Salivary Glands - PDF Document

Presentation Transcript

  1. Salivary Glands 1.Introduction 1.1General Information and Aetiology The salivary glands are exocrine glands that produce saliva. Besides the hundreds of minor salivary glands located throughout the palate, nasal, laryngeal and the oral cavity, there are three pairs of major salivary glands. The largest of these three are the parotid glands, which are located in front and just beneath the ears. The second are the sublingual glands which can be found under the tongue in the floor of the mouth. The third pair of salivary glands are the submandibular glands which are situated beneath the lower jaw (Figure 1). In this chapter, we will only describe the malignancies of the major salivary glands. Figure 1. Anatomy of the Salivary Glands: the Parotid Gland (1), the Submandibular Gland (2) and the Sublingual Gland (3) Tumours of the salivary glands are rather uncommon representing in the United States 0.5% of all malignancies and less than 5% of all head and neck cancers [1]. They originate most frequently from the parotid gland. Aetiology of these cancers is not completely established but has been associated with viral infections, exposure to ionising radiation and 1

  2. occupational exposure to carcinogens. A relationship with smoking and estrogen/progesterone hormones has inconsistently been reported [2]. The malignancies of the salivary glands comprise of a morphologically diverse group of tumours , which have been divided by the World Health Organization into 24 different subtypes with different clinical courses and prognoses [2]. Sex-dependent differences in incidence of these subtypes are noted. Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma-NOS and salivary duct carcinoma occur more often in males than females, while the opposite is true for acinic cell and adenoid cystic carcinoma [3]. Most of these subtypes have their highest incidence in the sixth and seventh decades. Among all patients, pleiomorphic adenoma occur most frequently. 1.2Diagnosis and Treatment The first step in the diagnosis is the anamnesis, followed by a clinical examination. Depending on the findings, technical examinations such as MRI, CT and ultrasound are performed with a preference for MRI scanning. When a suspicious lesion is diagnosed, histological confirmation is obliged and a biopsy is necessary. Different types of biopsies may be done, depending on the localization and the size of the lesion. Histological confirmation can be a difficult assignment given the morphological heterogeneities in this group of cancers. False negative diagnoses due to sampling errors can occur [1]. The basic treatment for salivary gland tumours is complete surgical excision, with or without postoperative irradiation. The choice for irradiation is dependent on the clinical stage and the histological grade of the tumour. It is indicated for stage II to IV high grade tumours and for stage III and IV low grade tumours. Additionally, it is also always advised when surgery was micro- or macroscopically incomplete, when there is neural or perineural invasion, when there are lymph node metastases or for adenoid cystic carcinoma. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated to the adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy is the choice for inoperable tumours or for patients unfit for surgery. Palliative chemotherapy, eventually combined with palliative radiation therapy, is the only treatment option in metastatic setting. Neck dissection is recommended when positive lymph nodes are observed [4,5]. 2

  3. 2.Data Selection All salivary gland cancers diagnosed between 2004 and 2007 for patients with an official residence in the Flemish Region are selected, resulting in 266 cases (for detailed information on selected topography and morphology codes, see Appendix A). As described in Figure 2, 31 of them are excluded, resulting in 235 patients for which results are presented in this chapter. Salivary gland cancers, incidence 2004-2007 · Official residence in the Flemish Region · Certain date of diagnosis · Patients’ unique national number available n=266 Subsequent tumours n= 23 n=243 Date of diagnosis = date of death n= 0 n= 243 Patients younger than 15 years n= 4 n=239 No link with data of HIC n= 4 Total number in analyses n= 235 Figure 2. Selection of Cancers of Salivary Glands (Flemish Region, 2004-2007) 3.Patient Characteristics During the period 2004-2007, slightly more males (n=129) than females (n=106) are diagnosed with an epithelial tumour of the major salivary glands in the Flemish Region (male/female ratio: 1.29 ). No clear trend in age-standardised rates can be observed over these incidence years. The median age is 67 years for males and 61.5 years for females. Age at diagnosis ranges between 19 and 92 years. For further analyses, the patients are divided into three age groups: 15-59 years old, 60-74 years and 75+ years (Table 2). 3

