The History of Maritime Navigation
This article explores the evolution of maritime navigation from the Stone Age to the Greek era. Costal people from various cultures developed a basic understanding of marine life and ocean navigation using ancient hooks and harpoons.
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About The History of Maritime Navigation
PowerPoint presentation about 'The History of Maritime Navigation'. This presentation describes the topic on This article explores the evolution of maritime navigation from the Stone Age to the Greek era. Costal people from various cultures developed a basic understanding of marine life and ocean navigation using ancient hooks and harpoons.. The key topics included in this slideshow are . Download this presentation absolutely free.
Slide1It All Started With…• Costal people of every culture developed a basic knowledge about marine life and the ocean. • As far back as the stone age (MYA), ancient hooks and harpoons have been found. • The Phoenicians were the first accomplished western navigators. By 2000 B.C. they were sailing around the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, eastern Atlantic Ocean, Black Sea, and Indian Ocean.
Slide2Greek Contribution• By the time of the Greeks a fair amount was known about life near the shore (in the Mediterranean Sea). • Aristotle is considered by most to be the first marine biologist he is often referred to as the “father of marine biology”. • One of his more famous discoveries were that gills acted as the breathing apparatus for fish.
Slide3Early Middle ages: The DarkAges… • In Europe, almost all scientific inquiry stopped. As a matter of fact, much of what was known about the ocean from the Greeks was lost or distorted. • Some exploration was however still occurring outside of Europe. • The Vikings (during the 9 th and 10 th centuries) continued to explore the Atlantic Ocean. • In A.D. 995 a Viking party lead by Leif Eriksson discovered a new land they called this land Vinland (we now call it North America).
Slide4Middle Ages…• Arab traders were also active during this time period. • They traveled to eastern Africa, southeast Asia, and India. • They learned about wind and water current patterns. • In the far East and Pacific people were also exploring the sea.
Slide5The Renaissance• In 1492 Christopher Columbus rediscovered the new world (Europeans did not know that the Vikings had already been there). • In 1519 Ferdinand Magellan made the first attempt to sail around the globe. • Accurate maps began to be produced.
Slide6Marine Biology Progresses• In 1768 James Cook embarked on a set of three voyages. • He was the first explorer to use a chronometer (accurate timepiece). He used the chronometer to determine his longitude. • With this information he was able to make reliable charts of his voyages. • He also collected specimens and brought them back to England.
Slide719th Century • Naturalists commonly traveled on ships to collect and study life forms found in the ocean. • Charles Darwin is perhaps the most famous of all these naturalists. • He traveled on the H.M.S. Beagle which left port in 1831. • Although Darwin’s specialty was barnacles, he studied many other organisms including his famous finches of the Galapagos. • He is credited with the theory of natural selection.
Slide8Middle 19th Century • In the 1840s and 1850s, Edward Forbes carried out extensive dredging of the sea floor. • The information from his expeditions made him one of the most influential marine biologists (even though he died at 39). • He sparked a renewed interest in life on the sea floor.
Slide9HMS Challenger• Forbes work lead to the first major oceanographic exploration. • Charles Wyville Thompson set out on the HMS Challenger in 1872 (after major renovations changing the challenger from a war ship into an R/V) • Samples were collected for 3 years. The information gathered was very extensive. It took 19 years to publish the research which filled 50 thick volumes. • The Challenger brought back thousands of previously unknown species
Slide10Challenger Expedition • John Murray and Charles Thomson conceived this first sailing expedition devoted entirely to oceanographic science • They coined the term 'oceanography' • The 3.5-year Challenger voyage was a milestone in the history of marine science.
Slide11Challenger Expedition • 226' x 36' Sailing ship (2,306 ton corvette), auxiliary steam engine • Several 1 000 m cable covered most of deck • Travelled ~130 000 km- Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Antarctic oceans • Enormous biological collections of pelagic & benthic organisms • ~5 000 new species discovered by this one expedition! • Proved that life existed in deep ocean. • Dredged seafloor for organisms, rocks, & sediments • Collected data on atmosphere, weather, and physical & chemical properties of seawater • Discovered the Mid-Atlantic Ridge & the Marianas Trench
Slide12History of Marine Biology• Later major British expeditions: – Antarctic Ocean and later all ocean deep-sea studies • Discovery I - 1925-1927 • Discovery II - 1930 • Discovery III - Later 1900's – Initial incentive was the whale industry
Slide13Marine Laboratories• Most specimens brought back by these explorations were dead. • This made scientists curious about how these diverse organisms live. • Marine Biologists began to work at the seashore in order to overcome this dilemma. • The first to do so were the Frenchmen, Edwards and Andouin. Around 1826 they recorded many regular visits to the shore.
Slide14Marine Laboratories• Eventually laboratories along the shore were created so equipment would be available to these scientists. • The first of these laboratories was the Stazione Zoologica, founded in Naples, Italy, by German biologists in 1872 (the same year the challenger embarked)
Slide15Marine Laboratories• In 1879, the laboratory of the Marine Biological Society of the United Kingdom was founded at Plymouth, England. • in 1871, the first marine laboratory at Woods Hole was initiated by the U.S. Fish Commission. • Louis Agassiz established a laboratory on Cape Ann in 1873. It was successful and it moved to Woods Hole in 1888 and became known as the Marine Biological Laboratory (it is now one of the most prestigious in the world).
Slide16•An aerial view of Woods Hole (June 1985) showing a complex of oceanographic research facilities including – the National Marine Fisheries Service, – the Marine Biology Laboratory, and – the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute.
Slide17Other Marine Laboratories• Hopkins Marine Station in Pacific Grove, California. • Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California. • Friday harbor Marine Laboratory in Friday Harbor, Washington.
Slide18•Aerial view of part of the campus and pier of the Scripps Oceanographic Institute
Slide19Marine Biology Today• Oceanographic ships and shore- based laboratories are used by marine biologists. Many Universities also operate research vessels. • Many research vessels were built for other uses and were modified for research. More and more vessels are being made specifically for research.
Slide20Some Important Developmentsin Marine Biology • Sonar: So und Na vigation R anging – Developed to find submarines (during WWII). Sonar can be used to get a detailed map of the ocean floor. • SCUBA: S elf C ontained U nderwater B reathing A pparatus. Developed by Emile Gagnan and Jacques Cousteau (post WWII).
Slide21Marine Biology Today• ROV – Remotely operated vehicles • AUV – Autonomous underwater vehicles • Marine animals can also be used by attaching sensors, oceanographic data can be collected throughout their life. • Automated instruments that stay put for long periods of time.
Slide23Marine Biology Today• Marine laboratories have come along way such as underwater laboratories that scientists can live in for weeks at a time. • New technology offers exciting opportunities for the study of the sea (computers and satellites) • Remote sensing technology is the technology used to study the earth and oceans from afar.
Slide25Marine Biology Today• Marine biologists use every available tool in their studies. However the ocean still remains a mystery.