Essential Study Materials for Communication Exams
This article provides essential study materials for Communication exams, including Organisational Communication Com 202 and Rumi's quote as a motivational tool. The exam format and questions are also explained.
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1. Organisational Communication Com 202-5 ( Essential for exams) Organisational Communication Com 202-5 ( Essential for exams)
3. Out beyond ideas of wrong doing and right doing there is a field. I will meet you there. (Rumi 12 CE )
4. THE EXAM THE EXAM Time: 2 hours Marks: 100 marks Format: 4 questions, you choose 3 Question 1: Study Unit 1 Question 2: Study Unit 2 Question 3: Study Unit 3 Question 4: Study Unit 4
5. Compulsory text book chapters Compulsory text book chapters 3 4 11
6. The BIG PICTURE course overview (SG: vi-vii) The BIG PICTURE course overview (SG: vi-vii) The Dynamics of Org.Com. what makes and organisation. Study Unit 1 Management and Organisational Change Study Unit 2 Organisational Culture & Climate Study Unit 3 Assessing Organisational Communication. Study Unit 4 The Organisation
7. Topics & Essential Outcomes for Study Unit 1 Topics & Essential Outcomes for Study Unit 1 1. Define Organisational communication. 2. Explain how the various Organisational communication networks function. 3. Discuss the 6 communication characteristics of networks.
8. Key Concepts Key Concepts D e f i n i t i o n o f O . C . a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e c o n t e x t o f a n o r g a n i s a t i o n o n c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s a n d t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e s y m b o l i c n a t u r e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t f r o m o t h e r f o r m s o f o r g a n i s a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r . ( M i l l e r 2 0 0 3 ) T . B : 7 4
9. Networks as Channels T.B:77-80 [Exam qu.1] Networks as Channels T.B:77-80 [Exam qu.1] The BIG 5 Networks 1. Chain 2. Y 3. Wheel 4. Circle 5. All-Channel
10. 6 Communication Characteristics of Networks (S.G: 5) [Exam qu.1] 6 Communication Characteristics of Networks (S.G: 5) [Exam qu.1] 1. Size: big=more distortion 2. Content and Function: task-formal/social, innovation,- all channels 3. Formality: task orientated 4. Centralisation or Dominance: one person 5. Multiplexity: overlap of networks 6. Network Openness: all channel +network = 2 way..chain+ wheel= 1way
11. Conflict (TB:81,82,84) Conflict (TB:81,82,84) D e f i n i t i o n [ E x a m q u . 1 ] T h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f i n d e p e n d e n t p e o p l e , w h o p e r c e i v e t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f g o a l s , a i m s a n d v a l u e s a n d w h o s e e o t h e r p a r t i e s p o t e n t i a l l y i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e s e . ( P u t m a n & P o o l e 1 9 8 7 )
12. Conflict is there fore: [Exam qu.1] Conflict is there fore: [Exam qu.1] The perception of incompatibility Involves the expression of incompatibility Takes place between interdependent members
13. 2 greatest causes in the workplace in SA [Exam qu.1] 2 greatest causes in the workplace in SA [Exam qu.1] 1. Increased diversity 2. Continued discrimination
14. [Exam qu.1] 5 Levels of organisational conflict (TB:82) [Exam qu.1] 1. Intrapersonal 2. Interpersonal
15. 3. Intragroup 4. Intergroup
16. 5. Interorganisational
17. 5 common strategies to manage conflict (TB:84) [Exam qu.1] 5 common strategies to manage conflict (TB:84) [Exam qu.1] 1. Dictation 2. Arbitration Agreement Agreement Solution Solution 3 rd party Interventions
18. 3 rd party Interventions (cont) 3 rd party Interventions (cont) Agreement Agreement 3. Mediation
19. Non third party strategies Non third party strategies Agreement Agreement Negotiation
20. Communication with Groups and Teams (TB:95-97) Communication with Groups and Teams (TB:95-97) Formal Groups. (e.g.) Marketing Dept HR Dept. Exsec. Management Rules, regulations, policy Work harmoniously with other formal groups for org. to deliver its goals Appointed by organisation .
