Salivary Gland Pathology - PDF Document

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  1. www.downstatesurgery.org Salivary Gland Pathology Eric Klein, M.D. SUNY Downstate Department of Surgery

  2. www.downstatesurgery.org Case 1 • 32 y/o male with episodic pain and swelling from his left upper neck for several years • Enlarged, non-tender left submandibular gland and surrounding lymphadenopathy • No palpable stones • CT scan - small calculi • FNA lymph nodes – benign, reactive

  3. www.downstatesurgery.org Case 1 • Left submandibular gland excision with biopsy of enlarged level 2 and 3 lymph nodes • Mild focal chronic sialoadenitis • Lymph nodes – reactive hyperplasia

  4. www.downstatesurgery.org Case 2 • 58 y/o female with progressively enlarging left facial mass for 40 years • 8 x 7 cm lobular mass overlying angle of jaw • No palpable lymphadenopathy • Facial nerve function intact • CT scan – 2.8 x 2.2 cm cystic mass in superficial left parotid gland

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  10. www.downstatesurgery.org Case 2 • Left superficial parotidectomy • 6 x 5 x 4 cm parotid gland with chronic sialadenitis • 3 cm lymphoepithelial cyst

  11. www.downstatesurgery.org Outline • Anatomy • Physiology • Non-neoplastic Diseases • Benign Tumors • Malignant Tumors

  12. www.downstatesurgery.org Anatomy • Parotid glands – Stenson duct -> opposite 2nd maxillary molar • Submandibular glands – Wharton duct -> behind mandibular incisors • Sublingual glands – Major duct of Bartholin -> Wharton duct – Multiple minor ducts of Rivinus -> floor of mouth • Minor Salivary glands

  13. www.downstatesurgery.org Physiology • Produce 500-1500 mL of saliva daily • Digestive enzymes • Bacteriostatic functions • Lubrication • Hygienic activities

  14. www.downstatesurgery.org Non-neoplastic Diseases

  15. www.downstatesurgery.org Mumps (Viral Parotiditis) • Acute bilateral painful erythematous parotid swelling • Fever and malaise • Young children • 2-3 week incubation period • CONTAGIOUS • Rare with vaccination

  16. www.downstatesurgery.org Acute Suppurative Sialadenitis • Acute tender swollen gland • Fever • Dehydration, trauma, immunosuppression • Elderly and post-op patients • May lead to abscess • Culture saliva – S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, E. coli, H. influenza

  17. www.downstatesurgery.org Lymphoepithelial Cysts • Painless parotid swelling • Xerostomia • Cyst fluid contains amylase • Often the presenting symptom for HIV

  18. www.downstatesurgery.org Chronic Granulomatous Sialedenitis • Cat-Scratch disease (Bartonella henselae) • Sarcoidosis (Heerfordt syndrome) • Actinomycosis (dental infection or trauma) • Wegener Granulomatosis (C-ANCA) • Syphilis • Tuberculosis

  19. www.downstatesurgery.org Sialolithiasis • Acute painful swelling after eating • 85% occur in submandibular gland • Usually subsides in an hour • A stone may be palpated or demonstrated on radiographs • 20% recurrence rate • Can lead to acute suppurative sialadenitis, duct ectasia or stricture

  20. www.downstatesurgery.org Sialolithiasis Treatment • Intraoral extraction • Surgical Excision of gland • Endoscopy • Radiologic wire basket extraction • Laser lithotripsy • Shock wave lithotripsy

  21. www.downstatesurgery.org Chronic Sialadenitis • Chronic pain or swelling worsened by eating • Causes – Recurrent acute infections – Trauma – Radiation – Iodine • Attempt to treat underlying cause • Must rule out malignancy

  22. www.downstatesurgery.org Sjögren Syndrome • Mostly affects females in their 50’s • Associated with Rhematoid Arthritis and Lupus • Dry eye, dry mouth, altered taste, dry skin, myalgia, vaginal dryness, vasculitis, and arthritis • Treated with steroids

  23. www.downstatesurgery.org Kimura Disease • Slowly growing painless salivary gland mass • Associated with lymphadenopathy • Primarily in Asian males, teens – 20’s • Eosinophilia • Treated by gland excision

  24. www.downstatesurgery.org Benign Tumors

  25. www.downstatesurgery.org Of salivary gland tumors: • 80% occur in the parotid glands – 75% benign • 15% occur in the submandibular glands – 50% benign • 1% occur in the sublingual glands – 25% benign • 4% occur in the minor salivary glands – 35% benign

  26. www.downstatesurgery.org Treatment of Benign salivary gland tumors • excision with a negative margin

  27. www.downstatesurgery.org Pleomorphic Adenoma (benign mixed tumors) www.pathpedia.com

  28. www.downstatesurgery.org Warthin Tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum) www.pathpedia.com

  29. www.downstatesurgery.org Malignant Tumors

  30. www.downstatesurgery.org Pathogenesis • Reserve Cell Theory (currently favored) – Arise from stem cells that undergo malignant transformation during differentiation • Multicellular Theory – Malignant transformation of differentiated cells

  31. www.downstatesurgery.org Surgical Treatment • Total parotidectomy – Only sacrifice facial nerve if it is involved in tumor • Supraomohyoid neck dissection – Only sacrafice lingual, hypoglossal and marginal mandibular nerves if they are involved in tumor

  32. www.downstatesurgery.org Elective Neck Dissection • Clinical lymphadenopathy • Tumor > 4cm • High grade histology • Not necessary for adenoid cystic carcinoma

  33. www.downstatesurgery.org Neutron-beam Radiation Therapy • Tumor > 4cm or extraparenchymal invasion • High-grade histology • Positive lymph nodes • Nerve involvement • Close margins • Bone, cartilage or muscle invasion • Recurrent disease

  34. www.downstatesurgery.org Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma pathology.class.kmu.edu.tw

  35. www.downstatesurgery.org Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma nelspruit-histopath.blogspot.com

  36. www.downstatesurgery.org Bibliography • CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment in Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery, 3e – Chapter 18. Benign Diseases of the Salivary Glands (Fidelia Yuan-Shin Butt, MD) – Chapter 19. Malignant Diseases of the Salivary Glands (Adriane Concus, MD and Theresa Tran, MD)