Chapter 18 JUVENILE PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS Peter A. Nigrovic, Robert P. Sundel, and Ross E. Petty An association between psoriasis and arthritis in the adult patient was described almost 200 years ago, but has been recognized in children only since the 1950s.1-4 Juvenile psoriatic arthritis (JPsA) encompasses a heterogeneous set of arthritic phenotypes characterized by certain hallmark clinical features as well as considerable overlap with other subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). It is recog- nized both in children with frank cutaneous psoriasis as well as those in whom a psoriatic diathesis is suspected on other grounds. does or does not have JPsA is therefore challenging, and diagnostic uncertainty is common. These challenges have been reflected in the evolution of diagnostic criteria for JPsA. Initially, JPsA was lim- ited to children with chronic arthritis who developed classic psoriasis.3,7,13-16,26 Recognizing that the psoriatic diathesis may be suggested by features beyond the clas- sic eruption, including dactylitis, nail pits, and a family history of psoriasis, Southwood and colleagues extended the diagnosis of JPsA to patients with such features even in the absence of the typical rash, yielding the “Vancou- ver criteria” for JPsA (see Table 18–1).6 These criteria have been validated.19,23,24 With the development of the ILAR nomenclature, the definition of JPsA was restricted to make it and other subtypes of JIA mutually exclusive. These definitions remain a work in progress.5,23,24,27-29 Both the Vancouver and ILAR criteria were designed for research, and in practice the diagnosis of JPsA is often used more flexibly. DefinitionanD ClassifiCation As classified by the criteria of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR), JPsA is arthri- tis that has its onset before the 16th birthday, lasts for at least 6 weeks, and is associated either with psoriasis or with two of the following: dactylitis, nail pitting or onycholysis, or psoriasis in a first-degree relative.5 This definition resembles that of the “Vancouver criteria” (Table 18–1).6 However, under ILAR criteria the diag- nosis of JPsA cannot be made if the patient has a positive test for rheumatoid factor, a first-degree family history of an human leukocyte antigen B-27 (HLA-B27)–associated disease, or if the arthritis began in a boy over the age of 6 years who is HLA-B27 positive. The diagnosis of JPsA is complicated by the presen- tation of psoriasis in children. Psoriasis in the young child may be subtle, atypical, and transient; initial mis- diagnosis as eczema is common.7-9 Psoriasis occurs in about 0.5% to 1% of children, with a prevalence rising to 2% to 3% in adulthood.10-12 Since skin disease lags behind arthritis in about half of children with JPsA, sometimes by a decade or more (Table 18–2), the diag- nosis may often rest on the presence of dactylitis or fam- ily history.6-8,13-24 Not every patient with arthritis and psoriasis has psoriatic arthritis. Typical seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with coincidental psoriasis is well recognized.25 Finally, agents such as metho- trexate and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers are effective treatments for cutaneous psoriasis and could potentially forestall its appearance in a child treated for joint inflammation. Confirming that a particular child epiDemiology Incidence and Prevalence The incidence and prevalence of JPsA are unknown. Population data, enumerating largely patients with adult-onset psoriatic arthritis (PsA), suggest a preva- lence of 0.10% to 0.25% in the United States.30,31 It occurs in all ethnic groups.32 The proportion of JIA patients with JPsA varies widely depending on the pop- ulation studied and the diagnostic criteria employed. Series that recognize patients on the basis of frank pso- riasis, or using ILAR criteria, find that JPsA represents approximately 7% (range: 0% to 11.3%) of patients with JIA.6,8,18,21,24,33-40 Series employing the more inclusive Vancouver criteria identify JPsA in 8% to 20% of patients with JIA.6,21,24,41 Age at onset and Sex Ratio The age at onset of JPsA is biphasic (Figure 18–1).6,21 A first peak occurs during the preschool years, and a second is seen during middle to late childhood. JPsA 287
288 SECTION 2 — CHRONIC ARTHRITIS pathology is uncommon before the age of 1 year. It is some- what more frequent in girls than in boys (see Table 18–2), with girls accounting for 60% of cases in larger series.21,42 Synovial Pathology Data concerning the pathology of psoriatic synovium are available largely from adult-onset disease, with rare exception.43 Gross examination, as performed by arthroscopy, reveals a synovial lining that is less villous than in adult RA but with distinctive tortuous, bushy superficial blood vessels.44,45 This microvascular pattern resembles that of the psoriatic plaque and is observed also etiology, pathology, anD pathogenesis The cause of JPsA and the reasons for the link between psoriasis and arthritis are unknown. Table 18–1 Vancouver and ILAR criteria for Juvenile Psoriatic Arthritis Vancouver ILAR (Edmonton revision) Inclusion Arthritis plus psoriasis or arthritis plus at least two of Dactylitis Nail pits Psoriasis in a first- or second- degree relative Psoriasis-like rash None Arthritis plus psoriasis, or arthritis plus at least two of Dactylitis Nail pits or onycholysis Psoriasis in a first-degree relative Exclusion 1. Arthritis in an HLA-B27–positive male beginning after the sixth birthday 2. AS, ERA, sacroiliitis with IBD, reactive arthritis, or acute anterior uveitis, or a history of one of these disorders in a first-degree relative 3. The presence of IgM RF on at least 2 occasions at least 3 months apart 4. The presence of systemic JIA 5. Arthritis fulfilling two JIA categories For both criteria sets, arthritis must be of unknown etiology, begin before the sixteenth birthday, and persist for at least 6 weeks. Under the Vancouver criteria, “definite JPsA” is