  4. Table 1. Cancer of Salivary Glands: Incidence (Flemish Region, 2004-2007) Males Females Total Incidence year n ESR n ESR n ESR 2004 35 0.97 19 0.49 54 0.68 2005 31 0.85 37 0.98 68 0.89 2006 26 0.72 25 0.66 51 0.66 2007 37 1.00 25 0.59 62 0.77 Total 129 0.88 106 0.68 235 0.75 ESR: age-standardised rate, using the European Standard Population (n/100,000 person years) Table 2. Cancer of Salivary Glands: Age Distribution (Flemish Region, 2004-2007) Males Females Total 15-59 years 39 47 86 60-74 years 49 35 84 75+ years 41 24 65 4.Tumour Characteristics Sublocalisation, morphology, differentiation grade and stage (clinical, pathological and combined stage) of the selected salivary glands cancer are described in Table 3. The majority of the tumours with a known localisation are located in the parotid glands. The second most frequent localisation are the submandibular glands, tumours of the sublingual glands are rare. The differentiation grade is unknown in almost half of the tumours (45.9%). Amongst tumours with a known differentiation grade, all possible grades occur although undifferentiated tumours are rare (only 7.0% of the tumours with a known grade). Table 3. Cancer of Salivary Glands: Tumour Characteristics (Flemish Region, 2004-2007) N % of total % of known Localisation Malignant neoplasm of parotid gland (C07.9) 84.9 164 69.8 Submandibular gland (C08.0) 12.4 24 10.2 4

  5. Sublingual gland (C08.1) 2.6 5 2.1 Major salivary gland, unspecified (C08.9) / 42 17.9 Morphology Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (high and low grade) 23 9.8 9.9 Low grade salivary gland 48 20.4 20.7 - Acinic cell carcinoma 26 11.1 11.2 - Other specified carcinoma - Low grade 22 9.4 9.5 High grade salivary gland 161 68.5 69.4 - Adenoid cystic carcinoma 34 14.5 14.7 - Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma 17 7.2 7.3 - Other specified carcinoma – High grade 110 46.8 47.4 Other 3 1.3 / Differentiation grade Well differentiated 40 17.0 31.5 29 12.3 Moderately differentiated 22.8 Poorly differentiated 49 20.9 38.6 Undifferentiated 9 3.8 7.0 Unknown 108 45.9 / Clinical stage I 25 10.6 23.8 II 21 8.9 20.0 III 18 7.7 17.1 IV 41 17.5 39.0 Unknown 130 55.3 / Pathological stage I 20 8.5 18.5 II 23 9.8 21.3 III 21 8.9 19.4 IV 44 18.7 40.7 Unknown / 127 54.0 5

  6. Combined stage I 21.7 31 13.2 II 18.2 26 11.1 III 17.5 25 10.6 IV 42.7 61 26.0 Unknown / 92 39.1 Males are more frequently diagnosed with stage III-IV tumours than females (stage III – IV in males: 71.4% of known stages, in females: 47.0%; Figure 3). Older patients (60-74 years and 75+ years) present more often with advanced stage disease than younger patients. 100 90 Percentage of Patients (%) 80 70 60 X 50 IV 40 III 30 20 II 10 I 0 I-IV X I-IV X Males Females Sex Figure 3. Cancer of Salivary Glands: Stage Distribution by Sex (Flemish Region, 2004-2007) 6

  7. 100 90 Percentage of Patients (%) 80 70 60 X 50 IV 40 III 30 20 II 10 I 0 I-IV X I-IV X I-IV X 15-59 years 60-74 years Age Group 75+ years Figure 4. Cancer of Salivary Glands: Stage Distribution by Age Group (Flemish Region, 2004-2007) 5.Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures 5.1Diagnosis and Staging An overview of the diagnostic and staging procedures for the patients with cancer of salivary glands diagnosed in the Flemish Region between 2004 and 2007 is given in Table 4. Almost all cancers are confirmed by pathological examination within three months around incidence date (97.9%). This pathological confirmation is most often based on histology (97.0%), only a small part of patients have undergone a cytology examination (30.6%). Two patients are found to be only charged for cytology examination, without histological examination. The number of patients who are examined by imaging is high (96.6%). The most frequently used imaging technique is CT scanning (87.7% of all patients) followed by X-ray of the chest (68.9%). MRI is performed in 39.1% of the patients, a PET-scan in about one forth (27.2%). 7

