Table of Contents - PDF Document

Presentation Transcript

  1. Table of Contents A Healthy Lumbar Spine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Lumbar Discectomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Understanding Discectomy Surgery . . . . . . . . 4 Lumbar Decompression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Understanding Decompression Surgery. . . . . 6 Preparing for Surgery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 After Surgery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Activity Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Resources: www.understandingspinesurgery.com 1 lumbar disc.indd 3 6/26/09 1:32:20 PM

  2. A Healthy Lumbar Spine NOTES __________________________________________________________________ The lumbar spine consists of the 5 lower vertebrae in your back. The vertebrae are the bones that make up the spine. Each vertebra is separated by soft pads of tissue called disks. These disks act as shock absorbers between each vertebra. Each disk contains two parts, a soft gel- like substance called the nucleus, and a tough outer band called the annulus. The spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord, is a tunnel that runs through each vertebra. The nerves are able to exit the canal through the foramen. The foramen is the opening between the vertebra on each side of the spinal canal. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Top view of a vertebra __________________________________________________________________ Annulus Nucleus Disk __________________________________________________________________ Spinal canal __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Nerve leaving canal through foramen Lamina __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 2 11 lumbar disc.indd 4 6/26/09 1:32:21 PM

  3. Activity Chart - following surgery Activities are guidelines only and may be modified for individual variations. Lumbar Discectomy A Problem Lumbar Spine A damaged disc is one of the most common causes of spine problems. A disc may herniate from sudden movement or gradually worsen over time (degenerative disc disease). 7-10 days 3 wks 6 wks 3 mos Shower Yes Lifting 10-15 lbs Yes Walking Outdoors Yes Herniated Disc: A herniated disc occurs when either the annulus tears or the nucleus ruptures through the annulus. When this happens, the nucleus tissue is forced out of position. Because there is limited space between the vertebrae, the herniated disc puts pressure on the spinal cord or the nerve roots. This could cause back and leg pain. When a bulging disc occurs, the pressure does not actually cause the nucleus to physically rupture through the annulus. The disc may still put pressure on the spinal canal or nerve roots. This may also cause back and leg pain. Cooking, dusting, light chores Climbing Stairs Short Car Rides 15-20 min No Varies Yes Torn annulus Yes Yes Short outings (church, visits) No Yes Stationary Bike No Varies Yes Driving Car No Yes Air Travel (short distances) Varies Yes An extruded herniated disk School No Varies Yes Light Upper Extremity Exercises No Yes Air Travel (long dist.) No Varies Yes Degenerative Disc Disease: In degenerative disc disease, the discs flatten over a period of time. This causes the vertebrae to get closer together and begin to touch. The nerves between the vertebrae, which are running through a foramen, may be pinched. Pain, numbness, and weakness in the legs could occur when the spinal cord or nerve roots are compromised. This happens because the messages sent from the brain to the rest of the body are interrupted. Nucleus pushing outward Swimming, No Diving No No Yes Dancing, slow No No Yes Light Jogging No No Varies Yes Vacuuming, laundry, No No Varies Yes Aerobic Exercise (low impact) No No Varies Yes Non-contact Sports (tennis, bowling) No No Varies Yes Lifting 15-50 lbs (tennis, bowling) No No Yes Horseback riding, water skiing No No No Varies A contained herniated disk 10 3 lumbar disc.indd 5 6/26/09 1:32:22 PM