arthritis plus psoriasis or arthritis plus three minor criteria, while “probable JPsA” is arthritis plus two minor criteria. AS, ankylosing spondylitis; ERA, enthesitis-related arthritis; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; RF, rheumatoid factor. Table 18–2 Clinical series of patients with Juvenile Psoriatic Arthritis Arthritis Before Rash (%) Follow- up (yr, mean) FHx of Psoriasis (%) Dac- tylitis (%) Nail Changes (%) F (%) Definition of JPsA Psoriasis (%) Uveitis (%) Year First author N 1976 1977 1980 1982 1985 1989 1990 1990 1991 1996 2006 2009 Lambert Calabro Sills Shore Wesolowska Southwood Truckenbrodt Hamilton Koo Roberton Stoll Flato 43 12 24 60† 21 35 48 28 11 63 139 31 74 58 71 58 38 69 44 57 55 70 59 77 Lambert Arthritis+Psoriasis Lambert* Lambert 11 100 100 71* 100 53 33 58 43 56 48 50 21 36 56 29 50 40 71 92 83 77 86 9.3 0 8.3 8.3 14.3 17.1 10.4 0 18 14.3 7.9 19.4 58 10.8 4.2 4.4 5 8.8 42 23 Vancouver Arthritis+Psoriasis Arthritis+Psoriasis Arthritis+Psoriasis Vancouver Vancouver ILAR 60 100 100 65 88 42 73 18 85 53† 75 49 17 39 67 71 45 7 2 >15 35 37 42 47‡ 30.4 25 39 Blank = not specified F = Female *Nail disease counted as cutaneous psoriasis †Includes 32 from Lambert 1976. ‡M. Stoll, P.A. Nigrovic, unpublished data. Lambert criteria: inflammatory arthritis beginning before 16 years of age, psoriasis preceding or within 15 years of onset, usually negative for rheumatoid factor. FHx, family history.
289 18 — JUVENILE PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS in synovial tissue from the spondyloarthropathies.44,46 There are histological changes throughout the psoriatic synovium (Figure 18–2). The lining becomes hypertro- phic with expansion of both type A (macrophage-like) and type B (fibroblast-like) synoviocytes.47 The infiltrate in the loose connective tissue beneath the synovial lining is composed principally of lymphocytes and monocyte/ macrophage lineage cells, with occasional neutrophils, plasma cells, and mast cells.48-51 Lymphoid follicles may be observed. Compared with RA, lining hypertrophy and sublining infiltrates are typically less extensive. Infiltrat- ing neutrophils are more prevalent in PsA, but they are not invariably present.48,49,51 In general, given the vari- ability between patients and within different parts of the same synovium, pathological findings generally are inad- equate to define the diagnosis in an individual patient. Characterization of the psoriatic synovial infiltrate by immunohistochemistry shows that the majority of infil- trating lymphocytes are T cells that express the memory CD45RO phenotype, with CD4 helper cells predomi- nating over CD8 cytotoxic cells.48,49,52-54 These cells are present at frequencies similar to that in RA, as are CD20+ B cells, plasma cells, and CD68+ macrophages. T cell oligoclonality suggests local antigen-driven expan- sion.55 CD83+ dendritic cells are less common than in RA. By contrast, increased numbers of macrophages express- ing CD163 are identified in PsA and the adult spondyloar- thropathies,49,56 although not as clearly in juvenile-onset disease.43 CD163 is a scavenger receptor, typically expressed on mature resident tissue macrophages that may help to limit rather than promote inflammation. However, the activity of these cells in the psoriatic synovium is unknown.56,57 Complement-fixing immune complexes are not typi- cally found in the psoriatic synovium, and synovial fluid complement levels are usually normal.58-60 Similarly, citrullinated peptides are observed commonly in the rheu- matoid synovium but rarely in PsA.49 Entheseal Pathology Entheseal sites are not readily accessible to biopsy, but small series in adult patients provide a degree of histo- logical insight.61-63 A low-grade inflammatory infiltrate is observed, often in association with underlying erosion of bone. This infiltrate is not limi ted to the surface of the bone and is often more extensive in the bone marrow underlying the enthesis. Such osteitis can be visualized as bone marrow edema by magnetic resonance imagining (MRI).63-65 Cells observed at the interface include mac- rophages, lymphocytes (particularly CD8+ T cells), and occasional neutrophils. Bone healing is commonly evident, with woven bone filling in the defect left by erosions. This new bone often extends beyond the previous bony surface to interface with the ligament.61 These observations have given rise to the hypothesis that the new bone formation characteristic of the spondyloarthropathies results from recurrent cycles of injury and healing, perhaps enabled by fluctuations in the degree of inflammation.61,66 Whether such a mechanism underlies the hypertrophic periostitis observed in some patients with JPsA (Figure 18–3C) is unknown. 20 ILAR Vancouver 15 Number of patients 10 5 Pathogenesis 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Environmental Contribution Both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis exhibit only limi- ted concordance in monozygotic twins, suggesting that environmental contributions play a pivotal role in the Age at onset (in years) FIGURE 18–1 Age at onset of patients with juvenile psoriatic arthritis. (Data from Stoll M. Lio P, Sundel RP, Nigrovic PA: Comparison of Vancouver and International League of Associations for rheumatology classification criteria for juvenile psoriatic arthritis, Arthritis Rheum 59:51-58, 2008.) FIGURE 18–2 Synovial pathology in juvenile psoriatic arthritis. A, normal synovium with gracile synovial lining layer supported by a loose connective tissue sublining containing small blood vessels. B, synovium from 35-year old patient with juvenile-onset psoriatic arthritis, demonstrating lining hyper- plasia, mononuclear infiltration of the subsynovium, and striking vascular hyperplasia. (Panel B courtesy of D.L. Baeten, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.) B A