21. Informal Groups Informal Groups Examples Union social club group of friends Voluntary membership, - alongside formal People who have similar values, norms, attitudes Characterised by group cohesion and defensiveness
22. Group have 2 main Processes Group have 2 main Processes work orientated interactions, gathering, sharing information analysing problems, designing solutions etc Task (the work) Task (the work)
23. Transactional (interpersonal communication) verbal and non verbal communication develop climate and identity of the team Give and take interactions, message of members for each other Require leadership, role taking, and communication skills.
24. Advantages and Disadvantages of working in teams (TB:96) Advantages and Disadvantages of working in teams (TB:96) Advantages Disadvantages Poses more knowledge and information Conflict of ideas with leader Opens up more courses of action Times needed for group actions or decisions Group criticism of possible alternatives selects / refines selection of possible approaches. Members may lack training and experience to make good decisions Teams can be assigned to individuals with most skills in these areas On going struggle to assign roles High human relations value Conflict can destroy the moral
25. Team Communication pg. 96-97 Team Communication pg. 96-97 A team is: A diverse group of people shared leadership an identity Mutually defined goals Work within other context s and systems
26. The reasons for implementing teams in organisations The reasons for implementing teams in organisations 1. Improve quality and customer service work more intelligently 2. Enhance productivity 3. Impact of TQM 4. Individuals responsibility in defined in terms of the teams responsibility.
27. Theoretical approaches to Organisational Management [Question 2 Exam] Theoretical approaches to Organisational Management [Question 2 Exam]
28. Forces for Change TB:109-110 Forces for Change TB:109-110 Driving Forces- pushes change eas Restraining Forces prevents change Forces
29. 1. Demands made by employees . 2. Desire to increase knowledge/new methods of org. 3. Demands for appeal systems 4. Shorter product life cycle 5. Need for different distribution channels 6. Shortage of raw materials 7. Changing capital markets 8. Work powers 9. Increased consumerism 10. Environmental issues 11. Government regulation 12. Changing cultural and social values 1. Complacency 2. Threat to status 3. Fear of increased responsibility 4. Threat to economic factors leading to psychological threat 5. Existing power and social relationships 6. Security and fear of the unknown 7. Lack of effective change strategy 8. Dont perceive need to change 9. Lack of confidence in management to cope with change 10. Pressure groups
30. Communication and Change (TB:122-126) Communication and Change (TB:122-126) Heard Appreciated Goals Tasks Wanted Organisations need to communicate with employees because people need to be/do:
31. Communication in Classical Management Communication in Classical Management Principles 1. Downward, minimally upward formal, basic media utilised 2. Clarify long and short term goals 3. Change unacceptable attitudes and mould new ones by manipulation 4. Diminish fear and suspicion caused by mis/unclear information or lack of info 5. Prepare for & unjust to change
32. Assessment of classical management approach to communication Assessment of classical management approach to communication Standardised & systematised approach Suitable for centralised decision making Suitable for high degree command, control, respect for authority Efficient and formal Advantages
33. Disadvantages Disadvantages Distort downward information: screening & manipulating = suspicion & mistrust Distort downward information: screening & manipulating = suspicion & mistrust Upward communication by employees experience S.M. as Upward communication by employees experience S.M. as Communication starvation fill gapsrumour & apathy Communication starvation fill gapsrumour & apathy Unreceptive, rejection, failure to act, distant, unclear channels, undemocratic. Unreceptive, rejection, failure to act, distant, unclear channels, undemocratic.
34. Instructions lack : information, expertise & insight , Instructions lack : information, expertise & insight , , Instructions passed down through layers of management Do not make sense loose original meaning. Unsuitable for change processes - employees do no know how to change, ill informed and cannot communicate with management
35. Humanistic approaches to organisational communication Humanistic approaches to organisational communication Principles 1. Trust and openness lad to better communication 2. information Competence of person receiving the communication should be adequate. 3. Participatory decision making with adequate information provided. 4. Reflect: goals of management, channel process, innovation and growth. 5. Allows for formal, informal, internal and external information flow. 6. Attempts to place communication in an open system so sharing can take place.
