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  1. A personal risk factor that has influenced Fred’s ability to manage change is that he failed a big English internal [1] that he felt he had worked hard on and it might affect his final NCEA mark. This has influenced his ability to manage change because academic failure may make him unconfident about other assessment and become doubtful that he will pass them, especially because he has put so much effort into it. This links with the lifestyle determinant of health because it may affect his school work and results, which in turn could affect his future career. A personal protective factor that is has influenced Fred’s ability to manage change is that he is hoping to be selected as a school leader [1]; this will give his self-confidence a boost and feel like his opinion maters. This has influenced his ability to manage change by him having more aspirations means he is more likely to work harder to prove he can be a good leader. This relates to the lifestyle determinant of health. An interpersonal risk factor that has influenced Fred’s ability to manage change is that there is a lot of conflict between him and his Mum and Step-dad [1] about them moving and him going to live with his Dad. This makes it harder for him to cope with change because it is putting a lot of tension on their relationship which can potentially make them feel distant from each other emotionally. Also the fact that they don’t understand what he wants makes him feel like whenever they talk it’ll just turn into an argument [2].This links to the social determinant of health. An interpersonal protective factor that has influenced Fred’s ability to manage change is that he has a great group of friends and girlfriend [1], who are always there for him and support him. This enhances his ability to manage change because of the support network from his friends and girlfriend and the fact they hang out means his social skills will have boost because of the interacting. He can be honest and open with them which makes him feel loved and supported. This support and close friends relate to the social determinant of health. A societal risk factor that has influenced his ability to manage change is that he is moving in with his Dad who lives further away from Fred’s school and friends[1]. This is making it harder for him to manage change because Fred feels as though he won’t be able to spend much time with his friends. He’ll also be in a new community environment which means he won’t know many people. This links to the social determinant of health because it is affecting his social life and environment. A societal protective factor that has influenced his ability to manage change is that he really feels part of the community that he has been born and raised in [1]. Feeling like he is connected to a safe and supportive community means his social skills can be quite high. He is more likely to do well in school and in life because of the supportive and safe environment [2].This protective factor links to the social determinant of health. A personal strategy Fred could employ to help him manage change and build resilience is to set goals for example; he could aim towards passing the re-sit of the English internal. He could draw up a study plan, organise time with a teacher to go over what he needs to do to pass and work on what he needs to do [3].This will give him something to focus on and work towards. This will minimise the risk factors by keeping Fred optimistic and having something to look forward to. Especially that he gets to re-sit the English internal that he originally failed. Being positive about it means he will work harder towards his goal (to pass). This can maintain the protective factor of having optimism and goals; will empower him for future hurdles in his life [4]. An interpersonal strategy Fred could employ to help him manage change and build resilience is to use problem solving, conflict resolution and shared decision- making skills in relationships with other people [3]. This strategy will minimise the risk factors of conflict with him Mum, Step-Dad or even Kerry (his girlfriend) because he is able use the conflict resolution skills to talk to them about the

  2. problem, and sort out a positive consequence. Also the problem solving skills and decision making skills would help him to be more independent while living with his Dad and make proper adult decisions with his parents about moving. This will maintain the protective factor of having thinking skills for problem solving and decision making [4]. A societal strategy Fred could employ to help him manage change and build resilience is to join a new group in his Dad’s community. This way he can get involved with new people and make new friends. Fred could also start his own community group to do with carpooling to another community to hang out with his friends. This strategy reduces that risk factor of having no support from his community. It enhanced the protective factor of attachment to the community and can provide the opportunity for Fred to be more sociable with others [5]. By Fred joining or making a group in his community he is very likely to learn/gain more interpersonal social skills and positive interactions with others in a safe and supportive neighbourhood that he feels he is connected with. Such things as thinking skills for problem solving and decision making which will help his if someone comes to talk to him about a problem, he can use his interpersonal communication, critical thinking and leadership skills to help someone else out. This will mean that Fred has done something great for his community so he will have optimism and can make plans and goals to work towards him personally and community wise. It may even that his goal is to make a tighter community and make more community/youth groups [6].