290 SECTION 2 — CHRONIC ARTHRITIS A B FIGURE 18–3 Dactylitis in juvenile psoriatic arthritis. A, dactylitis of the third finger (with incidental abra- sion). B, dactylitis of the second and fifth toes. C, radiograph of the hands from the patient in A, demonstrating periosteal reaction in the affected digit (arrow). C development of disease.67-69 The Koebner phenomenon, in which physical trauma precipitates skin disease, is evi- dent in at least one-third of patients with psoriasis.70,71 There have been reports of psoriatic arthritis being pre- cipitated by physical trauma.72 Because the entheses are points of mechanical stress, an exaggerated reaction to injury (“deep Koebner phenomenon”) could contribute to clinical enthesitis in JPsA, with potential spread to adja- cent structures. Streptococcal infection is a known pre- cipitant for guttate psoriasis, raising the possibility that infection with streptococci or other agents could trigger joint inflammation.73,74 Indeed, elevated antistreptococcal antibody titers have been observed in patients with psori- atic arthritis compared with other arthritides.75 In support of such a role for bacteria, many rodent arthritis models fail to develop joint disease if deprived of normal bacterial flora. Among these is the rat transgenic for human HLA- B27, which develops features reminiscent of PsA including synovitis, spondylitis, and nail dystrophy.76,77 Varicella infection has been reported to precipitate JPsA,15 but a survey of childhood arthritis found no correlation between the onset of JPsA and coincident infections with Myco- plasma, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, influ- enza A or B, parainfluenza, rubella, or herpes simplex.41
291 18 — JUVENILE PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS Exacerbation of psoriatic arthritis by emotional stress has also been observed in adults67 and may potentially be modeled by the male DBA/1 mouse, which develops arthritis, dactylitis, and nail dystrophy with aging, but only if caged with other mice not originally from the same litter.78 Cytokines and Other Mediators Data on cytokine expression in psoriatic synovium and synovial fluid exhibit considerable variability. The range of mediators expressed is broadly similar to that in other inflammatory arthritides and includes the classical pro- inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as IL-1α, the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8, the IL-2–like cytokine IL-15, IFN-γ, and others.51-53,57,99-102 Pro-angio- genic factors such as VEGF are also elevated,53,103,104 as are matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors.53,57,105 No pattern of mediators has yet emerged as being specific for PsA, although compared with RA there are typically higher levels of pro-angiogenic factors and lower levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Genetic Contribution There is convincing clinical evidence for a genetic contri- bution to psoriasis and PsA. More than 50% of patients with childhood-onset psoriasis, with or without JPsA, have a family history of psoriasis (see Table 18–2).9,70,79 The risk for both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis appears to be transmitted more effectively via the paternal line (genetic imprinting).80,81 A fifty-fold increased risk for PsA was observed in family members of the adults with PsA, suggesting that a propensity for arthritis is inher- ited over and above the propensity for psoriasis.67 Similar results were noted in other studies.82,83 Association studies have begun to shed light on the genes that explain these strong familial associations.68,84 In adults, psoriasis with onset age ≤ 40 years (Type I pso- riasis) is more strongly familial than older-onset (Type II) disease.85,86 Type I psoriasis is strongly associated with the MHC class I allele HLA-Cw6. This allele is also asso- ciated with adult PsA, and possibly with older-onset JPsA in children, but the link appears secondary to risk for pso- riasis.86,87 The results of studies of HLA associations in JPsA have been inconsistent, likely because of differences in definitions employed and variability within JPsA across the pediatric age spectrum.6,7,17,19,87,88 Beyond the MHC, JPsA has been linked with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near genes involved in the autoinflammatory diseases (MEFV, NLRP3, NOD2, and PSTPIP1).89 These associations have not emerged in adult genomewide association scans and have yet to be replicated. In adult studies, psoriasis and psoriatic arthri- tis have been associated with SNPs in a range of genes, including HCP5 (involved with control of viral replica- tion) and genes related to the cytokines TNF, IL-13, and IL-23.90-92 The functional consequences of these SNPs remain to be determined, but the cytokine findings are of particular interest. TNF blockade is markedly beneficial in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. IL-23 is involved in the differentiation of pro-inflammatory Th17 cells, which are increased in frequency in the circulation of patients with PsA and are present in psoriatic plaques.93-95 Genetic studies have linked both psoriasis and PsA to IL12B, encoding the common p40 subunit of both IL-12 and IL-23, as well as to the IL-23 receptor IL23R. IL-13 sup- presses the Th17 axis in favor of differentiation along a Th2 pathway, and the “risk” allele linked to psoriasis is associated with decreased cytokine production. Although no data from psoriatic synovium have been reported to date, murine models suggest that Th17 cells may contrib- ute importantly to arthritis.96 The implication of these findings is that the Th17 axis may be important in both psoriasis and its associated arthritis. Indeed, the anti– IL-12/IL-23 agent ustekinumab is highly effective for cutaneous psoriasis, although its efficacy for PsA is more modest.97,98 Synthesis: Pathogenesis of Juvenile Psoriatic Arthritis Despite substantial advances in understanding, much remains to be learned about the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis. In the proper genetic context, an environmental trigger such as infection or trauma appears to unleash an inflammatory process