**Meeting 5 Student’s Booklet**Meeting 5 Student’s Booklet It feels like magics October 26, 2016 @ UCI October 26, 2016 @ UCI Contents Contents Contents Contents Contents Contents 1 Sausage parties 1 Sausage parties 2 Digital sums 2 Digital sums 3 Back to buns and sausages 3 Back to buns and sausages 4 Feels like magic 4 Feels like magic 5 The mathemagician 5 The mathemagician 6 Mathematics on a wheel 6 Mathematics on a wheel UC IRVINE MATH CEO UC IRVINE MATH CEO http://www.math.uci.edu/mathceo/ http://www.math.uci.edu/mathceo/THE MATHEMAGICIAN The mathemagician insisted on doing his next trick. He pointed to a child in the audience. “Pick a number”, the said. ● “Double it. ● Add 7. ● Multiply by 5, ● Subtract the number you started with. ● Remove any non-zero digit from the answer. ● Now tell me the remaining digits in any order.” The child said: “6 and 8”. “Then the digit you removed is a 3,” announced the mathemagician. He was correct. How did he know? From “Problem solving through recreational mathematics.”

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 1 Sausage parties Pancho’s store sells sausages in packages of 9. Buns, on the other hand, are individually wrapped so you can always buy just as many buns as you need. You invite 42 friends for a birthday party and buy a bun for each. Some of the friends may be vegetarian and you certainly do not want to have any sausages left over. You decide to buy the largest number of packages that allows you to have no leftover sausages. How many friends will be left with no sausage? 42 buns 42 buns Your answer: In order to have no sausage left over, you buy ______ packages of sausages. There will be exactly ____ friends with no sausage.

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Splitting buns in blocks of tens Splitting buns in blocks of tens Write 42= 40 +2 as the sum of (4) tens and (2) units. Take out a group of 9 from each pile of ten… This gives you 4 groups of 9 buns (matched with 4 packages of sausages). There are 6 buns left. There is no way to take out another group of 9 from the remaining 6 buns. We conclude that: ● We should buy 4 boxes of sausages. ● There will be 6 friends without sausage. 6 buns with no sausage 6 buns with no sausage 4x9 buns with sausage 4x9 buns with sausage

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 More sausage parties More sausage parties Remember the deal: Sausages come in packages of 9; buns are individually wrapped. When you plan a party, you need to make sure that ● Everybody gets a bun (so always buy as many buns as guests) ● You have no sausages left over (so buy as many packages of sausage as you can, but make sure the number of sausages never exceeds the number of guests). Your job is to find out how many friends will be without sausages at each of these parties. 53 people 53 people at the party at the party 53= 5(tens) + 3(units) Number of packages of sausages to buy: _________ Circle the groups of 9 … you have 1 group of 9 in every “ten”. Number of friends left without sausages: _________ Color the remaining buns. Make more groups of 9 if possible, 53 buns 53 buns

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 Number of packages of sausages to buy: _______ Number of friends left without sausages: _____ Number of packages of sausages to buy: _______ 26 people 26 people at the party at the party 26 buns 26 buns Number of friends left without sausages: _____ 26 = 2(tens) + 6(units) Circle the groups of 9 … you have 1 group of 9 in every “ten”. Color the remaining buns. Make more groups of 9 if possible, 75 people 75 people at the party at the party 75 buns 75 buns

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 Let’s try to generalize. If you invite ab friends. Here “a” is the tens digit and “b” is the units digit, so ab = a x 10 + b. How many packages of sausages do you buy if we want to have no left-overs? How many friends at the party will have no sausage? We need to count how many groups of 9 are there in the number ab. {{ Use blocks of tens to draw a picture of the number ab. Although a sample picture is provided, the answers to the questions below should be in terms of a and b. b = number of units ● ● ● How many groups of 9 in one ten? ____ How many tens in the number ab? ____ How many groups of 9 so far? _____ Circle all the groups of 9 you got so far (from all the tens) and color the remaining buns. ● How many buns have you colored? ________ (Express your answer in terms of a and b.) a = number of tens Make more groups of 9 if possible. True or false: If you invite ab friends at the party, or you invite a+b friends, the number of friends with no sausages will be the same.

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 Number of packages of sausages to buy: _______ 232 people 232 people at the party at the party Number of friends left without sausages: _____ 232 = 2(hundreds) + 3(tens) + 2(units) Circle the groups of 9. … you have 1 group of 9 in every “ten”. How many groups of 9 in a “hundred”?_____ Circle all the groups of 9 that come from either a ten or a hundred. How many groups of 9 have you circled? ____ (from 10s) + ____ (from 100s) = _____ Color the remaining buns. 232 buns 232 buns Can you form any other group of 9?

