DETERMINATION OF SEX USING DRY ADULT HUMAN SACRUM- A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY - PDF Document

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  1. Research Article DETERMINATION OF SEX USING DRY ADULT HUMAN SACRUM- A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY IJCRR Section: Healthcare Sci. Journal Impact Factor 4.016 Nisha Yadav1, Kopal Saini1, Kalpana Patil2 1Department of Anatomy, S.B.H. Govt. Medical College, Dhule, Maharashtra, India; 2Department of Anatomy, GMC Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India. ABSTRACT Aim: To find out similarities and differences in the metrical values of different sacral parameters in males and females and to highlight the best parameter that could be used to study sexual dimorphism of sacrum. Materials and methods: 140 (83 male and 57 female) adult human sacra were collected from Department of Anatomy, Govern- ment Medical College, Aurangabad, Maharashtra. The measurements included ventral straight length and maximum breath of sacrum, sacral index, maximum transverse and antero-posterior diameter and index of body of first sacral vertebra. Demarking points for these parameters were used for identification of sex of sacrum. Results: The average values of sacrum for ventral straight length was found to be 104.7±5.94 mm in male and 92.6±6.1 mm in female, maximum breadth was 102.93±4.83 mm in male and 104.77±6.48 mm in female and sacral index was 98.44±4.69 mm in male and 113.23±5.61 mm in female. The average values of first sacral vertebra for transverse diameter was 48.48±4.21 mm in male and 40.75±3.51 mm in female, antero-posterior diameter was 29.12±2.47 mm in male and 26.93±2 mm in female and index was 60.28±4.96 mm in male and 66.36±5.04 mm in female. Conclusion: Sacral index was found to be the best parameter for sex determination of sacrum amongst the parameter studied. Using sacral index alone 27.71% of bones in males and 57.9% of bones in females could be identified. However not a single parameter could identify 100% of the bones. Key Words: Sacrum, Sacral index, Vertebra INTRODUCTION The present study was undertaken to find out similarities and differences in the metrical values of different sacral parameters in males and females and also to highlight the best parameter that could be used to study sexual dimorphism of sacrum. Determination of sex is an integral part and first step in the development of the biological profile in human osteology. Sex determination is necessary to make age, ancestry and stature estimations.1 Anatomists and an- thropologists since long acknowledged the importance of sacrum in identifying the sex of a deceased person. Sexual dimorphic characters of sacrum can be studied both morphologically and metrically. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was performed on 140 (83 male and 57 female) adult human sacra of known sex. Sacra were dry and free from deformity and fully ossified. Sacra were obtained from Department of Anatomy, Govern- ment Medical College, Aurangabad, Maharashtra. Each sacrum was studied for different features of sexual di- morphism. The parameters were measured using slid- ing vernier callipers, pair of divider and steel measuring scale. The following parameters were considered: Sacrum is a large triangular bone forming the postero- superior wall of the pelvic cavity, wedged between the two innominate bones. It is formed by the fusion of five sacral vertebrae and forms the caudal end of the verte- bral column.2 The well known method for determination of male or fe- male type of sacrum has always been the “Sacral Index”. The Sacral Index is calculated by the following formula: Sacral Index = Width of Sacrum x 100 / Height of Sa- crum.2 1. Maximum length of sacrum (Ventral straight length) was measured from the midpoint of the Corresponding Author: Kopal Saini, Department of Anatomy, S.B.H. Govt. Medical College, Dhule, Maharashtra, India. Email: dr.kopalsaini@gmail.com Corresponding Author: Anil Pawar, Assistant Professor, Department of Zoology, D.A.V . College for Girls, Yamunanagar (Haryana); Mobile:919467604205; Email: sumanil27@yahoo.co.in Received: 19.12.2014 Revised: 11.01.2015 Accepted: 27.01.2015 Received: 16.6.2014 Revised: 11.7.2014 Accepted: 29.7.2014 Int J Cur Res Rev | Vol 7 • Issue 3 • February 2015 22