involving infiltration of lympho- cytes as well as neutrophils and other effectors of innate immunity into entheses and synovium. The target of this immune response remains unknown. Lymphocytes likely play a key role, as suggested by clonal expansion of these cells within the synovium and the requirement for lym- phocytes in a murine model of psoriatic arthritis.55,106 Joint inflammation is accompanied by an exuberant vas- cular expansion reminiscent of cutaneous psoriasis, with a tendency to promote bone formation as well as injury to cartilage and bone. Whether these principles apply equally to patients with JPsA, including those with early- onset disease, is unknown. CliniCal manifestations Subgroups Within JPsA JPsA is clinically heterogeneous. Age of onset data sug- gest a biphasic distribution, particularly in JPsA defined under the Vancouver criteria (see Figure 18–1).6-8,21,23 This distribution is similar to that of JIA as a whole, with a peak around age 2 to 3 years and a second, less promi- nent peak in adolescence.22,38,107 Younger children, pre- senting before the age of 5 years, tend to be female, ANA positive, and affected by dactylitis, the sausage-like swell- ing of individual digits.15,21 This subgroup bears marked clinical and demographic similarity to early-onset oligo- articular JIA, although clinical differences include the ten- dency to develop dactylitis, to involve the wrists and small joints of the hands and feet, and to progress to polyar- ticular disease in the absence of effective therapy.20,24,108 The merit of distinguishing these younger patients from oligoarticular JIA is controversial (Box 18–1). By con- trast, older children exhibit a gender ratio closer to 1:1, with a tendency to enthesitis and axial disease, more closely resembling adult psoriatic arthritis.8,15,17,21
292 SECTION 2 — CHRONIC ARTHRITIS BOX 18–1 Psoriatic Arthritis, or Arthritis with Psoriasis? The recognition of psoriatic arthritis in adults as an entity in its own right emerged gradually out of a number of observations. Inflamma- tory joint disease is encountered at a rate far higher than expected (10% to 20%) among patients with psoriasis.31,148,149 This arthritis was often clinically distinctive. RF was usually absent or present in low titer, DIP and sacroiliac joints were commonly involved, and radio- graphs demonstrated new bone formation as well as erosions.1 Even where arthritis was clinically indistinguishable from RA, it appeared at a younger age and in males and females equally, often clustered within certain psoriatic families.25,67 Finally, PsA and RA synovial tissue could be differentiated, to some degree, on the basis of distinctive gross and microscopic features (see Pathology). Taken together, these data have provided strong support for the existence of psoriatic arthritis as a dis- tinctive syndrome rather than simply the coincident occurrence of two common diseases. By contrast, in children the case for JPsA remains controver- sial.108,124,150 In most respects patients with JPsA fit somewhere in the spectrum of JIA. The hallmark psoriatic rash may take years to emerge. Absence of rheumatoid factor does not separate JPsA from most other JIA subtypes. Histopathological data are limited, and interpretation of genetic studies is complicated by issues of definition.21,23,150,151 Finally, patients with JPsA respond to the therapies used in other JIA patients, and generally appear to do equally well. Nevertheless, there are reasons to suspect that the association between psoriasis and arthritis spans both adults and children.125 The prevalence of psoriasis in children is 0.5% to 1%; most present in adolescence.10,11,70 Thus, the identification of a psoriatic diathesis in 7% or more of patients with JIA (of whom 40% to 60% have the classic rash) is not likely to reflect a chance association. Further, the pattern of arthritis in these children is distinctive in aggregate, if not always in an individual patient. Among younger patients, this includes dactylitis and involvement of small joints in the setting of oligoarthri- tis; in older patients, it includes an even gender ratio and an appreci- able incidence of enthesitis and sacroiliitis.20,21 Disease outcome may also differ.24 Although older-onset JPsA patients rather clearly resemble their adult counterparts, questions remain about arthritis that begins before the age of 5 or 6 years.22,150 Like patients with early-onset oligoarticular JIA, these children tend to be female, are commonly ANA positive, and are prone to chronic asymptomatic uveitis.21 Some share expression of the MHC II antigen HLA-DRB1*0801 (DRw8), associated with early- onset oligoarticular and polyarticular arthritis.7,152,153 It seems very likely that shared pathophysiological mechanisms underlie these simi- larities,22 and it has been proposed that JPsA in this age group is simply a variant of early-onset oligoarticular or polyarticular JIA.150 However, at least under the Vancouver criteria, the proportion of these patients with a recognizable psoriatic diathesis greatly exceeds the 0.5 to 1.0% prevalence of psoriasis in this age group.11 Further, young patients with JPsA manifest changes such as nail pits and dactylitis that are highly specific for adult psoriatic arthritis, an association noted even before these features were incorporated into the diagnostic criteria.7,15,154 Therefore, even among younger children, the psoriatic diathesis seems to carry an elevated risk of an arthritis that is phenotypically distinct from other types of JIA. Clarification of the relationship between JPsA and other types of JIA awaits an improved understanding of the bio- logy of these diseases. Table 18–3 Joint involvement in Juvenile Psoriatic Arthritis Series Sills Shore Southwood Truckenbrodt Roberton Stoll Flato Year 1980 1982 1989 1990 1996 2006 2009 Oligoarticular onset Cervical spine TMJ Shoulder Elbow Wrist Small hand joints MCP PIP DIP Sacroiliac joint Hip Knee Ankle Small foot joints Any peripheral small joint 73 32 94 17 34 85 73 25 40 84 68 7 3 23 43 62 9 8 20 43 60 15 31 31 30 43 62 43 51 27 5 32 84 60 56 >62 13 25 33 42 61 33 88 53 40 42 63 29 33 67 11 23 89 63 46 69 17 21 67 50 25 >31 1 0 38 77 63 11 60 51 23 87 71 42 65 67 >88 >53 57 All numbers indicate percentage of patients Peripheral Arthritis Arthritis in JPsA begins as an oligoarthritis in approxi- mately 80% of children (Table 18–3). Initial presenta- tion as monoarthritis is relatively common, and in some patients the disease begins with dactylitis in the absence of other joint involvement.15 The knee is affected most The presence of these clinical subgroups helps to explain the longstanding observation that girls with JPsA present at an earlier age than do boys7,8,15,19 and corroborates data that HLA associations within JPsA depend on the age at onset of disease, as is also true in other subtypes of juvenile arthritis.87,107