36. Assessment of humanistic & knowledge management approaches to communication Assessment of humanistic & knowledge management approaches to communication Advantages Encourages employees to: 1. Participate 2. Control of tasks 3. Maximise contributions to organisation. Encourages employees to: 1. Participate 2. Control of tasks 3. Maximise contributions to organisation. Curbs destruct conflict and competition because of: 1. Team work 2. Participative decision making 3. Respect for diversity 4. Employees allowed self expression Curbs destruct conflict and competition because of: 1. Team work 2. Participative decision making 3. Respect for diversity 4. Employees allowed self expression Improves 1. Performance 2. Productivity 3. Motivation 4. Focus on 5. mission 6. Empowered teams 7. Adaptation to change 8. Attainment of higher order needs Improves 1. Performance 2. Productivity 3. Motivation 4. Focus on 5. mission 6. Empowered teams 7. Adaptation to change 8. Attainment of higher order needs
37. Disadvantages Time Frames for consultation Unsuitable in emergency or crisis where dm must be immediate Training and development of management and teams
38. Organisational Culture Organisational Culture T o p i c s & E s s e n t i a l O u t c o m e s f o r S t u d y U n i t 3 1. B e a b l e t o d e f i n e w h a t o r g a n i s a t i o n a l c u l t u r e i s a n d i d e n t i f y a l l i t s e l e m e n t s . 2. E x p l a i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n o r g a n i s a t i o n a l c u l t u r e a n d c l i m a t e . .
39. The academic debate about Organisational Culture (TB:87) The academic debate about Organisational Culture (TB:87) At firstorganisational cultures was seen as an objective thing a business has, that could be manipulated to make a business successful
40. But now researchers say.. But now researchers say.. 1. There is no single cultural formula for formula for achieving business success. 2. Culture cannot be seen as a thing that an organisation has. 3. Organisational culture is composed of a complex interweaving of: Values Practices Narratives Artefacts (things e.g. The types of buildings an organisation chooses)
41. 3 schools of thought used to describe Organisational cultures 3 schools of thought used to describe Organisational cultures Organisational Culture is composed of specific and measurable: Tasks Traits Processes Organisational Culture belongs to culture in general , which is often a global property of a particular social milieu (historical age and its beliefs and practices. Organisational Culture is an anthropological paradigm and metaphor for measuring organisations as micro societies
42. Organisational Culture, Climate & Change Organisational Culture, Climate & Change Study Unit 3 EXAM QUESTION 3
43. The difference between organisational Culture and Climate (TB: 85-86) see important eg. SG:28 The difference between organisational Culture and Climate (TB: 85-86) see important eg. SG:28 Definitions Organisational Culture 1. Shared beliefs, norms values, common perceptions apparent in behaviour and connect a group of people. 2. Vision + Mission & directly influences members motivation, performance and contentment. 3. OC is something an org. is and not has, cannot be created, destroyed or discovered by whims of management. Organisational Climate 1. The feelings people have about their organisation. 2. Involve members perspectives on observable practises and procedures close to surface of org. life. Organisational Climate 1. The feelings people have about their organisation. 2. Involve members perspectives on observable practises and procedures close to surface of org. life.