  8. Table 4. Cancer of Salivary Glands: Overview of Diagnostic and Staging Procedures (Flemish Region, 2004-2007) Diagnostic Procedure (-3m<inc<+3m) Total (N=235) 2004 (N=54) 2005 (N=68) 2006 (N=51) 2007 (N=62) n 230 228 72 227 206 92 89 64 67 162 % 97.9 97.0 30.6 96.6 87.7 39.1 37.9 27.2 28.5 68.9 n % 94.4 94.4 37.0 94.4 83.3 33.3 38.9 24.1 31.5 77.8 n % 97.1 95.6 27.9 98.5 86.8 41.2 39.7 22.1 30.9 64.7 n % 100.0 98.0 31.4 96.1 86.3 41.2 37.3 31.4 35.3 68.6 n % 100.0 100.0 27.4 96.8 93.5 40.3 35.5 32.3 17.7 66.1 51 51 20 51 45 18 21 13 17 42 66 65 19 67 59 28 27 15 21 44 51 50 16 49 44 21 19 16 18 35 62 62 17 60 58 25 22 20 11 41 Tissue Examination Histological Diagnosis Cytology Imaging CT MRI Ultrasound Neck PET Scan Ultrasound Abdomen Chest X-ray Other Procedures Biopsy Lymph Nodes 24 10.2 4 7.4 5 7.4 11 21.6 4 6.5 8

  9. 5.2 Multidisciplinary Oncological Consult More than half of the patients are discussed at a multidisciplinary oncological consult (MOC) within 1 month before till three months after incidence date (Table 5). The proportion of discussed patients greatly differs between the incidence years under consideration: from 44.4% (2004) to 80.4% (2006). Table 5. Cancer of Salivary Glands: Frequency of Multidisciplinary Oncological Consult (Flemish Region, 2004-2007) MOC Incidence year n % 2004 (n=54) 24 44.4 2005 (n=68) 34 50.0 2006 (n=51) 41 80.4 2007 (n=62) 41 66.1 Total (n=235) 140 59.6 5.3Therapeutic Procedures According to the nomenclature codes, three groups of surgery are taken into account in the analyses. The first group are codes used for surgeries of the salivary glands itself. The second group are surgeries that are invoiced with nomenclature codes for surgeries of the head or mouth region. When both types of surgery have taken place within the timeframe one month before until six months after diagnosis, the surgery closest to incidence is selected. If none of them has taken place, surgeries that are invoiced as lymphadenectomies are taken into account as a third group of surgeries. This is done because intermediate results showed that a considerable number of patients is charged for a lymphadenectomy without any other registered type of surgery and because lymphadenectomies without surgery of the tumour itself are regarded as rather unlikely. Table 6 gives an overview of the selected surgeries. The majority of patients who has undergone surgery within the time period, was charged for a salivary gland surgery. Surgeries of the head and mouth are taken into account in 13.2% of the surgically treated patients while patients treated with a lymphadenectomy comprise 16.2% of the surgically treated patients. 9

  10. Table 6. Cancer of Salivary Glands: Overview of the Selected Surgeries (Flemish Region, 2004-2007) Type of Surgery n % Salivary Gland Surgery 144 70.6 Head and Mouth Surgery 27 13.2 Lymphadenectomy 33 16.2 Treatment schemes for all patients are displayed in Table 7. More than 85% of the patients is primarily treated with surgery (204 patients). For 76 of these patients, surgery is the only treatment. A larger group (126 patients) receive adjuvant radiotherapy, mostly alone and only exceptionally in combination with chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy without radiation is given in a minority of cases. A small part of the patients receive radiotherapy as the primary treatment (9.0%), sometimes combined with chemotherapy (2.6%) but most often alone (6.4%). No registered primary treatment is found within the time frame for 9 patients (3.8%). Table 7. Cancer of Salivary Glands: Overview of Treatment Schemes (Flemish Region, 2004-2007) Treatment Scheme n % Surgery 204 86.8 Adjuvant radiotherapy 115 48.9 Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy 11 4.7 Adjuvant chemotherapy 2 0.9 No other therapy 76 32.3 Radiotherapy only 15 6.4 Chemoradiotherapy 6 2.6 Chemotherapy only 1 0.4 No primary treatment registered 9 3.8 6.Survival 6.1Observed and Relative Survival Survival decreases from diagnosis to reach a 5-year observed survival of 55.7% and a 5-year relative survival of 64.1% (Table 8). 10