  2. Yadav et. al.: Determination of sex using dry adult human sacrum- a morphometric study anterosuperior margin of sacral promontory, in the midsagittal plane, to the midpoint of antero- inferior margin of the last sacral vertebra. (Photo- graph 1) 2. Maximum breadth of sacrum was noted at mid- point of left and right alae of sacrum. (Photograph 2) 3. Sacral index for each sacrum was calculated using formula: Sacral index = (sacral width / sacral ventral straight length) x 100 4. Maximum transverse diameter of first sacral body (T-S1) was recorded. (Photograph 3) 5. Maximum antero-posterior diameter of 1st sacral body (AP-S1) was noted. (Photograph 4) 6. Index for body of 1st sacral vertebra was calcu- lated using formula: A-P Diameter of body of S1 / Transverse diameter of S1 x 100 For identification of Male sacrum, the demarking point (D.P .) of a particular measurement was more than 3 S.D. of mean value for female, and, for identification of Fe- male sacrum, the D.P . of same measurement was less than 3 S.D. of mean value for male.3 Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed for mean, standard deviation, range, student t test, demarking points and percentage of identified bones. RESULTS Table 1 :displaying results for ventral straight length, maximum breath and sacral index. (H.S. - highly sig- nificant, N.S. - not significant, measurements in millimeters) Ventral straight length Maximum breadth Sacral index Parameters Male Female Male Female Male Female Number of bones 83 57 83 57 83 57 88.98 – 126.54 86.78 - 116.09 99.13 - 123.11 Range 90.35 -122.39 81 - 110.64 92.65-115.65 Mean 104.73 92.64 102.93 104.77 98.44 113.23 Standard deviation (S.D.) 5.94 6.10 4.83 6.48 4.69 5.61 84.37 -112.51 96.4 – 130.06 Mean ± 3 S.D. 86.91 -122.55 74.34 -110.94 88.44 -117.42 85.33 -124.21 Demarking points > 110.94 < 86.91 >124.21 <88.44 < 96.4 >112.51 Percentage of bones identified 16.86 19.30 0 0 27.71 57.9 t value 11.71 1.923 16.93 p value < 0.0001 (H.S.) < 0.0566 (N.S.) < 0.0001 (H.S.) Int J Cur Res Rev | Vol 7 • Issue 3 • February 2015 23

  3. Yadav et. al.: Determination of sex using dry adult human sacrum- a morphometric study Table 2: displaying results for maximum transverse diameter (T-S1), maximum antero-posterior diameter (AP-S1) and index of body of first sacral vertebra. (H.S. - highly significant, N.S. - not significant, measure- ments in millimeters) Index of body- 1st sacral vertebra T-S1 AP-S1 Parameters Male Female Male Female Male Female Number of bones 83 57 83 57 83 57 Range 40 – 62.1 34 – 48.02 22.26 –37.42 23.09 –30.73 48.47 –72.02 56.08 –77.52 Mean 48.48 40.75 29.12 26.93 60.28 66.36 Standard devia- tion (S.D.) 4.21 3.51 2.47 2.00 4.96 5.04 35.85 –61.11 Mean ± 3 S.D. 30.22 –51.28 21.71 –36.53 20.93 –32.93 45.4 – 75.16 51.24 –81.48 Demarking points > 51.28 < 35.85 >32.93 < 21.71 <51.24 > 45.4 Percentage of bones identified 18.07 10.53 2.40 0 1.43 0.71 t value 11.39 5.577 7.085 p value < 0.0001 (H.S.) < 0.0001 (H.S.) < 0.0001(H.S.) DISCUSSION Mishra SR4 et al (2003) obtained mean value of sacral index to be 98.21 in males and 117.84 in females in their study conducted on 74 male and 42 female sacra. Patel MM5 et al (2005) in their study on 32 male and 32 female sacra found the mean value to be 96.25 in males and 113.25 in females. Shailaja MC6 et al(2010) in their study on 190 male and 64 female sacra showed the mean value to be 94.24 in males and 113.19 in fe- males. Jit and Singh3 (1966) identified sex of sacrum with 100% accuracy by calculating demarking points from the ob- served values. They suggested for identification of Male sacrum, the D.P . of a particular measurement was more than 3 S.D. of mean value for female, and, for identifica- tion of Female sacrum, the D.P . of same measurement was less than 3 S.D. of mean value for male. In the present study, most of the values for parameters like sacral index, index of first sacral vertebra, width of sacrum were higher in female and other parameters like length of sacrum and diameters of first sacral vertebra were higher in male. The mean value of sacral index was 98.44 in males and 113.23 in females. The demarking points in males was <96.4 and > 112.51 in females. Of the specimens studied, 27.71% of bones in males and 57.9% of bones in females were identified correctly us- ing this parameter alone with high level of significance (P < 0.0001). On the contrary, the studies conducted by Jana7 et al (1987), Singh8 et al (1988) and Mazumdar9 S et al (2012) showed the mean value of sacral index to be on lower side in both sexes as compared to present study. Nevertheless sacral index still remains to be the best parameter for sex determination amongst the param- eters studied. Other parameters studies showed low level of significance compared to sacral index. Perhaps sacral index can be used in combination with other parameters to improve the accuracy of sex determina- tion. Gray’s Anatomy2 (40th edition) gives the mean value of sacral index to be 105 in males and 115 in females. Int J Cur Res Rev | Vol 7 • Issue 3 • February 2015 24

