Feed Classifications Part I - PDF Document

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  1. Feed Classifications Part I AG 240

  2. Forages and/or Roughages Definition: Vegetable material in a fresh, dried or ensiled state (pasture, hay, silage, respectively).

  3. General Characteristics of Forages Less digestible than concentrates High in Fiber – Generally more than 18% CF Low in Energy

  4. Examples of Forages Low Moisture – Legume hays – Grass hays – Straws – Fodder (stalks) – Stovers (stalks) – Hulls and shells

  5. More Examples of Forages High Moisture – Silage • Produced from green forage crops that are compressed and stored under anaerobic conditions. • 60-75% moisture – Haylage • Intermediate between silage and hay • 40-60% moisture – Grazed forages

  6. Concentrates

  7. General Characteristics of Concentrates High in Energy Low in Fiber Highly digestible (80-90%) Generally less than 20% CP And less than 18% CF

  8. Examples of Concentrates Cereal grains Beet and citrus pulp Nuts Roots and tubers Liquids (molasses, fats, oils)

  9. Protein Supplements Definition: Contains more than 20% protein

  10. Examples of Protein Supplements Plant origin SBM, CSM, LSM, Legumes Brewery and distillery by-products Animal Origin Bone, blood, fish, chicken litter, feather, dried milk products NPN Urea, DPW

  11. Notes on Protein Supplements Molasses is commonly used as a base Soybean meal (SBM) is most widely used Cotton seed meal (CSM) used in south

  12. Feed Additives

  13. Categories of Feed Additives Vitamins – Yeast, fish oils, wheat germ oil Minerals – Bone meal, calcium carbonate, limestone Non-nutritive supplements

  14. Examples of Non-nutritive feed additives Buffers Ionophores Antibiotics Flavors Enzymes Hormones

  15. In depth look at each feed classification

  16. Forages and Roughages Vegetable material in a fresh, dried or ensiled state (pasture, hay, silage, respectively) 56% of all feed fed to livestock

  17. Review Characteristics NRC Classification – > 18% CF – Less than 70% TDN Mineral content is quite variable

  18. Mineral Content K found in highest concentrations Legumes are high in Ca Mg is supplied in adequate quantities P is moderate to low Higher in CA, lower in P than energy feeds (concentrates)

  19. More characteristics... Lower in digestibility than concentrates due to lignin – Amount of lignin is inversely related to digestibility of roughage Good source of fat soluble vitamins Extremely variable in crude protein – Alfalfa can be > 20% CP – Straw < 4%

  20. What is the difference between a grass and a legume?

  21. Grass vs Legume Grasses use soil nitrogen (fertilizer) Legumes have the ability to convert nitrogen present in the air into crude protein Nutrient content is greatly affected by the stage of maturity at which it is harvested or consumed

  22. Nutrient trends of Grass All have high levels of K Higher in Mn and Zn than legumes Levels decline with maturity

  23. Problems associated with Grasses Glycosides – Sorghum converts this to prussic acid Cyanogenic glycosides – Sorghum converts this to cyanide Oxalate – Causes Mg deficiency High Nitrate levels

  24. Nutrient trends of Legumes All have high levels of K Higher in Ca, Mg, S and frequently Cu than grasses Levels decline with maturity

  25. Problems associated with Legumes Bloat – Grazing legumes produce more bloat than consuming legume hays Coumarin – Found in clovers and moldy hay – Converted to dicoumarin which interferes with blood clotting

  26. Relative Feed Values of various forages RFV = relative value of hay which takes into account differences in consumption and digestibility as affected by maturity