Characteristics of Successful Finnish World Skills Competition Participants
This article discusses the characteristics of successful Finnish participants in the World Skills Competition, based on research conducted by PhD Petri Nokelainen at the University of Tampere's Research Centre for Vocational Education in Finland.
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1. firstname.lastname@example.org 1 / 44 CHARACTERISTICS THAT TYPIFY SUCCESSFUL FINNISH WORLD SKILLS COMPETITION PARTICIPANTS PhD Petri Nokelainen University of Tampere Research Centre for Vocational Education Finland 26.04.2010, Oulu
2. email@example.com 2 / 44 Outline Modeling of Vocational Excellence (MoVE) project (2007 2009) Background Results Actualizing Vocational Excellence (AVE) projects (2009 ) Background
3. firstname.lastname@example.org 3 / 44 Introduction A two-year (2007-2008) Modeling of Vocational Excellence (MoVE) project was funded by the Finnish Ministry of Education. During the study, a sample of Finnish World Skills Competition (WSC) participants (2005 Helsinki, Finland and 2007 Shitsuoka, Japan), their personal trainers, work life representatives and parents (total n = 67) was collected.
4. email@example.com 4 / 44 Introduction Semi-structured interview was carried out to answer the following research questions: 1. What characteristics typify a successful WSC participant? 2. How the importance of WSC participants characteristics differ during training period, competitions and working life? 3. What characteristics specify WSC participants initial interest towards the work field, perseverance in acquiring a vocational skill and mastery of the skill? 4. What characteristics specify WSC participants employer?
5. firstname.lastname@example.org 5 / 44 Introduction Survey was carried out to answer the following research questions: 5. Which intelligence areas, according to the MI theory, are the most essential to WSC participants? (MIPQ) 6. What are the WSC participants most essential motivational factors? (APLQ, SaaS) 7. What is the influence of home and school atmosphere to the development of vocational expertise? (FA, SA)
6. email@example.com 6 / 44 Theoretical framework Bloom : Talent development taxonomy (1985). Ericsson : Development of expertise (1993, 2006). Gagn : Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (2004). Gardner : Multiple Intelligences Theory (1983, 1993, 1999). Greenspan, Solomon & Gardner : Cognitive and social skills on talent development (2004). Zimmerman : Sociocognitive approach to self- regulation (1998, 2000).
7. firstname.lastname@example.org 7 / 44 Theoretical framework: Gardners Multiple Intelligences Theory (1983) (1) Linguistic intelligence (2) Logical-mathematical intelligence (3) Musical intelligence (4) Spatial intelligence (5) Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence (6) Interpersonal intelligence (7) Intrapersonal intelligence --- (8) Spiritual intelligence (9) Environmental intelligence
8. email@example.com 8 / 44 Theoretical framework: Adaptation of Zimmermans Self-regulation Model (Zimmerman, 1998; Nokelainen, 2008)
9. firstname.lastname@example.org 9 / 44 Theoretical framework: Differentiated Model for Giftedness and Talent (DMGT) (Gagn, 2004)
10. email@example.com 10 / 44 Theoretical framework: Causal order of components in DMGT (Nokelainen & Ruohotie, 2009; Tirri & Nokelainen, in press)
11. firstname.lastname@example.org 11 / 44 Method: Participants Four Finnish WSC 2005 medalists and four WSC 2007 participants ( n = 8) were interviewed Six males ( M age = 21 years) and two females ( M age = 20 years) in addition to their trainers, work life representatives and parents ( n = 22). WSC participants in this study represent four skill categories, which are linked to the Multiple Intelligence theory (Gardner, 1983): IT/Software Applications (logical-mathematical). Web Design (spatial, logical-mathematical). Plumbing (bodily-kinesthetic, spatial). Beauty Therapy (interpersonal, bodily- kinesthetic, spatial). INTERVIEW
12. email@example.com 12 / 44 Method: Participants Finnish Shitsuoka team ( n = 25) 16 males and nine females ( M age = 22 years) and their parents ( n = 12) responded to surveys. WSC participants represent 20 skill categories, which are linked to the MI theory, for example: Landscaping (environmental, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial ). Floristry (environmental, spatial ). Polymechanics, IT/Software Applications (logical-mathematical, spatial). Nursing, Beauty Therapy (interpersonal, bodily- kinesthetic). SURVEY