  4. Understanding Your Disectomy Surgery After Surgery Lumbar Discectomy The surgeon will make a vertical incision in the middle of the back at the level of the damaged disc. The incision will be from one to three inches in length. The surgeon may do a laminotomy or a laminectomy to reach the disc. A laminotomy is the removal of a portion of the lamina, which is part of the bone that surrounds the spinal canal. This procedure is used when only a small part of a damaged disc is to be removed. A laminectomy is when the surgeon removes the entire lamina, forming a larger area for access to the damaged disc. This is used for an extensively damaged disc. A laminotomy is usually the procedure of choice. Once the approach has been made using one of the mentioned procedures, the surgeon will begin to remove the disc. By using a microscope and special instruments, the damaged portion of the disc will be removed. The remaining, healthy disc will remain to function as a shock absorber. This will take the pressure off of the spinal canal or nerve root and alleviate your back or leg pain. First Month After Surgery Do not drive for the first two weeks after surgery. During the first two or three weeks at home, you will find that you will tire easily. This is normal after surgery. You will be sent home with a prescription for pain medication to be taken by mouth. By the end of the first month after surgery, you should no longer require medication stronger than Tylenol. The easiest way to accomplish this is to reduce the amount of pain medication you take each of those first four weeks, until you are no longer requiring pain medication at all. Exercise: The single most important thing you can do for yourself to encourage recovery of strength and pain reduction is to walk. Try to increase your walking distance every day (refer to the Activity Chart on the next page). You will be enrolled in a spine conditioning program at your first post-op clinic visit. The program consists of aerobic training (bike, pool, treadmill) and general body strengthening. Part of lamina removed Laminotomy 4 9 lumbar disc.indd 6 6/26/09 1:32:22 PM

  5. After Surgery Lumbar Decompression After Surgery: Directly from the operating room, you will go to the recovery room. You will probably be there for two to three hours. You will then be transferred to the orthopaedic unit in the Round Wing of Medical Center North. The Round Wing is separate from the main Vanderbilt Hospital, so you will be transported through a tunnel connecting the two facilities. Spinal stenosis is another of the most common causes of spine problems. Stenosis can result from degenerative changes (spondylosis) or stenosis can be congenital and present early in life. Stenosis: Spinal stenosis is the narrowing of the spinal canal or intervetebral foramina. Stenosis can result from bone spurs or ligaments narrowing the foramen or spinal canal. This puts pressure on the spinal cord or nerves and may cause symptoms in your back and leg. You may feel pain, burning, tingling or numbness. Many patients experience leg fatigue and their legs cannot support them as they try to walk. Stenosis is also responsible for certain types of low back, buttock, and hip pain. Going Home: Most patients are discharged the day of surgery. Occasionally you may need to stay one night in the hospital and leave the following morning. Your trip home will be most comfortable if it is accomplished in a car with reclining seats. To make getting in and out of the car as easy as possible, place the seat in a reclined position, back into the seat, and turn your body 90 degrees so that you are facing forward. Adjust the back of the seat to a comfortable position. You may also need a blanket your trip. If the trip is longer than 30 minutes, get out and stretch for a few minutes every hour. This will reduce stiffness and soreness. Bone Spur 8 5 lumbar disc.indd 7 6/26/09 1:32:23 PM

  6. Understanding Your Decompression Surgery Preparing for Surgery Eating: It is very important that you do not eat or drink anything after midnight the evening before the day of your surgery. This includes drinking water or even chewing gum. Lumbar Decompression/Laminectomy The surgeon will make a vertical incision in the middle of the back at the level of the stenosis. The incision will be from one to three inches in length. The surgeon will do a procedure called a laminectomy to reach the bone or ligaments that are causing the stenosis. A laminectomy is when the surgeon removes the entire lamina, forming a larger area for access. Once the approach has been made using one of the above procedures, the surgeon will remove the bone spurs and problem ligaments with the use of special instruments. This will take pressure off the spinal canal or nerve root. Smoking: Scientific studies have shown that bone heals much better in persons who do not smoke. The spine surgeons strongly recommend that you stop smoking before your spine surgery. You may want to ask your family doctor to assist you in a smoking cessation program suitable for you, or call the Vanderbilt Dayani Center at (615) 322-4751 for their smoking cessation program.. Day of Surgery: On the day of your surgery, plan to arrive at the main admitting office of Vanderbilt University Hospital two hours before the scheduled time of your operation. You will wait in this area until you are escorted to the holding area. Your blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing rates will be measured once you are in the holding area. You will be asked to empty your bladder and change into a hospital gown. You will be administered an IV. The anesthesiologist will meet you in the holding room and give you some medication to help you relax. You will be transferred to the operating room on a gurney. Your Family: Your family may wait in the surgical waiting area located in the main hospital on the first floor near the main elevators. The operating room nurse will call the waiting room desk periodically to report on the progress of your surgery. Your spine surgeon will meet with your family there after your surgery. Entire lamina removed Laminectomy 6 7 lumbar disc.indd 8 6/26/09 1:32:23 PM