293 18 — JUVENILE PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS Enthesitis Enthesitis denotes inflammation localized to the insertion of a tendon, ligament, fascia, or joint capsule into bone. Clinically, enthesitis is diagnosed in children with specific tenderness and occasionally swelling at characteristic sites, in the absence of an alternative, explanation (e.g. trauma). Using this standard, enthesitis is prevalent in patients within the older onset subgroup of JPsA, where it was observed in 57%, compared to 22% in younger patients.21 This finding is in line with adult PsA, where enthesitis is considered a hallmark feature of the disease and can be documented radiographically in at least one site in almost all patients114-116 (see Box 18–2). Typical sites of symptomatic enthesitis include the insertion of the Achilles tendon into the calcaneus and the insertions of the plantar fascia; other sites accessible to examina- tion include the poles of the patellae, the iliac crests, the medial femoral condyles, and lateral epicondyles of the elbow.115,117 Suspected enthesitis can be confirmed by ultrasound or by MRI.118 Using the ILAR criteria, most children with arthritis and enthesitis are classified as having enthesitis-related arthritis (See Chapter 17), although patients with enthesitis may still be diagnosed with JPsA if they fulfill appropriate criteria.5,23 FIGURE 18–4 Sacroiliitis and hip arthritis in juvenile psoriatic arthritis. This radiograph depicts the pelvis and hip joints of a 23-year-old man with psoriasis who developed psoriatic arthritis at age 15. Note sclerosis at the left sacroiliac joint (arrowheads) and loss of joint space with reactive sclerosis at the hips, left greater than right (arrows). Dactylitis Dactylitis refers to swelling within a digit that extends beyond the borders of the joints. Such swelling is typically uniform, giving the appearance of a “sausage digit,” but can also be fusiform with accentuation around the PIP joint (Fig. 18–3A and B). Radiographically, tenosyno vitis is often the dominant finding, with or without accompa- nying synovitis in the nearby joints; edema beyond the tendon sheath is common, suggesting the importance of enthesitis in the full phenotype (Box 18–2).119-122 Sub- periosteal new bone growth can also contribute to the thickness of the digit (Figure 18–3C). In children with JPsA, dactylitis is observed in 20% to 40% of patients (see Table 18–2). Commonly, only one or a few digits are affected, most commonly the second toe and index fin- ger.19 Dactylitis may be symptomatic or asymptomatic, and in one series it was the only musculoskeletal finding at presentation in 12% of children with JPsA.15 Onset after trauma has been reported, and may explain the predilec- tion for particular digits.123 The specificity of dactylitis for psoriatic arthritis is incompletely defined. It has been reported in up to 18% of children with non-psoriatic JIA, although some of these children might actually have had JPsA.6,124,125 Digital swelling also occurs in children with sickle cell disease, tuberculous osteomyelitis, and sarcoid arthropathy, but these are rarely confused with JPsA. frequently, followed by the ankle; hip arthritis occurs in 20% to 30% (see Table 18–3). Even in children in whom arthritis remains oligoarticular, wrists, ankles, and small joints of the hands are more frequently affected than in other subtypes of oligoarthritis.20,24 Without effective therapy, progression from oligoarticular to polyarticu- lar involvement occurs in 60% to 80% of patients.6,15,19 Polyarticular onset is observed in 20% of cases, although the number of joints involved is often lower than in other forms of childhood-onset polyarthritis, especially sero- positive disease. As a result, joints affected by JPsA are often asymmetrically distributed.6,109 Distal interphalan- geal (DIP) involvement was identified in 30% to 50% of patients in early JPsA series16-18 but is less common (10% to 30%) in patients diagnosed according to more inclusive criteria.6,19,21 Fortunately, the highly destructive form of adult PsA known as arthritis mutilans is rare in children. Axial Arthritis Unlike most forms of JIA, JPsA is accompanied by an appreciable incidence of sacroiliitis, affecting from 10% to 30% of patients in some studies (see Table 18–3). Sacroiliitis affects principally patients with older age at onset.21 These patients exhibit other features reminiscent of the adult spondyloarthropathies, including a balanced gender ratio, a tendency to manifest enthesitis, and an elevated frequency of the HLA-B27 antigen.21,87 Patients in this older subgroup resemble adults with psoriatic arthritis, in whom definite radiographic sacroiliitis is detected in 30% to 70%.110-112 Inflammatory disease of the lumbar spine occurs in less than 5% of children with JPsA.6,19,21 Axial disease in JPsA is generally milder than in ankylosing spondylitis, with a tendency for asymmetric SI joint involvement and a failure to progress to spinal ankylosis (Figure 18–4).113 Extraarticular Manifestations SKIN AND NAIL DISEASE Overt psoriasis occurs in 40% to 60% of patients with JPsA.6,24 In the large majority of patients, psoriasis presents as the classic vulgaris form, although guttate psoriasis is also observed.7,8,14,15,17 Pustular and erythrodermic vari- ants are rare.8 This pattern approximates the presentation of psoriasis in childhood in general.9 Psoriasis in children