13. firstname.lastname@example.org 13 / 44 Method: Instrument Textual empirical data was collected in 2007 with a semi-structured interview. The interview concentrated on two major aspects: 1. Influence of self-regulation and cognitive and social skills on talent development (Greenspan, Solomon & Gardner, 2004; Zimmerman, 1998). 2. Importance of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in initial participation to the training, perseverance and mastery of the skill (Bloom, 1985). INTERVIEW
14. email@example.com 14 / 44 Method: Instrument Numerical empirical data was collected in 2007 with the following self-rating instruments: Multiple Intelligences Profiling Questionnaire (MIPQ III, Tirri, K., Komulainen, Nokelainen & Tirri, H., 2003; Tirri & Nokelainen, 2008). Abilities for Professional Learning Questionnaire (APLQ, Nokelainen & Ruohotie, 2002). Self-attitudes and Attributes Scales (SaaS, Campbell, 1996; Campbell, Tirri, Ruohotie & Walberg, 2004). Family and School Influences Questionnaire (FA, SA, Campbell, 1996). SURVEY
15. firstname.lastname@example.org 15 / 44 Method: Design The measurement model is described in Figure 1. The boxes that have a green dotted borderline , represent qualitative methods (semi-structured interview) that operationalize both the influence of non-domain and domain spesific individuals and trainees affective, conative, social and cognitive constructs in the model. The boxes that have a blue squared borderline , represent quantitative methods (APLQ, SaaS and MIPQ surveys) that operationalize affective, conative, social and cognitive constructs in the model.
16. email@example.com 16 / 44
17. firstname.lastname@example.org 17 / 44 Method: Statistical analyses
18. email@example.com 18 / 44 Results: Interview 1. What characteristics typify a successful WSC participant?
19. firstname.lastname@example.org 19 / 44 Results: Interview 1. Self-reflection (stress tolerance) Mental training 2. Volition (perseverance, time management skills) Total mastery of work skills 3. Cognitive skills (development potential) Shift from uncontrollable to controllable attributions 4. External goal-orientation (competitiveness, ambition) Promotion of advances of competitions for future career 5. Internal goal-orientation (interest towards work) Meaningful training tasks, interesting artefacts, home/teacher support 6. Social skills Collaborative tasks during training
20. email@example.com 20 / 44 Results: Interview WSC PARTICIPANT
21. firstname.lastname@example.org 21 / 44 Results: Interview Important role of self-regulation was theoretically expected, as it separates experts from workers (Day, Arthur & Gettman, 2001; Pillay, 1998; Ruohotie, 2004). Results are parallel to findings from US Olympic Champions research (Gould, Dieffenbach & Moffett, 2001) and international study of Academic Olympians in Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry (Campbell, Tirri, Ruohotie & Walberg, 2004; Heller & Lengfelder, 2000; Wu & Chen, 2001). Small role of social skills was an expected finding as the four skill categories (IT/Software Applications, Web Design, Plumbing, Beauty Therapy) involved individual competition tasks.
22. email@example.com 22 / 44 Results: Interview 2. How the importance of WSC participants characteristics differ during training period, competitions and working life?
23. firstname.lastname@example.org 23 / 44 Results: Interview 1. Volitional characteristics were found to be the most important in all three career stages. 2. Cognitive skills and self-regulation were equally important in all three career stages. 3. As expected, the role of social skills increased during the three stages. As the role of social skills is important for career development, this is one possible development target for vocational schools/institutions. 4. Results showed no difference between internal and external goal-orientations . It should be remembered that motivation is a prerequisite for volition.
24. email@example.com 24 / 44 Results: Interview 3. What characteristics specify WSC participants a) initial interest towards the work field, b) perseverance in acquiring a vocational skill and c) mastery of the skill?
25. firstname.lastname@example.org 25 / 44 Results: Interview 1. Institutional and trainers support are important throughout the three skill acquisition stages. 2. Internal goal-orientation is more important at the initial stage than external goal-orientation , but the roles change during training process (perseverance). Theoretically plausible result. 3. Importance of motivational aspects decrease towards the mastery level . International research has not been successful showing causal relationship between motivational aspects and learning outcomes. 4. Future work security and possibilities play an important role at the mastery level. 5. Role of social skills stay quite small and stable throughout the process.
26. email@example.com 26 / 44 Results
27. firstname.lastname@example.org 27 / 44 Results: Interview 4. What characteristics specify WSC participants employer?
