Managing Organizational Change: Challenges, Lessons, and Tools
This course provides an overview of concepts, models, and analytical tools for managing organizational change. Through case studies and discussion, we will explore challenges and successes in intentionally and unintentionally changing organizations.
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About Managing Organizational Change: Challenges, Lessons, and Tools
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1. MGTO650N Managing Organizational Change Xueguang Zhou MGTO, HKUST
2. Topics for today House-keeping business Question for discussion: What are the challenges in organizational change? Close-up: Lessons from 3Ma permanently changing organization Analytical tools Vocabularies, concepts, and models Overview of the course
3. What this course is about Organizations change all the time Disruptively, continuously Intentionally, unintentionally Why a course on organizational change Instances of failures to change Instances of successful turnarounds Frustrations about change: at both ends of the table Agents of change Recipients of change
4. Format and Requirements Format: Instructors presentation Case study, team presentation Debate and class discussion Readings Requirements Class participation Team project Final examination Formation of teams Grading
5. Q: What are the challenges for organizational change? An observation: Most large companies at the beginning of the 20 th century disappeared by the end of the century. Why? Close-up: The case of Robin Hood Populist rebellion against excessive tax collection Rob from the rich and give to the poor Established the camping basis in Sherwood Forest
6. To this day, Robin Hood remains famous for bringing together the heroes inhabiting Sherwood Forest, but its growth has produced a new management challenge. Our task is to diagnose and propose ways to better address managing in this changing environment.
7. Robin Hood Is there a problem in Sherwood Forest? What new options should be considered? Which do you recommend? In what ways has Robin Hoods leadership style previously been most successful? What are his weaknesses at this point? Have you seen any of the types of management problems in this case in your own work experience?
8. The organizational chart Robin Hood Will Scarlett intelligence Little John discipline Scarlock finance Much the Millers Son troop The band of Merrymen
9. Issues related to growing pains Increasing organizational size Resources become scarce Food supplies, finance Change of mission, identity? From confiscation to fixed transit tax Increasing competition The sheriffs increasing threats Strategic alliance Conspiracy against Prince John? Similar patterns in other types of organizations?
10. The Five Phases of Growth Larry Greiner
11. Organization Practices During Evolution in the Five Phases of Growth
12. Organizational Change Exercise 1. The overall phase (of Greiners five) in which I see my organization now is: 1 2 3 4 5 2. In 10 months, the phase in which I anticipate my organization will be is: 1 2 3 4 5 3. Which of these phases have you seen it move through? 1 2 3 4 5 4. Think back on how the transitions were accomplished.
13. Questions for discussion 1. Why is it difficult to change? 2. What is your experience regarding change?
14. Issues related to organizational change Strategic Leadership: visions, anticipatory action strategies in timing,, initiation, coalitions & mobilization Political Vested intereststhe politics of change Structural The power of organizational routines Informal networks Cultural Stability in experience, expectations Psychological contracts
15. STRATEGIES OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHNGE 1. Change or Stability? 2. Change from strength or from weakness? 3. Change from top-down or from bottom-up? 4. Using existing structure or creating new structure? 5. Clear goals or ambiguous goals? 6. Focus on short-run gains or long-term goals? 7. Incremental changes or discontinuous changes?
16. Case study: 3M: The Permanently Changing Organizations One of the ten most admired corporations Fortune annual poll of American CEOs. The 3M model: Continuous technological innovation Institutionalized individual entrepreneurship Market responsiveness How is this possiblewhat are the challenges? Institutionalized individual entrepreneurship? Growth versus decentralization? Balance between structure, culture, versus change?
17. 3M: A brief history Established in 1902, producing abrasives and adhesives products. Benefited from product innovation in the early days The culture of individual entrepreneurship The McKnight era, 1929-1966 Organizational design for continuous changes The Lou Lehr era, 1980-1985 Reorganization and reorientation The Jake Jacobson era: 1986-1991 The orientation to competition in existing markets Main characteristics: Changes and evolution in adaptation to environments Changes in organizational attributes for innovation
18. Challenge 1: Entrepreneurship versus structure Innovation the spirit of entrepreneurship Competition through new products Competition through new niches The dilemma between entrepreneurship and structural differentiation The 3M way: External demands and internal capabilities Decentralization: locus of decision at lower lab units; Organizational design to facilitate lateral communication The strategy of growth through new niches, rather than competition in existing markets.