294 SECTION 2 — CHRONIC ARTHRITIS BOX 18–2 Enthesitis: A Unifying Characteristic of Juvenile Psoriatic Arthritis? Entheses are subject to substantial mechanical stresses. To dissipate these forces, a number of adaptations have emerged. For example, tendons often become infiltrated with fibrocartilage as they approach the site of insertion into bone, increasing in stiffness in order to limit the concentration of shear stress at the bone/tendon interface. Since the insertion of the joint capsule into bone is itself an enthesis, and tendons and ligaments frequently insert near joints, the synovial lining is usually in intimate contact with entheses.156 MRI studies of adults with psoriatic synovitis have identified edema at periarticular entheses.64 McGonagle and colleagues have proposed that psoriatic arthritis begins at the enthesis and subsequently extends into the joint.116 Since entheses are frequent sites of microtrauma, this process may be initiated by mechanical injury.156 Entheses in the lower extremity are more prone to inflammation, presumably related to mechanical loading, and this may explain the predilection of PsA for joints of the lower extremity (knee, ankle).115 Enthesitis also unifies hallmark features of the psoriatic hand. The finger contains a large number of entheses at sites where intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the hand insert, as well as all along the shaft of the finger the where the fibrous tendon sheath is anchored to prevent “bowstringing” with flexion.155 Ultrasound and MRI have identified inflammation at these entheses in some, but not all, stud- ies.119-122 Such enthesitis may explain why the “sausage digit” is rarely observed in RA despite the occurrence of hand tenosynovitis at least as frequently in RA as in PsA.157 The DIP joint may be parti- cularly susceptible to inflammation originating at entheses, because the joint capsule is largely replaced by ligaments and tendons, resid- ing therefore in unusually close proximity to the synovium.155 These structures become inflamed in PsA of the DIP.158 Interestingly, the extensor tendon enthesis extends distally along the DIP to interact with the nail bed. By MRI, thickening of the nailbed is present in almost all adults with PsA; more severe thickening is associated with visible changes in the nails, and these patients are prone to DIP syn- ovitis.128,159 Indeed, flares at the DIP often coincide with worsen- ing psoriatic nail disease, while psoriasis and arthritis elsewhere are largely uncorrelated.25 These results suggest that the primary lesion affecting the distal finger is enthesitis, with “spillover” into DIP syno- vitis when severe. The connection between finger entheses and the nailbed also explains the otherwise puzzling observation that nail changes are much more common in patients with psoriatic arthritis than in those with isolated skin disease (~50% to 80% versus ~10% to 30% in both adults and children)1,160,161 (see Table 18–2). Taken together, these insights suggest that enthesitis is a distinguishing fea- ture of JPsA not just among older patients, but also among younger children in whom dactylitis and nail changes are common presenting features.21 C A B FIGURE 18–5 Cutaneous manifestations in juvenile psoriatic arthritis. A, psoriasis vulgaris on the scalp of a child with polyarticular JPsA. B, scaling behind the retracted ear of a 2–year-old girl with knee monoarthritis and a first-degree family history of psoriasis. This rash is suggestive of psoriasis but not diagnostic. C, nail dystrophy in JPsA. Findings include multiple nail pits, discoloration, and early onycholysis. This example shows florid changes, but more commonly nail findings are subtle and easily missed. tends to be subtle, with thin, soft plaques that may come and go.9,70 Lesions may be isolated to the hairline, umbi- licus, behind the ears, or in the intergluteal crease, and thereby escape ready notice (Figures 18–5A and B). Mis- identification as eczema is common, and some lesions are in fact ambiguous even to expert examination.9 There are insufficient data to determine whether psoriasis associ- ated with JPsA differs in age of onset or clinical course from the rest of childhood-onset psoriasis. One substantial difference between children with JPsA and those with non-arthritic psoriasis is the prevalence of nail changes. Psoriatic changes in the nail surface include pits, onycholysis, horizontal ridging, and discoloration (Figure 18–5C). Nail changes accompany childhood psoriasis in up to 30% of cases.126,127 By contrast, the prevalence of nail changes in JPsA is approximately 50% to 80%.8,14,15,21 Nail changes are almost uniformly pres- ent in patients with DIP involvement in both adults and children, although nail pits are commonly found in the absence of overt DIP arthritis.128 In adults, the presence of nail pits correlates with a more severe arthritis course, but this association is not obvious in children.129 UVEITIS Chronic uveitis, indistinguishable from that in oligoar- ticular and polyarticular JIA, occurs in 10% to 15% of children with JPsA (see Table 18–2).38,130 As in other JIA subsets, young patients with ANA are at highest risk, and standard uveitis screening guidelines apply (see Chapter 20). Acute anterior uveitis can occur in older children, although chronic uveitis is also observed in this subgroup.8,18,21,23,131 Acute uveitis is associated with the presence of HLA-B27.132 In one study, the rate of com- plications of uveitis was higher in JPsA than in other sub- types of juvenile arthritis.133 Other Systemic Manifestations Children with significant polyarticular JPsA may have the constitutional features of chronic inflammatory disease, including anorexia, anemia, and poor growth.
