LEADERSHIP FOR CHANGE Tara Rinehart, MS Indiana Department of Education Brett Bollinger, Ed.D. Indiana State Improvement Grant DISPROPORTIONALITY SOLUTIONS SUMMIT April 20 and 21, 2009Indianapolis, IN
LEADERSHIP FRAMEWORK Based on the work of Dr. Albert Bertani & Joanne Quinn as part of the Indiana State Improvement Grant Leadership Initiative 2005-08
LEADERSHIP:THE TOP 10 LIST FOR EDUCATION LEADERS
Judy Elliott, MELC, 2004 #10 Repeatedly say: “problems are our friends”
Dr. Norman Vincent Peale “When you see a problem coming down the road, holler “Hello, Problem! Where have you been? I’ve been training for you all my life!”
TAME PROBLEMS Many problems that we face day today are problems that may be quite complex, but that lend themselves to analysis and solution by known techniques. A traditional linear process is sufficient to produce a workable solution. They are problems that can be solved in an acceptable period of time, and it is clear when a solution has been reached. BUT – some problems cannot be resolved with traditional analytical approaches. They need to be viewed as . . . ‘Wicked Problems’.
10:00 Appointment • How does the concept of “wicked problems” relate to disproportionality?
#9 Think in Shades of Gray. Not Just Black and White Judy Elliott, MELC, 2004
#8 Change is inevitable, growth is optional It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change. Darwin
“One of the greatest pains to human nature is the pain of a new idea. It...makes you think that after all, your favorite notions may be wrong, your firmest beliefs ill-founded... Naturally, therefore, common men hate a new idea, and are disposed more or less to ill-treat the original man who brings it.” Walter Bagehot Physics and Politics
Fullan . . . “In the past, if you asked someone in a successful enterprise what caused the success, the answer was ‘it’s the people.’ But that’s only partially true: it is actually the relationships that make the difference.” Fullan, Michael, Leading in a Culture of Change
Mr. Artis is seen as “venturesome” by his colleagues. He is invested in several educational associations and often returns from conferences with new innovations to try. He is on the “cutting edge” of change and actively seeks new ideas. He is always ready to try something new in his classroom and he likes to share his new ideas with others.
Mrs. Freeman is open to new ideas and is quick to adopt new innovations, but only after reasoned consideration. She has been an educator for many years and she is well respected by her colleagues. She is seen as a solid, sensible decision-maker and values accurate, timely information about any new ideas or innovations.
Mrs. Kingsley is viewed by her colleagues as quite deliberate in her decision making. When approached with something new she prefers to take her time and give due consideration to the new innovation and what it will mean to her. Unless given convincing information, she is reluctant to change.
Mr. Blake is slow to adopt new ideas or innovations. In fact, unless some pressure is applied, change may not come at all. He approaches new ideas with doubts and caution. He has been teaching for quite a while and sees no reason to change what seems to be working well.
Mrs. Sealy is often seen as very slow, and Often resistant, to change. She is very traditional and viewed as extremely conservative in her approach to new ideas or innovations. She tends to be an isolate in her building, yet may be very vocal in her reluctance to embrace change. She can be a powerful resistor when new ideas or change is introduced into her building.
DIFFUSION of INNOVATION THEORY & the Importance of Communication Adapted from Everett M. Rogers
2:00 Appointment • Share an upcoming opportunity when you might use one of these strategies to facilitate the change process in your building or district.
Data collection, analysis & sharing • Setting • What data will be collected? • How will the data be collected? • When will the data be collected & by whom? • How often will the data be analyzed & by whom? • How will the data be communicated & to whom? Adapted from material presented by Ron Benner at the Indiana Response to Intervention Conference, October 13-16, 2008
Data Types: Quantitative Summative Assessment Data Formative Assessment Data “Formative assessment is a process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students’ achievement of intended outcomes.” State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards (2006) • Summative assessments are used to determine how well we have met our instructional objectives. E.g.: • State assessments • District benchmark or interim assessments • End-of-unit or chapter tests • End-of-term or semester exams • Scores that are used for accountability for schools (AYP) and students (report card grades) Popham, W.James. Transformative Assessment, ASCD 2008
Data Types: Qualitative • Family Information • Cultural, Ethnic Information • Self-Reports • Observational • Informal/Formal Interviews or Surveys
The central question is not “What about the students is causing the performance discrepancy?” But rather . . . “What about the interaction of the curriculum, instruction, learners, and learning environment should be altered so that students learn?” Howell
Relationship Between Levels of Impact and Components of TrainingJoyce & Showers
#3 Understand the Process of Implementing Evidence-Based Practices • Exploration • Installation • Initial Implementation • Full Implementation • Innovation • Sustainability 2 to 4 Years Fixsen, et al, National Implementation Research Network
Scaling Up EXISTING SYSTEM EFFECTIVE INNOVATIONS ARE CHANGED TO FIT THE SYSTEM EXISTING SYSTEM IS CHANGED TO SUPPORT THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE INNOVATION EFFECTIVE INNOVATION
Implementation DriversNational Implementation Research Network STAFF PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CONSULTATION & COACHING DECISION SUPPORT DATA SYSTEMS INTEGRATED & COMPENSATORY FACILITATIVE ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORTS PRESERVICE TRAINING RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION SYSTEMS INTERVENTIONS
The Indiana Task Force on Increasing Student Achievement Through Family, School and Community Partnerships • All schools create policies and implement strategies to develop respect, acceptance, and an appreciation of diversity within the school community. • Families and the community are actively sought out and engaged in school leadership, decision-making, and school improvement. • Schools are a location for access to community resources, information, and support, and serve as a year-round hub of activities that promote the physical, social, economic and educational growth and well-being of the community. • All schools actively work to have a family-friendly environment, including family resource centers, family liaisons, and offering staff professional development around creating family-friendly atmospheres. • Individual student needs are met through collaboration between the family, the school, and the community to ensure that education, support services, and transitions occur on a continuum without gaps or unnecessary duplication.