44. Elements of Organisational Culture (TB:89-91) Elements of Organisational Culture (TB:89-91) Artefacts Language Behavioural Concepts Heroes
45. Elements of Organisational Culture Elements of Organisational Culture Symbols Psychological Phenomena Organisational Aspects
46. Artefacts 1. Material Objects (e.g. reports & brochures) 2. Physical lay outs (e.g. buildings, spaces) 3. Technology (e.g. computers, machines) Language 1. Narrations Sagas: big all encompassing stories about the organisations (heroic) exploits Stories: more localised narrations about individuals, groups and the organisations beliefs and values Myths and Legends : unjustified beliefs that influence how members react and understand the social environment (e.g. The story of Mr. Mug and Mr. Bean) 2. Metaphors: a no literal symbolic phrase that vividly conveys a message. (e.g. VC employees have blue blood) 3. Jokes: humorous culture bound language
47. Behavioural Concepts 1. Rites: planned events that celebrate basic values and behaviours (e.g. The monthly staff meeting) 2. Rituals : habitual behaviours not strictly necessary for the functioning of the organisation that contribute to the individuals sense of belonging. (e.g. the early morning coffee in the canteen) 3. Ceremonies: well organised celebrations that reinforce cultural values. e.g. Prize giving's, presentations 4. Taboos: activities, objects or persons avoided for superstitious reasons. (e.g. talking about the competitor in glowing terms) Heroes 1. Put success within reach of ordinary people in organisation 2. Act as role models of high performance 3. Symbolise the organisation to external stake holders 4. Preserve and enhance cultural values, esp. those that are unique to the organisation 5. Encourage members to give more of themselves to the organisation.- motivate members
48. Symbols Words, gestures, pictures or objects , performances, and roles that are used during times of change or uncertainty to give members direction. Psychological Phenomena 1. Values : the inherent, taken for granted value of things that are deeply seated in the minds of people, these from the basis of organisational behaviour. 2. Beliefs: what people think is true but might not be. 3. Attitudes: predisposed ways of evaluating and responding based on feelings. 4. Basic assumptions: readily available solutions to identifiable problems (behaviour, relationship with org. and external environment)
49. Story tellers Priests Gossips Spies, whisperers and cabals The business environment (market place, sector, area) Organisational Aspects Cultural Network Cultural Network
50. Organisational Change Process (TB: 93-95) Organisational Change Process (TB: 93-95) Definition Macro Level Organisation Micro Level People T h e c o n t i n u o u s n e e d f o r p r o a c t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h p e r s o n n e l a n d b u s i n e s s i n o r d e r t o e n a b l e p e r s o n n e l a n d b u s i n e s s e s t o a l t e r b u s i n e s s a n d i n d i v i d u a l o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s c r i t i c a l t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e b u s i n e s s .
51. Reactions to the Change Process Reactions to the Change Process Supported by management Resistance & fear Try prevent change. (lower level) Uncertainty - stress Develop Plan Implement
52. 3 Models used to implement Organisational change 3 Models used to implement Organisational change Infrastructure Cultural Individual Access reinforcers of and modify change for developing alternative systems Communication Develop communication plan Psychological characteristics used to modify dysf. behaviour
53. Communication during change Communication during change Top down strategy members involved in change process based on relevant areas Planed Strategy Members use talk to ideologically position themselves during change process: (see TB: 3.9.2) Macro - organisational Micro - individual Feedback Facilitates conceptualisation of information that influences performance to improve at or and individual level.
54. 10 interrelated elements of the cultural screen change should pass through,,, ( because its !@#$%^& difficult to change an organisations culture!) 10 interrelated elements of the cultural screen change should pass through,,, ( because its !@#$%^& difficult to change an organisations culture!) 1. Pollicises and rules 2. Goals and measurements 3. Customs and norms 4. Ceremonies and events 5. Rewards and recognition 6. Physical environment 7. Organisational. structure 8. Training 9. Management behaviours 10. Communications
55. The Practice of organisational Research (TB:340- 343, 346-349 SG: 4.5, 4.6) The Practice of organisational Research (TB:340- 343, 346-349 SG: 4.5, 4.6) OUTCOMES 1. Apply the steps of the research process to a real life business scenario. 2. Distinguish between the three perspectives on organisational/culture communication assessment 3. Discuss and apply the differences between quantitative and qualitative research methods. 4. Discuss and apply the critical background concepts (theoretical underpinning).