28. email@example.com 28 / 44 Results: Interview 1. Challenging work tasks 2. Freedom and responsibility 3. Logical and fair leadership 4. Acknowledgement of life long learning 5. Competitive salary
29. firstname.lastname@example.org 29 / 44 Results: Survey 5. Which intelligence areas, according to the MI theory, are the most essential to WSC participants? (MIPQ) Intelligences in MI theory: (1) Linguistic, (2) Logical-mathematical, (3) Musical, (4) Spatial, (5) Bodily-kinesthetic, (6) Interpersonal, (7) Intrapersonal, (8) Spiritual, (9) Environmental .
30. email@example.com 30 / 44 Results: Survey 1. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence 2. Interpersonal intelligence 3. Mathematical-logical intelligence 4. Environmental intelligence 5. Spatial intelligence 6. Intrapersonal intelligence Where the A group differs from the C group: 1. Intrapersonal intelligence 2. Spiritual intelligence 3. Environmental intelligence 4. Interpersonal intelligence
31. firstname.lastname@example.org 31 / 44 Results: Survey 6. What are the WSC participants most essential motivational factors? (APLQ, SaaS) Motivational factors: (1) Internal goal orientation, (2) External goal orientation, (3) Meaningfulness of studies, (4) Control beliefs, (5) Self-efficacy, (6) Test anxiety. Attributional factors: (1) Success due effort, (2) Success due ability, (3) Failure due effort, (4) Failure due ability.
32. email@example.com 32 / 44 Results: Survey 1. Internal goal orientation (deep level learning) 2. Control beliefs (success due effort) Inquiry based learning, authentic learning tasks In addition, A group of Finnish WSC participants differed from C group as they posessed higher internal goal orientation and they believed more in hard trying (effort) than ability .
33. firstname.lastname@example.org 33 / 44 Results: Survey 7. What is the influence of home and school atmosphere to the development of vocational expertise? (FA, SA)
34. email@example.com 34 / 44 Results: Survey 1. Home and school atmospheres are equally important for the development of vocational talent. 2. Very few negative experiences were reported. Teacher/trainer/mentor has an important role in supporting WSC participants talent development process: Predictive modeling showed a positive relationship between supportive home/school atmosphere and success in WorldSkills competition .
35. firstname.lastname@example.org 35 / 44 Current research 2009 2011 Actualizing Vocational Excellence (AVE) project is funded by the Finnish Ministry of Education. Major goals are to extend the study to cover 10-12 WSC competition areas (both qualitative and quantitative methods) to study life management and work ethics together with participants level of innovativeness and entrepreneurship to investigate WSC competitors success in work life control group is included for all abovementioned areas
36. email@example.com 36 / 44 Thank you! More information: firstname.lastname@example.org MoVE project (2007 2008) http://www.uta.fi/aktkk/projects/move AVE project (2009 2011) http://www.uta.fi/aktkk/projects/ave
37. email@example.com 37 / 44 References Bloom, B. S. (Ed.) (1985). Developing talent in young people . New York: Ballantine Books. Boekaerts, M., & Niemivirta, M. (2000). Self-regulation in learning: finding a balance between learning and ego-protective goals. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of Self-regulation (pp. 417-450). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Campbell, J. R. (1996). Developing cross-national instruments: Using cross-national methods and procedures. International Journal of Educational Research , 25 (6), 485-496. Day, E. A., Arthur, W., & Gettman, D. (2001). Knowledge structures and the acquisition of a complex skill. Journal of Applied Psychology , 86 , 1022-1033. Driscoll, M. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction . Third edition. Toronto, ON: Allyn & Bacon .
38. firstname.lastname@example.org 38 / 44 References Gagn, F. (2004). Transforming gifts into talents: the DMGT as a developental theory. High Ability Studies , 15 (2), 119-147. Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind . New York: Basic Books. Gould, D., Dieffenbach, K., & Moffett, A. (2001). Psychological talent in Olympic medal winning athletes. US Olympic Committee Sport Science and Technology Final Grant Report . Colorado Springs, CO. Greenspan, D. A., Solomon, B., & Gardner, H. (2004). The development of talent in different domains. In L. V. Shavinina & M. Ferrari (Eds.), Beyond knowledge (pp.119-135). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
39. email@example.com 39 / 44 References Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relationships . New York: Wiley. Heller, K., & Lengfelder, A. (2000, April). German Olympiad study on mathematics, physics and chemistry . Paper presented at the annual meeting of American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, USA. Limn Luque, M. L. (2003). The role of domain-specific knowledge in intentional conceptual change. In G. M. Sinatra, & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Intentional Conceptual Change (pp. 133 170). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Malmivuori, M.-L. (2006). Affect and Self-Regulation. Educational Studies in Mathematics , 63 (2), 149-164. Nokelainen, P. (2008). Modeling of Professional Growth and Learning: Bayesian approach . Tampere, Finland: Tampere University Press.
