The High Cost of Free Parking
This book by Donald Shoup explores the negative impact of providing free parking, highlighting how it can impact transportation systems which have three basic elements - vehicles, rights of way, and terminal capacity.
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1. THE HIGH COST OF FREE PARKING Donald Shoup
3. All transportation systems have three basic elements: Vehicles Rights of way Terminal capacity Trains Train tracks Train stations Airplanes Sky Airports Ships Oceans Seaports Cars Roads Parking spaces
4. Automobile travel is unusual in two ways: It requires enormous terminal capacity (several parking spaces per car). The cost of parking has been shifted out of the transportation sector and into the prices for everything else. Drivers park free for 99 percent of automobile trips in the US.
5. Who pays for free parking? Everyone but the motorist.
7. In 2002, the total subsidy for off-street parking was between $135 billion and $386 billion. In 2002, the federal government spent $231 billion for Medicare, and $349 billion for national defense.
8. Results of changing the price of off-street parking
9. Employer-Paid Parking 95% of all automobile commuters park free at work 91% of all commuters drive to work 91% of commuters cars have one occupant Most commuters park free regardless of age gender income education residence 85 million free parking spaces at work in 1994 Parking subsidy for commuters was $36 billion a year
10. Employer-Paid Parking: A Matching Grant Employers pay for parking at work if the employee is willing to pay for driving to work Commuters who do not drive to work do not get a subsidy Employer-paid parking encourages solo driving
12. Free parking increases solo driving by 60%
17. Results Parking cash out reduced the number of cars driven to work by 11% After parking cash out, employees traveled 652 fewer vehicle miles per year consumed fewer 26 gallons of fuel per year
18. Results of increasing the price of curb parking
23. Park-and-visit times before and after changing the price of curb parking in London
24. R e Park-and-visit times before and after parking prices were quadrupled
25. No meters Meters Prices quadrupled The effects of parking prices on Grosvenor Square in London
26. Conclusion Parking is heavily subsidized. The annual subsidy for off-street parking may be about the size of the budget for national defense. Parking prices have a profound effect on travel choices. Parking subsidies substantially increase vehicle travel.