Fact sheets from World Health Organization www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs300/en Shargorodsky et al., JAMA, 2010 3 - PDF Document

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  3. Fact sheets from World Health Organization www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs300/en Shargorodsky et al., JAMA, 2010 3

  4. Conductive hearing loss is distinguished from SNHL by Weber/Rinne tests using tuning forks. If transmission of sound from the tuning fork is better when handle is placed on the mastoid (bone) vs when tines are placed near ear canal (air), then there is likely a conductive hearing loss. 4

  5. Ear canal can become blocked by cerumen (ear wax) or foreign objects (ouch). Ossicles can become enlarged with abnormal bone growth (common in stapes, often requires stapedectomy and implant). Middle ear can fill with fluid or infection from otitis media. Eustachian tube can become inflamed and blocked, causing fluid build up in middle ear space. 5

  6. The primary site of injury from noise trauma, ototoxicity, and aging is the sensory hair cells. Of these, the outer hair cells are often the first to die. Spiral ganglion cells degenerate next. This occurs first by retraction of the peripheral nerve process and ultimately results in death of the spiral ganglion cells. In humans, SGC loss may take months or years after hair cell injury, which underlies the success of cochlear implantation in long-deafened individuals. One open question is why OHCs are particularly sensitive to these insults compared to IHCs. 6

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  8. Congenital hearing loss due to genetic defect is most common in children who have undergone limited exposure to damaging sound levels and have had limited exposure to ototoxic drugs. The picture shifts dramatically with age, when acquired forms dominate. And it should be emphasized that one cannot truly dissociate genetic and acquired hearing loss, since some genetic defects may make one more or less susceptible to acquired forms of hearing loss. 8

  9. Phons From http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/sound/phon.html Two different 60 decibel sounds will not in general have the same loudness Saying that two sounds have equal intensity is not the same thing as saying that they have equal loudness. Since the human hearing sensitivity varies with frequency, it is useful to plot equal loudness curves which show that variation for the average human ear. If 1000 Hz is chosen as a standard frequency, then each equal loudness curve can be referenced to the decibel level at 1000 Hz. This is the basis for the measurement of loudness in phons. If a given sound is perceived to be as loud as a 60 dB sound at 1000 Hz, then it is said to have a loudness of 60 phons. 60 phons means "as loud as a 60 dB, 1000 Hz tone" The loudness of complex sounds can be measured by comparison to 1000Hz test tones, and this type of measurement is useful for research, but for practical sound level measurement, the use of filter contours has been commonly adopted to approximate the variations of the human ear. 9

  10. Liberman and Dodds, 1984 Notice, as illustrated in the lecture on OHCs and cochlear mechanics, loss of hair cells causes a shift in threshold (green curves higher than orange) and a shift in the best frequency toward lower frequencies. Moreover, tuning curves are broadened, which would likely underlie a loss of frequency discrimination and thus degraded speech perception even at audible sound levels. 10

  11. You will often see this term as (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder. It was once always referred to as CAPD but there are possibilities that might lead to peripheral causes. One is an ion channel that I have studied for many years. BK-type potassium channels are the major conductance in inner hair cells. When lost, they dramatically change the time constant of the hair cell membrane (how fast it can charge up and follow the acoustic stimulus cycling back and forth). We talked previously about the 4 kHz limit for phase locking. If BK is lost, that would drop to below 1 kHz or so. But threshold is unaffected in BK mutants. So…normal audiogram but likely poor temporal processing = a peripheral cause for auditory processing disorder. This is a hypothesis (an open question). There are some human subjects with BK mutations. It would be very interesting to test these! 11

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  14. If we set response “threshold” for the CAP at 10 microvolts, there is a small change in the acoustic “threshold” even though there is a large change in the overall amplitude of the CAP at high sound levels. There is a direct correlation with ABRs here. Detection of the ABR out of noise is only moderately changed whereas amplitude is obviously affected. 14

  15. The mechanisms behind these observations are unclear. TTS could cause some excitotoxicity to particular nerve terminals (low or high threshold fibers). It is unclear if these peripheral processes can regenerate to some degree. In aging, loss of AN may relate to myelin degenerative disease, loss of neurotrophic support, or direct injury from gene changes in the SGNs themselves. These are all interesting areas to explore. 15

  16. Modified from Kidd and Bao, Gerontology, 2011 Fig. 2. Mapping the causes of age-related loss of hair cells and SGNs. Contributions to age-related loss of hair cells and SGNs are presented as a flow chart. Causes involving mitochondrial function and ROS are outlined in the top half (dark gray boxes). Other contributions are outlined in the bottom half (light gray boxes). Verified interactions are shown with black lines. Interactions that are likely but not conclusively demonstrated are shown with gray lines. 16