56. The Research Process (TB:340-343/ SG: 4.5) The Research Process (TB:340-343/ SG: 4.5) Critical Background concepts Reliability The degree to which measure produces similar results when repeated. Validity The accuracy of the findings and their potential for generalisation.
57. Sampling and Selection (TB:345) Sampling and Selection (TB:345) Population : group of people with particular interest e.g. all organisations managers Target Population: The total section of society in which the researcher in interested e.g. all HR managers Accessible Population : section of society that researcher has access to from which to draw a sample. . e.g. HR managers in Durban Population parameters : characteristics of the target population (e.g. A manager who selects, recruits, develops, compensates and terminates employment of staff )that determine the unit of analysis (e..g. HR managerial role) to be studied.
58. Sampling & Selection (continued) Sampling & Selection (continued) Unit of analysis: the pieces (units) that the researcher wants to study.
59. The selection of samples (TB:345) The selection of samples (TB:345) Probability sampling : use of a statistical technique to ensure that sampling error does not occur. (e.g. All HR managers with the first, fourth and third letter of the alphabet in their surname Non-probability sampling :: generalised technique to draw sample open to probability error. (e.g. all HR managers who reply to the email I send requesting information)
60. Qualitative Methods (TB:346-348) Qualitative Methods (TB:346-348) Field Observation Phenomena is observed and recorded context, natural environment/location, face to face interaction Greatest strength : no time delay between occurrence of event and recording i.e. the researcher is there and watches it happen. Appropriate when : understanding or learning the about actions of individuals or people or behaviour and interaction between groups of people.
61. Participant observation Participant observation Being involved in the group and events being studied, also involves interviews and surveys (ethnography) - spending time with people, sharing their lives in the field.
62. Interviewing Interviewing One on one verbal interaction between researcher and respondent. Careful planning and prep needed Use selectively: time consuming & high level of involvement of researcher. Focuses on : experience, attitudes, feelings, and opinions. Appropriate for: obtaining info from high level people.
63. Focus groups Focus groups A small temporary community formed for the purpose of collaboration and discovery. Moderator (leader) needs to be trained well + special skills. Useful for : encouraging peoples involvement in dm. processes and having them provide input. It provides input form the individuals and the group dynamic
64. Self recording diaries Self recording diaries Participants keep a log of particular types of experience. Collected for a period of time.
65. Case studies Case studies A detailed analysis of singularities (sets of events) e.g. a person, event, a particular form of practise. Purpose: identify, reveal and explain the unique features of a case employs selected techniques.
66. Triangulation Triangulation Use of a variety of techniques (qualitative and quantitative) so as to obtain a more complete picture of a phenomenon. TYPES 1. Data Triangulation: 2. Investigator Triangulation 3. Theory triangulation 4. Methodological triangulation
67. Quantitative Methods (TB:348-349) Quantitative Methods (TB:348-349) EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH Q u a s i e x p e r i m e n t a l : r a n d o m s e l e c t i o n d o e s n o t t a k e p l a c e b u t a n a l y s i s i s n e e d e d f o r f u n c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . C l a s s i c a l e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n : g r o u p e x p o s e t o s t i m u l u s a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p n o t e x p o s e d t h e n r e s u l t s c o m p a r e d . T r u e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n : i s o l a t e e f f e c t o f o n e v a r i a b l e u p o n a n o t h e r t h e n t e s t t o s e e i f i t i s s o n u m e r o u s t i m e s .
68. The final words of wisdom from Nhoj Mallab The final words of wisdom from Nhoj Mallab Y o u , I a n d t h e w o r l d n o w c o n s i s t o f a l l t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s t h a t h a v e b e e n h a d . T h i s m i g h t m e a n t h a t o u r m o s t p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y i s t h e r e f o r e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m t h e s u m t o t a l o f a l l t h e s o u r c e s w e a r e i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h . T o m a k e o u r l i v e s m o r e m e a n i n g f u l w e n e e d t o c o n s c i o u s l y u p g r a d e t h e q u a l i t y o f o u r c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r t n e r s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s .