  11. Table 8. Cancer of Salivary Glands: Observed and Relative Survival (Flemish Region, 2004-2007) Observed Survival (%) 2 year 3 year 72.3 Relative Survival (%) 2 year 3 year 76.7 N at risk 1 year 82.6 4 year 59.1 5 year 55.7 1 year 85.3 4 year 66.2 5 year 64.1 235 66.4 72.2 6.2Relative Survival by Sex Survival is clearly better for females than for males (Table 9). This sex difference arises shortly after diagnosis and enlarges continuously thereafter. Table 9. Cancer of Salivary Glands: Relative Survival by Sex (Flemish Region, 2004-2007) Males Females Relative Survival (%) 2 year 3 year 72.2 81.9 N at risk % 54.9 45.1 1 year 82.5 88.5 4 year 59.3 74.0 5 year 57.2 72.0 129 106 67.4 78.0 6.3Relative Survival by Age Group Survival is best in the youngest age group (15-59 year), with a 5-year relative survival of 70.7%. In the older age groups the survival is less good, with a 5-year relative survival of 64.8% and 53.7% for the age groups 60-74 years and 75+ years, respectively. Table 10. Cancer of Salivary Glands: Relative Survival by Age Group (Flemish Region, 2004-2007) 15-59 years 60-74 years 75+ years Relative Survival (%) 2 year 3 year 85.4 79.9 59.2 N at risk % 36.6 35.7 27.7 1 year 92.1 92.0 65.9 4 year 74.1 68.7 50.2 5 year 70.7 64.8 53.7 86 84 65 80.9 75.0 55.2 6.4Relative Survival by Stage Due to the low number of stage I (n=31), stage II (n=26)and stage III (n=25) cancers, they are grouped together in the analysis of survival by stage and indicated with stage I-III. Survival is highly dependent on the stage of the tumour. There is a pronounced difference between stage IV and the non-stage IV lesions, with a difference of relative survival at 5 years of almost 50% (Figure 5). 11

  12. It should be noted that, in line with other head and neck cancers, some locally or regionally advanced diseases are also categorised as stage IV (stage IVA or IVB, more precisely). Salivary gland tumours with distant metastases are defined as Stage IVC. Most stage IV tumours in this study are stage IVA (n=46), only 4 tumours are staged as IVB and 11 as IVC. 100 90 80 Relative Survival (%) 70 60 Stage I-III 50 40 Stage IV 30 Stage X 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Survival Time (years) Figure 5. Cancer of Salivary Glands: Relative Survival by Stage (Flemish Region, 2004-2007) 6.5Relative Survival by Morphology Groups (Low versus High Grade) There is a significant difference between low and high grade salivary gland cancers. The 5-year relative survival for low grade cancers is about 85%, in high grade cancers this is about 55% (Figure 6). 12

  13. 100 90 80 Relative Survival (%) 70 60 Low grade salivary gland 50 40 High grade salivary gland 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Survival Time (years) Figure 6. Cancer of Salivary Glands: Relative Survival by Morphology Groups (Flemish Region, 2004-2007) 6.6Relative Survival by Treatment Looking at the patients who are primarily treated by surgery (excluding stage IV disease), the addition of adjuvant radiation seems to be associated with worse prognosis. This confirms the clinical practice of preserving adjuvant radiation for cases with more aggressive cancers. 100 90 80 Relative Survival (%) 70 60 Surgery with adjuvant RT 50 40 Surgery without adjuvant RT 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Survival Time (years) Figure 7. Cancer of Salivary Glands : Relative Survival by Treatment – Excluding Stage IV 13

  14. 7.Analyses by Volume During the period 2004-2007, Belgian patients with salivary glands cancer are managed in 46 different Flemish hospitals. The mean number of patients (during the period 2004-2007) by hospital is 5.1 and the median number of patients is 3, with a range between 1 and 33. The distribution of the number of patients (=volume) per hospital is displayed in Figure 8. 35 Number of Patients diagnosed with Salivary Gland Cancer 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Hospital Figure 8. Cancer of Salivary Glands: Distribution of Patients by Hospital (Flemish Hospitals, 2004-2007) 228 Flemish patients (97.0%) can be assigned to a hospital (see Methodology for the rules applied to assign a patient to one hospital). Because of the low number of patients diagnosed with a tumour of the salivary glands who are treated in a large number of different hospitals, the maximum number of patients per hospital is very small. Therefore, no further analyses on the volume of the hospital are performed. 14

  15. 8.References 1.Ries LAG, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Hartman AM, Edwards BK. Cancer Statistics Review (1991), National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, 1973-1988. 2.Eveson JW, Auclair P, Gnepp DR, El-Naggar AK. Tumours of the salivary gland. In: Barnes L, Eveson JW, Reichart P, Sidransky D (eds). World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology & Genetics. Head and Neck Tumours (2005). Lyon, IARC Press. 3.Boukheris H, Curtis RE, Land CE, Dores GM. Incidence of carcinoma of the major salivary glands according to the WHO classification, 1992 to 2006: a population-based study in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18: 2899-2906. 4.NCCN guidelines (http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp). Accessed on October 01 2013. 5.Ettl T, Schwarz-Furlan S, Gosau M, Reichert TE. Salivary gland carcinomas. Oral Maxillofacial Surgery 2012; 16: 267-283. 15