19. Challenge 2 The role of organizational culture Organizational culture: norms, expectations, and tacit knowledge The 3M way: Innovation is the center of organizational culture Resistance to bureaucratic intervention is encouraged; Contribution to innovation is greatly respectedlegends, institutional memories, ceremonies. Structure versus culture Cultural: The value of knowledge sharing Structural: Technical Council, Technical Forum, lateral interaction
20. Challenge 3 Human resource practice The roles of rewards and incentives The role of loyalty for 3M The 3M way: Rewards for innovation Dual track of promotion and recognition Tolerance of well-intentioned failures
21. Mistakes will be made, but if a person is essentially right, the mistakes he or she makes are not as serious in the long run as the mistakes management will make if it is dictatorial and undertakes to tell those under its authority exactly how they must do their job. Management that is destructively critical when mistakes are made kills initiative, and it is essential that we have many people with initiative if we are to continue to grow. William L. McKnight
22. Challenge 4 Leadership and Strategic Vision The role of leadership Allowing failures Patient with experimentation Strategic visions The link between structure, culture, and growth strategies The evolution of strategies The 25% rule From single market to multiple markets From new market niche to competition in existing markets
23. Unanswered Questions Politics in organizations Vested interests in existing technologies, products Competition, turf wars among labs, divisions Culture: How is it sustained with the flow of people in organizational growth? The costs of innovation Failures, start-up costs, learning curves Demands for new structures, resources Organizational Life Cycle Entrepreneurship, expansion, structural differentiation, and associated challenges Changes in environments Imitation-competition from other companies
24. Cultural: artifacts values assumptions Political: interests coalitions resources/power Strategic: leadership timing process alignment Three Lenses to see Organizational Change
25. The strategic lens Organization as a system designed to achieve certain goals; Focus on principles for organizational design Strategic intent Linking strategy and organization Strategic grouping Strategic linking of jobs, departments, and functions Alignments of rewards & incentives with grouping Fit between organization and environments
26. Processes in strategic design Assess environment (Threats and opportunities Industry analysis, etc.) Assess organization (Core competences, Organizational capacities) Strategic Intent Strategic Organizational Design (grouping, Linking, Alignments)
27. The political lens Organization as a political coalition Identify and map relationships among stakeholders, and their different interests and goals Focus on sources and strength of power distribution of resources coalition building bargaining processes
28. Professional Community Shareholders Customers Suppliers Banks/Creditors Unions Public interest groups (e.g., environmental groups) Local Community Top Managers Researchers Workers Middle Managers FIRM The Stakeholder Model
29. The cultural lens Organization as a system of symbols and meanings The importance of history and interpretations Official culture versus subculture Formal authority versus informal social control Cultural context and strategic design
30. Cultural: artifacts values assumptions Political: interests coalitions resources/power Strategic: leadership timing linking process Three Lenses to see Organizational Change
31. Goal of the course: A repertoire of managerial skills Vocabularies how do we talk about changes? Issues: leadership, coalition building, culture, etc. Analytical models how do we analyze changes? Political Cultural Strategic Hand-on practicehow do we manage changes? Case studies Simulation Debates, brainstorm, collective diagnosis
32. 1. Why Change? Session 1. Issues related to organizational change Session 2. Leadership in organizational change 2. Processes of Organizational Change Session 3. Individual level: agents and incentives Session 4. Interpersonal: Social relations and culture Session 5. Putting things together: the EIS simulation Session 6. Organizational: Strategic dimensions 3. Summary and Reflections Session 7. Strategies of organizational change Session 8. Final examination Outline of the Course
33. Key Takeaways Managing Growth Know where you are in the development cycle. Be prepared to dismantle current structures before a crisis hits. Realize new solutions breed new problems. Continually strive to become a learning organization .
34. Different images of organizations Organization as a system for rational design Organization as a political coalition Organization as a system of symbols and meanings What are the implications for understanding organizational changes? What are the implications for managing changes in organizations?
35. Overview of the course Culture Politics Strategic design Leadership Agents Recipients