 1948 • Government passed two major pieces of legislation in 1950 • First was the Population Registration Act — mandated classification of population into discrete racial groups: white, black, and colored • Second called the Group Areas Act — goal was to divide cities into sections that could be inhabited only by members of one population group

  29. Apartheid and post-apartheid city • Important components of the apartheid state • Government passed two major pieces of legislation in 1950 • Effects of the two acts • Downtowns were restricted to whites • Areas for non-whites were peripheral, restricted, and often without urban services—transportation or shopping • Large numbers of non-whites were displaced with little or no compensation • Buffer zones were created between residential to curtail contact

  30. Apartheid and post-apartheid city • Model apartheid city most closely resembles the sector model • Cities were artificially divided into discrete areas • Non-white populations suffered the consequences • Notorious example — Sophiatown in Johannesburg • Remains to be seen what form the post-apartheid will take

  31. The Soviet and post-Soviet city • Cities were shaped by the Bolshevik revolution of 1917 • Socialist principles called for the nationalization of all resources • Economics would no longer dictate land-use—allocation planners would • New ideals had profound effect on urban form of Soviet cities

  32. The Soviet and post-Soviet city • Soviet policies attempted to create a more equitable arrangement of land uses • Relative absence of residential segregation according to socioeconomic status • Equitable housing facilities for most citizens • Relatively equal accessibility to sites for distribution of consumer items • Cultural amenities located and priced to be accessible to as manypeople as possible • Adequate and accessible public transportation

  33. The Soviet and post-Soviet city • The situation outlined above was less than ideal • By the 1970s and 1980s many Soviets realized their standards of living were well below those in the west • Centralized planning system was not successful • In the late 1980s economic restructuring introduced perestroyka • The post-Soviet city • Market forces are again the dominant force in shaping urban land uses • Pace and scale of urban change are unprecedented

  34. The Soviet and post-Soviet city • The privatization of the housing market —example of Moscow • Private housing grew from 9.3 percent in 1990 to 49.6 percent in 1994 • Does not mean better housing for all people • Many people cannot afford the high prices • Apartments are particularly expensive in the center of Moscow • Most people have no choice but to live in communal apartments from the old Soviet system

  35. The Soviet and post-Soviet city • Cities are taking on the look of Western cities • Downtowns now have most expensive land • Increasingly dominated by retailing outlets of familiar Western companies • Tall office buildings housing financial activities are replacing industrial buildings • Processes akin to gentrification are taking place in city centers displacing residents to peripheral portions of the cities • The outcome of the new changes is not certain and will be continued to be studied

  36. Latin American model • More complex because of influence of local cultures on urban development • Difficult to group cities of the developing world into one or two comprehensive models • Latin American model is shown in next slide

  37. Latin American model • Generalized scheme both sensitive to local cultures and articulates pervasive influence of international forces, both Western and non-Western • In contrast to today’s cities in the U.S., the CBDs of Latin American cities are vibrant, dynamic, and increasingly specialized • A reliance on public transit that serves the central city • Existence of a large and relatively affluent population closest to CBD

  38. Latin American model • Outside the CBD, the dominant component is a commercial spine surrounded by • the elite residential sector • These two zones are interrelated and called the spine/sector • Essentially an extension of the CBD down a major boulevard • Here are the city’s important amenities — parks, theaters, restaurants, and even golf courses • Strict zoning and land controls ensure continuation of these activities, protecting elite from incursions by low-income squatters

  39. Latin American model • Inner-city zone of maturity • Less prestigious collection of traditional colonial homes and upgraded self-built homes • Homes occupied by people unable to participate in the spine/sector • Area of upward mobility

  40. Latin American model • Zone of accretion • Diverse collection of housing types, sizes, and quality • Transition between zone of maturity and next zone • Area of ongoing construction and change • Some neighborhoods have city-provided utilities • Other blocks must rely on water and butane delivery trucks for essential services

  41. Latin American model • Zone of peripheral squatter settlements • Where most recent migrants are found • Fringe contrasts with affluent and comfortable suburbs that ring North American cities • Houses often built from scavenged materials • Gives the appearance of a refugee camp

  42. Latin American model • Zone of peripheral squatter settlements • Surrounded by landscape bare of vegetation that was cut for fuel and building materials • Streets unpaved, open trenches carry wastes, residents carry water from long distances, electricity is often “pirated” • Residents who work have a long commute • Many are transformed through time into permanent neighborhoods