#1 Without question, Children First: Always
IT’S ALL ABOUT . . . Effective Schools Quality of Instruction
IMPACT ON LEARNING Marzano, NSCD 2001 as reported by Bertani, 11/3/05 Indiana Leadership Initiative: Increasing Student Achievement Through Leadership and Change
RESEARCH ON EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS • Ronald R. Edmonds • Larry Lazotte • Robert Marzano • 90-90-90 Research • Benchmark School Study • Beating the Odds Study • No Excuses Schools • Hope for Urban Education Study
Effective Schools & Quality Instruction is about . . . Howell • Curriculum • “what is taught” • Instructional philosophy/approaches, content, & pacing • Instruction • “how it’s taught” • Materials, direct instruction with explanation and cues, clear expectations and goals, sequencing • Environment • “where instruction takes place” • Physical arrangement, rules, routines, expectations • Learner • “who’s being taught” • Motivation, abilities • Considered after the above are addressed, if needed.
Effective Schools • Guaranteed and viable curriculum • Challenging goals and effective feedback • Parent and community involvement • Safe and orderly environment • Collegiality and professionalism Source: Marzano, What Works in Schools
Indiana’s 6 Components of RtI • Leadership • Assessment & Progress Monitoring • Data-based Decision Making • Evidence-based Curriculum & Instruction • Family, School, Community Partnerships • Cultural Responsivity
Quality Instruction • Identifying similarities and differences • Summarizing and note taking • Reinforcing effort and providing recognition • Homework and practice • Nonlinguistic representations • Cooperative learning • Setting objectives and providing feedback • Generating and testing hypotheses • Cues, questions, and advance organizers Source: Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock
6:00 Appointment • How will you apply these leadership principles to positively impact disproportionately in your building or district?
Lesson One An eagle was sitting on a tree resting, doing nothing. A small rabbit saw the eagle and asked him, “Can I also sit like you and do nothing?” The eagle answered, “Sure, why not?” So the rabbit sat on the ground below the eagle and rested. All of a sudden, a fox appeared, jumped on the rabbit and ate it! Leadership Lesson: To be sitting and doing nothing, you must be sitting very, very high up.
Lesson Two A turkey was chatting with a bull. “I would love to be able to get to the top of that tree,” sighed the turkey, “but I haven’t got the energy.” “Why not nibble on some of my droppings?” replied the bull. “They’re packed with nutrients.” The turkey pecked at the droppings and found it actually gave him the strength to reach the lowest branch of the tree. The next day, after eating some more, he reached the second branch. Finally after four nights, the turkey was proudly perched at the top of the tree. He was promptly spotted by a hunter who shot him out of the tree. Leadership Lesson: Bullsh_t might get you to the top, but it won’t keep you there.
Lesson Three A little bird was flying south for the winter. It was so cold the bird froze and fell to the ground. While it was lying there, a cow came by and dropped some dung on it. There, in a pile of dung, the bird began to realize how warm it was. The dung actually thawed out the bird! He lay there all warm and happy and soon it began to sing for joy. A passing cat heard the bird singing and came to investigate. Following the sound, the cat discovered the bird, dug it out and ate it. Leadership Lesson: 1 – Not everyone who sh_ts on you is your enemy 2 – Not everyone who gets you out of sh_t is your friend. 3 – And when you’re in deep sh_t, it’s best to keep your mouth shut!
References/Resources • Fullan, Michael. Leading in a Culture of Change, Josey-Bass, 2001 • Guskey, Thomas R., Five-Level Model for Evaluating Professional Development • Hall, Gene E. & Hord, Shirley M. Implementing Change: Patterns, Principles and Potholes, 2nd Ed.,Pearson, 2006 • Henderson, Anne T., Mapp, Karen L., Johnson, Vivian R. & Davies, Don. Beyond the Bake Sale: The Essential Guide to Family-School Partnerships, The New Press, 2007 • Joyce, Bruce & Showers, Beverly. Student Achievement through Staff Development,3rd Ed.,ASCD, 2002 • Katzenbach, Jon R. & Smith, Douglas K. The Wisdom of Teams: Creating High-Performance Organizations, Harvard Business School Press, 1993 • Lambert, Linda. Leadership Capacity for Lasting School Improvement, ASCD, 2003 • National Implementation Research Network, http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~nirn/
Further Information • Brett E. Bollinger, Ed.D. email@example.com • Indiana’s Vision of Response to Intervention website: http://www.doe.in.gov/indiana-rti/