French Nouns: Gender and Number
Learn about the basics of French nouns, including their gender and number. Memorize the spelling and article indicators for masculine and feminine nouns, and discover how plurals are formed.
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1. The French Basics French 8 Review
2. Nouns: Gender and Number Nouns in French are either Masculine or Feminine. The gender of the noun is usually memorized with the spelling. Its gender is also indicated by the article. In most cases, plurals are indicated by an s Masculine Feminine Plural the le la les a un une des Le garon = the boy Un garon = a boy Les garon s = the boys Des garon s = (some) boys La fille = the girl Une fille = a girl
3. Subject Pronouns Singular Plural Je = I Nous = we Tu = you Vous = you Il = he Ils = they Elle = she Elles = they ( girls )
4. Adjectives 1) Descriptive Adjectives 2) Demonstrative Adjectives 3) Possessive adjectives
5. Adjectives and Gender In French, the ending of an adjective change depending on whether the noun it is describing is feminine or masculine, singular or plural. If an adjective is feminine, you add an e to the end of it, unless it already has an e Masculine Example: Chaud is an adjective meaning hot. Un bain is a noun meaning bath. Together they become: Un bain chaud A hot bath Feminine example: une boisson is a noun meaning a drink. It is a feminine noun so the adjective chaud will have an e added to the end of it. Together they will become: Un e boisson chaud e A hot drink Remember if the adjective already has an e you do not add another one. Example: Un garon bizarre Une fille bizarre
6. Adjectives and Number If a noun is plural, then the adjective must also be made plural. To make an adjective plural, you add an s to the end of the adjective, unless it already ends in s or x. Example: Le bain chaud Le s bain chaud s L a boisson chaud e L e s boissons chaud es
7. Adjectives with Irregular Feminine Forms There are some adjectives that have feminine form that are spelt differently. Instead of simply adding e, they often change or double their consonants before adding the e. Masculine Feminine Bon bonne Gros grosse Ancien ancienne Nouveau nouvelle Beau belle Vieux vieille Long longue
8. Demonstrative Adjectives Like other adjectives, demonstrative adjectives have a masculine, feminine and plural. They mean this or that Masculine Feminine Plural Ce Cette Ces Jaime ce livre. I like this/that book. A common contraction is ce + est = cest Cest un chien. This/that is a dog.
9. Possessive Adjectives In French, possessive adjectives agree in gender and in number with their noun i.e. they agree with the thing/person that is possessed and NOT with the owner. Masculine Feminine Plural My mon ma mes (je) Your ton ta tes (tu) His/her son sa ses (Il/elle) Our notre notre nos (nous) Your votre votre vos (vous) Their leur leur leurs (ils/elles) Kate : Cest mon frre et ma sur. This is my brother and my sister. Note: even though Kate is a girl, she uses the masculine form of mon when she is talking about her brother because He is a boy. In French, the my must agree with the brother, not with the girl who is talking about her brother. Challenge: This is her pencil and her chair. That is his pencil and his chair. Cest son crayon et sa chaise. Cest son crayon et sa chaise.
10. Simple Verbs - Present Tense - ER verbs - RE verbs - IR verbs Regarder to watch Attendre to wait Finir to finish Je regard jattends je finis Tu regardes Tu attends tu finis Il regard Il attend Il finit Elle regard Elle attend Elle finit Qui regard Qui attend Qui finit On regard On attend On finit Nous regardons nous attendons nous finissons Vous regardez vous attendez vous finissez Ils regardent Ils attendent Ils finissent Elles regardent Elles attendent Elles finissent Note : regarder attendre and finir are Infinitives (i.e. verbs before they are conjugated)
11. ALLER Aller to go Je vais (I am going) Nous allons (we are going) Tu vas (You are going) Vous allez (You are going) Il va (He is going) Ils vont (They are going) Elle va (She is going) Elles vont (They are going)
12. Negation 1, 2 rule of Negation 1) One verb and only 1 verb goes inside the ne....pas sandwhich the 1st verb. 2) If there is a 2nd verb in the sentence, it stays outside the ne...pas sandwich (ie. comes after the pas) In English, we form the most basic negative in a variety of ways involving the word NOT: dont, doesnt, isnt; arent, etc. In French, not is represent by the words ne...pas surrounding the action that is being negated. Je vais lcole. becomes: Je ne vais pas lecole. Im going to school I am not going to school. Je veux un biscuit. Becomes Je ne veux pas un biscuit. I want a cookie I dont want a cookie. The same rule applies even if there are two verbs in the sentence. Je peux aller becomes Je ne peux pas aller. I can go. I cant go. Tu vas finir becomes Tu ne vas pas finir. You are going to finish You arent going to finish.
13. Forming Questions by Inversion In English, normal word order in a simple sentence is subject verb. (I can; you want; he is going). When we want to form a question, we can often simply reverse this word order. (Can I? May I? Is he?). In French, we can also reverse (or invert) the regular word to form a question. In French we separate and emphasize the inversion by putting a hyphen between the two words. Tu veux un biscuit. Becomes Veux - tu un biscuit? Nous faisons du ski B ecomes Faisons - nous du ski Note that there are a few exception to be aware of: Je peux manager de la gomme Puis- je manger de la gomme? Peux becomes puis only in the 1 st person (je) form. Il va lcole becomes Va -t- il lcole? With avoir and aller in the 3 rd person singular (il/elle), a t is inserted between the vowels.
14. Contractions of the preposition and de + the place = means to the at the or in the but the to and the are contracted + le = au Je vais au magasin. I am going to the store. + la = la Je vais la ville. I am going to the city. + les = aux Je vais aux magasins I am going to the stores. De + the place = means from the De + le = du Je viens du De + la = de la Nous venons de la De + les = des Ils viennent des De + object (like food) often means some or any
15. To STUDY You need to study Months, days, numbers, seasons, body parts ER/IR/RE verbs Irregular verbs: avoir, tre, aller, faire Pouvoir/Vouloir (last new thing we learned). Expressions with avoir and tre In, under, beside, on top etc