40. firstname.lastname@example.org 40 / 44 References Nokelainen, P., & Ruohotie, P. (2002). Modeling Students Motivational Profile for Learning in Vocational Higher Education. In H. Niemi & P. Ruohotie (Eds.), Theoretical Understandings for Learning in the Virtual University (pp. 177- 206). Hmeenlinna, Finland: RCVE. Nokelainen, P., Ruohotie, P., & Korpelainen, K. (2008, September). Modeling of Vocational Excellence (MoVE) - A Case Study of Finnish World Skills Competition Participants . Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Gothenburg, Sweden. Nokelainen, P., Tirri, K., Campbell, J. R., & Walberg, H. (2007). Factors that Contribute or Hinder Academic Productivity: Comparing two groups of most and least successful Olympians. Educational Research and Evaluation , 13 (6), 483-500.
41. email@example.com 41 / 44 References Nokelainen, P., Tirri, K., & Merenti-Vlimki, H.-L. (2007). The Influence of Self-attributions and Parental Attitude to the Development of Mathematical Talent. Gifted Child Quarterly , 51 (1), 64-81. Pillay, H. (1998). Adult learning in a workplace context. In P. Sutherland (Ed.), Adult Learning: a Reader (pp. 122-136). London: Kogan Page. Ruohotie, P. (2003). Self-Regulatory Abilities for Professional Learning. In B. Beairsto, M. Klein, & P. Ruohotie (Eds.), Professional Learning and Leadership . Hmeenlinna, Finland: RCVE. Ruohotie, P. (2004). Self-regulatory Abilities in Professional Learning. In J. R. Campbell, K. Tirri, P. Ruohotie, & H. Walberg (Eds.), Cross-cultural Research: Basic Issues, Dilemmas, and Strategies (pp. 159-184). Hmeenlinna, Finland: RCVE.
42. firstname.lastname@example.org 42 / 44 References Ruohotie, P. (2005). Ammatillinen kompetenssi ja sen kehittminen. Ammattikasvatuksen aikakauskirja, 7 (3), 4-18. Ruohotie, P., & Nokelainen, P. (2000). Beyond the Growth- oriented Atmosphere. In B. Beairsto & P. Ruohotie (Eds.), Empowering Teachers as Lifelong Learners (pp. 147167). Hmeenlinna: RCVE. Schunk, D. H., & Ertmer, P. A. (2000). Self-regulation and academic learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation (pp. 631-650). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Tirri, K., Komulainen, E., Nokelainen, P., & Tirri, H. (2003, April). Gardner's Theory Applied to Model a Self-Rated Intelligence Profile . Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Multiple Intelligences SIG, Chicago, USA.
43. email@example.com 43 / 44 References Tirri, K., & Nokelainen, P. (2008). Identification of multiple intelligences with the Multiple Intelligence Profiling Questionnaire III. Psychology Science Quarterly , 50 (2), 206- 221. Tirri, K., & Nokelainen, P. (In press). The influence of self- perception of abilities and attribution styles on academic choices: Implications for gifted education. To appear in Roeper Review . Weiner, B. (1986). An attributional theory of motivation and emotion . New York: Springer. Williams, AR. S. (2002). Managing Employee Performance . London: Thomson Learning. Wu, W., & Chen, J. (2001). A follow-up study of Taiwan physics and chemistry Olympians: The role of environmental influences in talent development. Gifted and Talented International, 16 (1), 16-26.
44. firstname.lastname@example.org 44 / 44 References Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Developing self-fulfilling cycles of academic regulation: An analysis of exemplary instructional models. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds . ) , Self- Regulated Learning: From Teaching to Self-Reflective Practice (pp. 1-19). New York: The Guilford Press. Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation. A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13-39). San Diego: Academic Press.