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 345 people 345 people at the party at the party 345 = 3 (hundreds) + 4(tens) + 5(units) 1 hundred = 11(groups of 9) + 1 → 3 hundreds = 33(groups of 9) + 3 ● 1 ten = 1(group of 9) + 1 → 4 tens = 4(groups of 9) + 4 ● ● 5 units = 0(group of 9) + 5 So 345 = (33+4)groups of 9 + (3+4+5) = 37 (groups of 9) + 12 = 37 (groups of 9) + (9+3) = 38 (groups of 9) + 3. ● 345 buns 345 buns

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 345 people 345 people at the party at the party 345 = 3 (hundreds) + 4(tens) + 5(units) 1 hundred = 11(groups of 9) + 1 → 3 hundreds = 33(groups of 9) + 3 ● 1 ten = 1(group of 9) + 1 → 4 tens = 4(groups of 9) + 4 ● ● 5 units = 0(group of 9) + 5 So 345 = (33+4)groups of 9 + (3+4+5) = 37 (groups of 9) + 12 = 37 (groups of 9) + (9+3) = 38 (groups of 9) + 3. ● 345 buns 345 buns

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 More sausage parties More sausage parties 256= 756 = 2(hundreds) + 5(tens) + 6(units) 7(hundreds) + 5(tens) + 6(units) ● ● 100 = 9 x ( ____ ) + _____ 200 = 9 x ( ____ ) + _____ ● ● 100 = 9 x ( ____ ) + _____ 700 = 9 x ( ____ ) + _____ ● ● 10 = 9 x ( ____ ) + _____ 50 = 9 x ( ____ ) + _____ ● ● 10 = 9 x ( ____ ) + _____ 50 = 9 x ( ____ ) + _____ ● 200 + 50 + 6 = 9 x ( __+ ___ ) + ____ ● 700 + 50 + 6 = 9 x ( __+ ___ ) + ____ = 9 x ( ____ ) + _____ = 9 x ( ____ ) + _____ Is 256 divisible by 9? Why or why not? Is 756 divisible by 9? Why or why not?

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 2 Digital roots To compute the digital root of a number, you keep adding its digits until you get a number between 1 and 9: N = 123456 ● 123456 → add the digits: 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 = 21 (too big, add the digits again!) ● 21 → add the digits: 2 + 1 = 3 The digital root of N = 123456 is equal to 3. At your table, you will find stickers with the following numbers: 37, 23, 45, 46, 52, 53, 39, 20, 47, 36, 26, 25, 50, 40, 19, 49, 41, 43, 18, 51, 44, 21, 42, 24, 38, 22,48. Your table will also be given a paper plate with rays labeled 1 through 9. . As a team, your job is to compute the digital sum of the numbers above, and place the corresponding stickers on the appropriate rays of the paper plate. GROUP ACTIVITY: once you have placed all the activities, look at the plate. What do the numbers on the same ray have in common?

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 Fill in the blanks with numbers between 1 and 90. Digital root = 9 Digital root = 1 ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ _____ ______ ______ ______ _____ ______ ______ ______ Digital root = 2 Look for patterns ______ ______ What do the numbers in each trapezoid have in common? ______ ______ ______ _____ ______ ______ ______

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 Digital sum and divisibility by 9 37 36 38 19 18 20 46 A positive integer N is divisible by 9 if and only if its digital root is 9. 45 47 44 39 21 26 53 48 49 52 22 25 50 40 51 43 23 24 If N is NOT divisible by 9, then its digital root equals its remainder after division by 9. 41 42 Pick 3 cards from a deck of cards. Put them together to get a 3-digit number. Is your number divisible by 9? If not, what is the remainder?

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 A positive integer N is divisible by 9 if and only if its digital root is 9. MAGIC RULE: Interesting puzzles! Find the missing digit Find the missing digit Find the missing digit if the number if the number if the number 6782_12 36_3452 41_23_1 has a remainder of 2 is divisible by 9 is divisible by 9 after division by 9 (there is more than 1 solution) Each student should make a puzzle for the volunteer at the table, but should have a solution first!

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 3 Back to buns and sausages... { a+b a+b=9 We discovered that “an integer is divisible by 9 if and only if the digital sum is 9” and “if an integer is NOT divisible by 9 then the digital sum is equal to the remainder”. b = number of units Why is this true? Let’s look at some pictures… { case 1: a+b=9 9 a = number of tens If a+b=9, then the number ab is a multiple of 9. 9 9 (After you take out groups of 9, there is nothing left….) 9

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 case 2: a+b < 9 a+b<9 → not enough to make a group of 9 { b = number of units { 9 a = If a+b<9, then the number ab is not a multiple of 9. number of tens 9 (After you take out groups of 9, there is a remainder equal to a+b.) 9 9

b = { UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 case 3: a+b > 9 REMAINDER=1 a+b If a+b>9, then the number ab is not a multiple of 9. number of units a+b>9 → you can take another group of 9 out of it (After you take out a group of 9 from each of the tens, you are left with a+b which contains one more group of 9 plus the remainder….) { 9 a = number of tens 9 9 9