  7. Understanding Your Decompression Surgery Preparing for Surgery Eating: It is very important that you do not eat or drink anything after midnight the evening before the day of your surgery. This includes drinking water or even chewing gum. Lumbar Decompression/Laminectomy The surgeon will make a vertical incision in the middle of the back at the level of the stenosis. The incision will be from one to three inches in length. The surgeon will do a procedure called a laminectomy to reach the bone or ligaments that are causing the stenosis. A laminectomy is when the surgeon removes the entire lamina, forming a larger area for access. Once the approach has been made using one of the above procedures, the surgeon will remove the bone spurs and problem ligaments with the use of special instruments. This will take pressure off the spinal canal or nerve root. Smoking: Scientific studies have shown that bone heals much better in persons who do not smoke. The spine surgeons strongly recommend that you stop smoking before your spine surgery. You may want to ask your family doctor to assist you in a smoking cessation program suitable for you, or call the Vanderbilt Dayani Center at (615) 322-4751 for their smoking cessation program.. Day of Surgery: On the day of your surgery, plan to arrive at the main admitting office of Vanderbilt University Hospital two hours before the scheduled time of your operation. You will wait in this area until you are escorted to the holding area. Your blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing rates will be measured once you are in the holding area. You will be asked to empty your bladder and change into a hospital gown. You will be administered an IV. The anesthesiologist will meet you in the holding room and give you some medication to help you relax. You will be transferred to the operating room on a gurney. Your Family: Your family may wait in the surgical waiting area located in the main hospital on the first floor near the main elevators. The operating room nurse will call the waiting room desk periodically to report on the progress of your surgery. Your spine surgeon will meet with your family there after your surgery. Entire lamina removed Laminectomy 6 7 lumbar disc.indd 8 6/26/09 1:32:23 PM

  8. After Surgery Lumbar Decompression After Surgery: Directly from the operating room, you will go to the recovery room. You will probably be there for two to three hours. You will then be transferred to the orthopaedic unit in the Round Wing of Medical Center North. The Round Wing is separate from the main Vanderbilt Hospital, so you will be transported through a tunnel connecting the two facilities. Spinal stenosis is another of the most common causes of spine problems. Stenosis can result from degenerative changes (spondylosis) or stenosis can be congenital and present early in life. Stenosis: Spinal stenosis is the narrowing of the spinal canal or intervetebral foramina. Stenosis can result from bone spurs or ligaments narrowing the foramen or spinal canal. This puts pressure on the spinal cord or nerves and may cause symptoms in your back and leg. You may feel pain, burning, tingling or numbness. Many patients experience leg fatigue and their legs cannot support them as they try to walk. Stenosis is also responsible for certain types of low back, buttock, and hip pain. Going Home: Most patients are discharged the day of surgery. Occasionally you may need to stay one night in the hospital and leave the following morning. Your trip home will be most comfortable if it is accomplished in a car with reclining seats. To make getting in and out of the car as easy as possible, place the seat in a reclined position, back into the seat, and turn your body 90 degrees so that you are facing forward. Adjust the back of the seat to a comfortable position. You may also need a blanket your trip. If the trip is longer than 30 minutes, get out and stretch for a few minutes every hour. This will reduce stiffness and soreness. Bone Spur 8 5 lumbar disc.indd 7 6/26/09 1:32:23 PM