  4. Yadav et. al.: Determination of sex using dry adult human sacrum- a morphometric study Table 3: showing comparison of present study with other studies for ventral straight length, maximum breadth and sacral index. Mean ± standard deviation Parameter Sample size Ventral straight length Maximum breadth Sacral index Studies M F M F M F M F Grays anatomy - - - - - - 105 115 Davivongs (1963) 50 50 9.65±0.88 8.81±0.687 9.99±0.5 10.12±0.51 104.16±8.93 115.49±10.39 Flander (1978) White 50 50 - - - - 106.49±10.4 108.69±13.59 Black 50 50 - - - - 106.17±10.36 112.35±11.03 Raju et al (1980) 33 11 10.5±0.864 9.27±0.561 10.5±0.531 10.3±0.36 100.85±8.71 111.39±7.67 Jana et al (1987) 27 27 - - - - 91.27 103.89 Singh et al (1988) 26 12 - - - - 94.32 104.81 Mishra SR et al (2003) 74 42 107.53±7.03 90.58±4.42 105.34±6.22 105.16±6.32 98.21±4.89 117.84±7 Patel MM et al(2005) 32 32 - - - - 96.25±4.6 113.25±5.74 Shailaja MC (2010) 190 64 11±0.84 9.45±0.85 10.42±0.9 10.6±0.69 94.24±11.78 113.19±10.26 Arora AK etal (2010) 20 20 109.74±11.66 91.22±6.348 101.44±8.96 114.13±9.67 93.69±11.57 125.35±11.47 Sachdeva K et al (2011) 40 10 10.41±1.26 9.18±0.71 10.31±0.78 10.1±0.7 100.24±12.54 111.14±14.6 Mazumdar S et al (2012) 127 123 100.8±11.5 87.3±7.4 96.3±7.4 95.6±5.7 94.9±4.8 109.8±7.3 Present Study 83 57 104.7±5.94 92.6±6.1 102.93±4.83 104.77±6.48 98.44±4.69 113.23±5.61 Int J Cur Res Rev | Vol 7 • Issue 3 • February 2015 25