295 18 — JUVENILE PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS Histological enteritis and occasionally symptomatic colitis are reported.134 Fever may rarely occur in very severe cases but should not be ascribed to JPsA without a careful search for alternate causes.7,25Amyloidosis is a rare complication of longstanding active disease.7,16 The SAPHO syndrome (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) and CRMO (chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis) have been associated with psoriasis and may be related to JPsA.135 Other rare complications include lymphedema, aortic incompetence, and mitral valve prolapse.136-138 laboratory examination Laboratory tests are of limited diagnostic value in JPsA. Inflammatory markers, including ESR and CRP, may exhibit mild to moderate elevation, but are frequently normal.15,21 Elevation of the platelet count has been noted in younger patients.21 ANA is found in low or moderate titer in 60% of younger patients and 30% of older patients and is helpful primarily to define uveitis risk for the purpose of ophthalmologic screening.21 Anti- bodies against extractable nuclear antigens are usually absent. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is typically absent, and indeed its presence excludes a diagnosis of JPsA under ILAR criteria (see Table 18–1). The presence of psoriasis may be considered incidental in patients with symmetri- cal polyarthritis who are positive for RF or anticyclical citrullinated peptide antibodies.25 FIGURE 18–6 Radiographic changes in juvenile psoriatic arthritis include soft tissue swelling (dactylitis) of the 4th digit, arthritic and secondary degen- erative changes of the 4th DIP joint, joint space loss at 4th and 5th PIP joints, multiple erosions of MCP, PIP and DIP joints (solid arrowheads) in the absence of periarticular osteopenia, and fluffy periostitis (open arrowheads). raDiologiCal examination Plain radiographic features of JPsA generally follow a sequence of changes similar to those in other forms of childhood arthritis. In early arthritis, soft tissue swelling around the joint (with or without joint effusion) is the only abnormality. Periarticular osteoporosis may occur within a few months after the onset of joint swelling, and periosteal new bone formation is common in digits affected by dactylitis (see Figure 18–3C). Joint-space nar- rowing, indicating significant cartilage loss, and erosive disease of bone are usually late features of JPsA (Figure 18–6). Bone remodeling may eventually occur, secondary to persistent periostitis and altered epiphyseal growth, though proliferative new bone formation is less often evident in children than in adults.65 Sacroiliitis is com- monly asymmetric (Figure 18–4).113 MRI findings in JPsA include synovitis, tendinitis, and bone marrow edema at both articular and nonarticular sites, though the speci- ficity of individual findings for JPsA has not been deter- mined.65 Both ultrasound and MRI can be used to assess entheseal involvement. In experienced hands ultrasound may be superior.118 PsA, and from experience in the treatment of JPsA and other types of JIA.142 Roles for newer agents, including those that block IL-1, IL-6, and IL-12/23, remain to be defined. Peripheral Arthritis Psoriatic synovitis is potentially destructive of cartilage and bone, and like other types of synovitis may compro- mise bone growth in the immature skeleton. The goal of therapy is therefore remission, with normali zation of physical findings and laboratory markers of inflam- mation. Efficacy has been demonstrated for nonsteroi- dal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), sulfasalazine, methotrexate, leflunomide, cyclosporine, and the anti- TNF agents.143 The basic treatment algorithm is similar to that employed in other subtypes of JIA. NSAIDs are often employed initially but typically do not induce remis- sion. Individual large joints can be treated effectively with glucocorticoid injection. In patients with involvement of multiple joints, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) such as sulfasalazine or methotrexate are indicated. An inadequate response is addressed by addi- tion of a second DMARD or, increasingly, the addition/ substitution of anti-TNF therapy with any of the avail- able agents. TNF blockade is particularly useful when there is axial disease, since no other treatment is effective for inflammation of the spine and sacroiliac joints (see Chapter 17). Anti-TNF agents are also the only medica- tions with demonstrated activity against dactylitis and treatment No randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been con- ducted in JPsA. Recommendations are therefore extrapo- lated from trials of therapy in children with polyarticular course JIA,139-141 from RCTs and clinical practice in adult