  9. Understanding Your Disectomy Surgery After Surgery Lumbar Discectomy The surgeon will make a vertical incision in the middle of the back at the level of the damaged disc. The incision will be from one to three inches in length. The surgeon may do a laminotomy or a laminectomy to reach the disc. A laminotomy is the removal of a portion of the lamina, which is part of the bone that surrounds the spinal canal. This procedure is used when only a small part of a damaged disc is to be removed. A laminectomy is when the surgeon removes the entire lamina, forming a larger area for access to the damaged disc. This is used for an extensively damaged disc. A laminotomy is usually the procedure of choice. Once the approach has been made using one of the mentioned procedures, the surgeon will begin to remove the disc. By using a microscope and special instruments, the damaged portion of the disc will be removed. The remaining, healthy disc will remain to function as a shock absorber. This will take the pressure off of the spinal canal or nerve root and alleviate your back or leg pain. First Month After Surgery Do not drive for the first two weeks after surgery. During the first two or three weeks at home, you will find that you will tire easily. This is normal after surgery. You will be sent home with a prescription for pain medication to be taken by mouth. By the end of the first month after surgery, you should no longer require medication stronger than Tylenol. The easiest way to accomplish this is to reduce the amount of pain medication you take each of those first four weeks, until you are no longer requiring pain medication at all. Exercise: The single most important thing you can do for yourself to encourage recovery of strength and pain reduction is to walk. Try to increase your walking distance every day (refer to the Activity Chart on the next page). You will be enrolled in a spine conditioning program at your first post-op clinic visit. The program consists of aerobic training (bike, pool, treadmill) and general body strengthening. Part of lamina removed Laminotomy 4 9 lumbar disc.indd 6 6/26/09 1:32:22 PM

  10. Activity Chart - following surgery Activities are guidelines only and may be modified for individual variations. Lumbar Discectomy A Problem Lumbar Spine A damaged disc is one of the most common causes of spine problems. A disc may herniate from sudden movement or gradually worsen over time (degenerative disc disease). 7-10 days 3 wks 6 wks 3 mos Shower Yes Lifting 10-15 lbs Yes Walking Outdoors Yes Herniated Disc: A herniated disc occurs when either the annulus tears or the nucleus ruptures through the annulus. When this happens, the nucleus tissue is forced out of position. Because there is limited space between the vertebrae, the herniated disc puts pressure on the spinal cord or the nerve roots. This could cause back and leg pain. When a bulging disc occurs, the pressure does not actually cause the nucleus to physically rupture through the annulus. The disc may still put pressure on the spinal canal or nerve roots. This may also cause back and leg pain. Cooking, dusting, light chores Climbing Stairs Short Car Rides 15-20 min No Varies Yes Torn annulus Yes Yes Short outings (church, visits) No Yes Stationary Bike No Varies Yes Driving Car No Yes Air Travel (short distances) Varies Yes An extruded herniated disk School No Varies Yes Light Upper Extremity Exercises No Yes Air Travel (long dist.) No Varies Yes Degenerative Disc Disease: In degenerative disc disease, the discs flatten over a period of time. This causes the vertebrae to get closer together and begin to touch. The nerves between the vertebrae, which are running through a foramen, may be pinched. Pain, numbness, and weakness in the legs could occur when the spinal cord or nerve roots are compromised. This happens because the messages sent from the brain to the rest of the body are interrupted. Nucleus pushing outward Swimming, No Diving No No Yes Dancing, slow No No Yes Light Jogging No No Varies Yes Vacuuming, laundry, No No Varies Yes Aerobic Exercise (low impact) No No Varies Yes Non-contact Sports (tennis, bowling) No No Varies Yes Lifting 15-50 lbs (tennis, bowling) No No Yes Horseback riding, water skiing No No No Varies A contained herniated disk 10 3 lumbar disc.indd 5 6/26/09 1:32:22 PM