  5. Yadav et. al.: Determination of sex using dry adult human sacrum- a morphometric study Table 4: showing comparison of present study with other studies for parameters like transverse diameter (T-S1), antero-posterior diameter (AP-S1) and index of body of first sacral vertebra Parameter Mean ± standard deviation Sample size M T-S1 AP-S1 Index of body- 1st sacral vertebra M Studies F M F M F F Davivongs (1963) Raju et al (1980) Mishra SR et al (2003) Sachdeva K et al (2011) Kothapalli J et al (2012) Mazumdar S et al(2012) Shree Krishna et al(2013) Present study 50 50 4.74±0.399 4.41±0.368 2.98±0.229 2.76±0.148 63.03±4.4 62.84±6.25 33 11 4.73±0.509 4.21±0.509 3.3±0.288 2.76±0.28 64.42±7.48 65.52±6.27 74 42 49.12±3.27 42.81±3.04 30.04±2.58 29.29±2.15 61.73±4.07 68.60±4.92 40 10 4.76±0.71 4.55±0.48 3.15±0.41 2.85±0.23 - - - - - - - - 66.79±7.31 66.75±8.83 127 123 41.6±8.5 39.7±5.2 29.4±3.8 27.9±2.7 71.6±9.1 70.7±5.8 75 75 - - - - 64.33±6.43 69.40±6.9 83 57 48.48±4.21 40.75±3.51 29.12±2.47 26.93±2 60.28±4.96 66.36±5.04 CONCLUSION Conflict of interest: none Funding: none The present study shows that the sacral index is the best criterion for sex determination of sacrum. Using sacral index alone 27.71% of bones in males and 57.9% of bones in females could be identified. Other parameters studied like ventral straight length, maximum breadth, diameters and index of first sacral body were less signifi- cant for sex determination of sacrum. However not a sin- gle parameter could identify 100% of the bones. Hence it could be concluded that for determination of sex of sa- crum, maximum number of parameters should be taken into consideration to attain 100% accuracy. REFERENCES 1. Kothapalli J, Velichety SD, Desai V , Zammer MR. Morpho- metric study of sexual dimorphism in adult sacra of south Indian population. Int J Bio Med Res. 2012; 3(3): 2076- 2081. 2. Standring S, editor. Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical basis of Clinical Practice. 40th edition. Spain: Churchill Living- stone Elsevier; 2008. p. 724-728. 3. Jit and Singh. Sexing of adult clavicles. Indian journal of medical research.1966; 54: 551-571. 4. Mishra SR, Singh PJ, Agarwal AK, Gupta RN. Identification of sex of sacrum of Agra Region. J.Anat.Soc.India. 2003; 52(2): 132-36. 5. Patel MM, Gupta BD, Singel TC. Sexing of sacrum by sacral index and Kimura’s base-wing index. J. Indian Acad Foren- sic Med. 2005; 27(1): 5-9. 6. Math SC, Nandyal VB., Shetty VB, Pawar JD, Raj Kumar KR. Study of sexual dimorphism in human sacrum- in North Karnataka. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 2010; 3(1): 13-19. 7. Jana TK., Koley TK., Saha SB., Basu SK. Variation and sex- ing of adult human sacrum. Journal of Anatomical society of India.1988; 37:2-3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Authors would like to thank Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Aurangabad for their sup- port and co-operation. Authors acknowledge the im- mense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publish- ers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and dis- cussed. Int J Cur Res Rev | Vol 7 • Issue 3 • February 2015 26

  6. Yadav et. al.: Determination of sex using dry adult human sacrum- a morphometric study 8. Singh H, Singh J, Bargotra RN. Sacral index as observed anthropometrically in the region of Jammu. Journal of An- atomical society of India.1988; 37(1). 9. Mazumdar S, Ray A, Mazumdar A, Mazumdar S, Sinha A, Vasisht S. Sexual dimorphism and regional difference in size of sacrum: A study in Eastern India. Al Ameen J Med Sci. 2012; 5(3): 298-307. 10. Davivongs V . The pelvic girdle of Australian Aborigines- Sex difference and sex determination. American Journal of Physical Anthropology.1963; 21: 443-455. 11. Flander LB. Univariate and multivariate methods for sexing the sacrum. Am. J.Phys.Anthrop.1978; 49: 103-110. 12. Raju PB, Singh S, Padmanabhan R. Sex determination and sacrum. Journal of Anatomical Society of India.1980; 30:13-15. 13. Arora AK, Gupta P , Mahajan S, Kapoor SS. Significance of sacral index in estimation of sex in sacra of cadavers in Punjab. J. Indian Acad Forensic Med. 2010; 32(2): 104- 107. 14. Sachdeva K, Singla RK, Kalsey G, Sharma G. Role of sa- Sachdeva K, Singla RK, Kalsey G, Sharma G. Role of sa- crum in sexual dimorphism- A morphometric study. J. In- dian Acad Forensic Med. 2011; 33(3): 206-210. 15. Shree Krishna HK, Yatraj S, Vijaya Kumari. Credibility of various Indices of sacrum in identification of sex of sacrum. International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine. 2013; 3(2): 58-63. Photograph 1: Showing measurement of ventral straight length of sacrum Photograph 2: Showing measurement of maximum breadth of sacrum Int J Cur Res Rev | Vol 7 • Issue 3 • February 2015 27

  7. Yadav et. al.: Determination of sex using dry adult human sacrum- a morphometric study Photograph 3: Showing measurement of maximum trans- verse diameter of first sacral body Photograph 4: showing measurement of antero-posteri- or diameter of first sacral vertebra. Int J Cur Res Rev | Vol 7 • Issue 3 • February 2015 28