296 SECTION 2 — CHRONIC ARTHRITIS enthesitis. Abatacept has not been tested specifically in PsA or JPsA but has been shown to be effective and well tolerated in polyarticular-course JIA.140 Several specific considerations apply in the choice of agents for psoriatic disease. Based on anecdote and expe- rience, PsA has been thought to be less responsive to sys- temic or intraarticular corticosteroids than other types of arthritis. This observation has not been examined rigor- ously, and both modes of administration are in common use. Substantial doses of systemic corticosteroids can provoke a flare of cutaneous psoriasis when tapered and should be avoided when possible. Similarly, antimalarials can worsen cutaneous psoriasis, although the magnitude of this risk is uncertain.144,145 In any case, evidence for the efficacy of these agents is limited. Methotrexate has been associated with a higher risk of hepatotoxicity in adults with PsA than in RA.143 It is not clear that this experience is relevant in JPsA, where methotrexate is typically well tolerated. 6. T.R. Southwood, R.E. Petty, P.N. Malleson, et al., Psoriatic arthritis in children, Arthritis Rheum. 32 (1989) 1007–1013. 7. J.R. Lambert, B.M. Ansell, E. Stephenson, et al., Psoriatic arthritis in childhood, Clin. Rheum. Dis. 2 (1976) 339–352. 15. A. Shore, B.M. Ansell, Juvenile psoriatic arthritis—an analysis of 60 cases, J. Pediatr. 100 (1982) 529–535. 17. M.L. Hamilton, D.D. Gladman, A. Shore, et al., Juvenile pso- riatic arthritis and HLA antigens, Ann. Rheum. Dis. 49 (1990) 694–697. 19. D.M. Roberton, D.A. Cabral, P.N. Malleson, et al., Juvenile pso- riatic arthritis: followup and evaluation of diagnostic criteria, J. Rheumatol. 23 (1996) 166–170. 20. C. Huemer, P.N. Malleson, D.A. Cabral, et al., Patterns of joint involvement at onset differentiate oligoarticular juvenile psori- atic arthritis from pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, J. Rheumatol. 29 (2002) 1531–1535. 21. M.L. Stoll, D. Zurakowski, L.E. Nigrovic, et al., Patients with juvenile psoriatic arthritis comprise two distinct populations, Arthritis Rheum. 54 (2006) 3564–3572. 23. M.L. Stolh, P. Lio, R.P. Sundel, et al., Comparison of Vancouver and International League of Associations for Rheumatology clas- sification criteria for juvenile psoriatic arthritis, Arthritis Rheum. 59 (2008) 51–58. 24. B. Flato, G. Lien, A. Smerdel-Ramoya, et al., Juvenile psoriatic arthritis: longterm outcome and differentiation from other sub- types of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, J. Rheumatol. 36 (2009) 642–650. 25. V. Wright, Rheumatism and psoriasis: a re-evaluation, Amer. J. Med. 27 (1959) 454–462. 38. R.K. Saurenmann, A.V. Levin, B.M. Feldman, et al., Preva- lence, risk factors, and outcome of uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a long-term followup study, Arthritis Rheum. 56 (2007) 647–657. 43. E. Kruithof, V. Van den Bossche, L. De Rycke, et al., Distinct synovial immunopathologic characteristics of juvenile-onset spon- dylarthritis and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Arthri- tis Rheum. 54 (2006) 2594–2604. 44. R.J. Reece, J.D. Canete, W.J. Parsons, et al., Distinct vascular patterns of early synovitis in psoriatic, reactive, and rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Rheum. 42 (1999) 1481–1484. 45. J.D. Canete, J.R. Rodriguez, G. Salvador, et al., Diagnostic use- fulness of synovial vascular morphology in chronic arthritis: a systematic survey of 100 cases, Sem. Arthritis Rheum. 32 (2003) 378–387. 48. D. Veale, G. Yanni, S. Rogers, et al., Reduced synovial mem- brane macrophage numbers, ELAM-1 expression, and lining layer hyperplasia in psoriatic arthritis as compared with rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Rheum. 36 (1993) 893–900. 49. E. Kruithof, D. Baeten, L. De Rycke, et al., Synovial histopathol- ogy of psoriatic arthritis, both oligo- and polyarticular, resembles spondyloarthropathy more than it does rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Res. Therapy 7 (2005) R569–580. 53. A.W. van Kuijk, P. Reinders-Blankert, T.J. Smeets, et al., Detailed analysis of the cell infiltrate and the expression of mediators of synovial inflammation and joint destruction in the synovium of patients with psoriatic arthritis: implications for treatment, Ann. Rheum. Dis. 65 (2006) 1551–1557. 55. P.J. Costello, R.J. Winchester, S.A. Curran, et al., Psoriatic arthri- tis joint fluids are characterized by CD8 and CD4 T cell clonal expansions that appear antigen driven, J. Immunol. 166 (4) (2001) 2878–2886. 56. D. Baeten, P. Demetter, C.A. Cuvelier, et al., Macrophages expressing the scavenger receptor CD163: a link between immune alterations of the gut and synovial inflammation in spondyloar- thropathy, J. Pathol. 196 (2002) 343–350. 57. B. Vandooren, T. Noordenbos, C. Ambarus, et al., Absence of a classically activated macrophage cytokine signature in peripheral spondylarthritis, including psoriatic arthritis, Arthritis Rheum. 60 (2009) 966–975. 58. T.J. Pekin Jr., N.J. Zvaifler, Hemolytic complement in synovial fluid, J. Clin. Invest. 43 (1964) 1372–1382. 59. O. Fyrand, O.J. Mellbye, J.B. Natvig, Immunofluorescence stud- ies for immunoglobulins and complement C3 in synovial joint membranes in psoriatic arthritis, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 29 (1977) 422–427. Spondylitis Treatment of psoriatic spondylitis is based primarily on experience with ankylosing spondylitis.144 Although axial disease is relatively common in older children and adults with JPsA, it tends to run a milder course. Treatment should be considered in patients who experience axial symptoms or show substantial or progressive limitation of spinal mobility. Continuous treatment with NSAIDs results in measurable radiographic improvement, but the effect is small.146 Standard DMARDs, including sulfasala- zine, methotrexate and leflunomide, are of minimal ben- efit. Anti-TNF therapy is highly effective for axial disease as assessed both by symptoms and by MRI evidence of inflammation.144 However, studies in adults have so far failed to show a corresponding reduction in radiographic progression.66,147 CourseanD prognosis The long-term outcome of children with JPsA is incom- pletely defined. 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