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  24. A property of all non-mammalian vertebrates 24

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  27. Okano and Kelley, 2012 Figure 2. Schematic depictions of the morphological events and cell fate decisions that occur during mammalian inner ear development. 27

  28. Groves, Exp Biol Med, 2010 Figure 2 Hypothesized scheme for how Notch signaling maintains hair cell and supporting cell fates. Hair cells express the hair cell-specific transcription factor Atoh1 and the Notch ligands Delta1 and Jagged2. These signal to neighboring supporting cells through Notch receptors. Cleavage of the Notch receptor releases an intracellular domain (ICD) that travels to the nucleus and cooperates with RBPJk to activate transcription of Notch target genes such as members of the Hes and Hey gene families. These Hes family genes repress expression of hair cell-specific genes such as Atoh1 and maintain the supporting cell state. 28

  29. Mizutari et al., Neuron, 2013 Figure 5. Hair Cells in Damaged Mature Cochlea Treated with LY411575 In Vivo(A) The number of hair cells (green; myosin VIIa) in the outer hair cell region (white brackets) of the deafened cochlea at 8, 11.3, and 16 kHz areas was increased compared to the control ear (right ear treated with carrier) 3 months after treatment with LY411575 (left ear), and the increase was accompanied by a decrease in the number of supporting cells (blue; Sox2) in the same regions in these whole-mount confocal x-y projections. 29

  30. Izumikawa et al., Nat Med, 2005 Figure 2.Hair cells reappear in deaf ears treated with Ad.Atoh1. SEM view of deafened cochleae 2 months after Atoh1 inoculation (a−c), contralateral cochlea (d), Ad.empty-inoculated ear (e), and higher magnification of IHC (f) and OHC (g) 2 months after Atoh1inoculation. (a) The site of inoculation in the second cochlear turn (asterisk) is shown along with numerous stereocilia bundles at the normal sites of IHCs (I) and OHCs (rows 1−3). Pillar cells (P) are present between IHCs and OHCs. Ectopic bundles (arrowheads) are seen lateral to the third row of OHCs. (b) In some Atoh1-treated ears the morphology of IHC (I) and OHCs (O) is less well differentiated. (c) In other Atoh1-treated ears, hair cell reappearance is incomplete and third row OHCs are missing. (d,e) second cochlear turns of right (d, contralateral to a) 30

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  32. Fig. 2 Experimental design for p27/GFP+ precursor isolation. (A) E14.5 mouse embryos from heterozygous p27/GFP matings are screened for neural tube fluorescence, and transgenic animals are pooled. (B) Inner ears are dissected from embryos. (C) Cochlear epithelia (as in Fig. 1B) are microdissected from ears after enzymatic digestion. (D) Epithelia are dissociated in trypsin. (E) Cells are separated into p27/GFP+ and p27/GFP− populations with flow cytometry. Fig. 4 Differentiation of p27/GFP+ cells in culture. (A) Cluster of myosin-VI+ cells that differentiated in a culture of p27/GFP+ cells after 7 days in vitro. Size bar 25 μm. (B) Anti-p27Kip1 antibody staining of the same field, showing nuclear staining of p27Kip1 in the surrounding supporting cells. (C) Merge. Myosin-VI is now in pink. 32

  33. Oshima et al. Figure 3. Differentiation into Hair Cell-like Cells (A)ESCs or iPSCs were cultured in nonadherent condition in presence of Dkk1, SIS3, and IGF-1 (D/S/I) and the resulting embryoid bodies were grown adherently in presence of bFGF. On day 8 (d8), the cells were replated and kept for 12 days without adding additional growth factors (no GF), or maintained on mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells. (C and D) When the ESC- (C) and iPSC- (D) derived progenitors were cultured on chicken utricle stromal cells, we found nGFPAtoh1 and myosinVIIa double-positive cells that coexpressed the hair bundle marker espin. Figure 4. Hair Bundle-like Protrusions of ESC- and iPSC-Derived Cells (A–C and H–J) Scanning electron microscopic views of the surface of ESC- (A–C) and iPSC- (H–J) derived cell clusters after 12 days differentiation on mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells. (D–G and K–N) Projections of confocal stacks of hair bundle-like protrusions of ESC- (D–G) and iPSC- (K–N) derived cells. F-actin-filled membrane protrusions were visualized with TRITC-conjugated phalloidin (red). The actin-bundling stereociliary protein espin was visualized with FITC-conjugated secondary antibodies (green), and antibodies to beta-tubulin were visualized with Cy5-conjugated secondary antibodies to visualize the kinocilium-like structures (blue). 33

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