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 Let’s check that these rule applies when N = 63 and when N = 85. N= 63 = 60 + 3 = 6*10 + 3 = = 6*(9 + 1) + 3 digital root A positive integer N is divisible by 9 if and only if its digital root is 9. = 6*9 + 6*1 + 3 = 6*9 + 9 Remainder: 0. So it’s divisible by 9. N= 85 = 80 + 5 = 8*10 + 5 = If N is NOT divisible by 9, then its digital root equals its remainder after division by 9. = 8*(9 + 1) + 5 = 8*9 + 8 + 5 = 8*9 + 13 = 8*9 + 10 + 3 = digital root = 8*9 + 1*(9+1) + 3 = 8*9 + 1*9 + 4 Remainder: 4. So it’s not divisible by 9. It also works for three digit numbers (and more): 231 = 200 + 30 + 1 = 2*100 + 3*10 + 1 = = 2*(99+1) + 3*(9+1) + 1 = 2*99 + 2 + 3*9 + 3+ 1 = (a multiple of 9) + (2+3+1) digital root

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 4 Feels like magic We want to find the digital root of (641 + 23). Check yourself! Find the digital root of (31 + 23). Let’s take the digital root of the two numbers: ● 641 → 6 + 4 + 1 = 11 → 1 + 1 = 2 ● 23 → 2 + 3 = 5 and add those up ● 2 + 5 = 7. 31 → ____ 23 → ____ and add those up ● ___ + ___ = ___. ● ● Is 7 = the digital root of the answer? ● 641 + 23 = 664 → 6 + 6 + 4 = 16 → 1+ 6 = 7 Also: ● 31 + 23 = ___ → ___ It feels like magic! Cool, eh? Brainstorm with your group. Why does this trick work? The digital root of a sum of 2 numbers = the (digital root of the) sum of the 2 digital roots

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 Does it work for the product as well? Say, we want to find the digital root of (41 * 11). Check yourself! Find the digital root of (12 * 23). Let’s take the digital root of the two numbers: ● 41 → 4 + 1 = 5 ● 11 → 1 + 1 = 2 and add those up ● 5 * 2 = 10 → 1 + 0 = 1. 12 → ____ 23 → ____ multiply those up ● ___ * ___ = ___. ● ● Is 5 = the digital root of the answer? ● 41 * 11 = 451 → 4 + 5 + 1 = 10 → 1+ 0 = 1 Also: ● 12 * 23 = 276 → ___ It feels like magic! Cool, eh? Brainstorm with your group. Why does this trick work? The digital root of a product of 2 numbers = the (digital root of the) product of the 2 digital roots

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 → We can use digital roots to check that our computations are (most likely) correct. → → → 9 -1 = 8 OK!! → → → 9+1 = 10 → 1+0 = 1 OK!! → → 9 *1 = 9 OK!! GROUP ACTIVITY: Write down a calculation using +, - or x and ask another friend at your table to check it.

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 We can also use digital roots to find the error in our computations: Some of the following computations are wrong. Use digital roots to spot the mistakes… { digital root = 5 expect product to have digital root 5 x 2 = 10→ 1+0=1 3641 x 128 _____ digital root = 2 12 x 8 = 96 ★ 345 + 789 = 1234 ★ 468048 THEY ARE DIFFERENT SO THERE MUST BE A MISTAKE! digital root = 3 (4+6+8+0+4+8=30 → 3+0 =3 324 + 227 = 540 ★ 324 - 226 = 98 Incorrect! We were expecting 1. ★ 325 x 226 = 73550 ★

5 THE MATHEMAGICIAN The mathemagician insisted on doing his next trick. He pointed to a child in the audience. “Pick a number”, the said. ● “Double it. ● Add 7. ● Multiply by 5, ● Subtract the number you started with. ● Remove any non-zero digit from the answer. ● Now tell me the remaining digits in any order.” The child said: “6 and 8”. “Then the digit you removed is a 3,” announced the mathemagician. He was correct. How did he know? From “Problem solving through recreational mathematics.”

THE MATHEMAGICIAN “Pick a number” ---> N ● “Double it. ---> 2N ● Add 7. ---> 2N + 7 ● Multiply by 5.---> 10N + 35 ● Subtract the number you started with. ---> (10N + 35) - N = 9N + 35 digital root: 3 + 5 = 8 ● Remove any non-zero digit from the answer. (the digital root does not change!) ● Now tell me the remaining digits in any order.” The child said: “6 and 8”. --->6 + 8 + missing digit = 8 (+ multiple of 9) --->6 + missing digit = a multiple of 9 -->missing digit = 3 :) In general, the two digits they give you, plus the missing digit, must be equal to 8 + a multiple of 9.

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 6 Mathematics on a wheel 1 10 2 9 11 19 18 Color the numbers on the wheel: ● green, if the digital sum=1 ● red, if the digital sum=2 ● blue, if the digital sum=3 ● pink, if the digital sum=4 ● yellow, if the digital sum=5 ● brown, if the digital sum=6 ● orange, if the digital sum=7 ● purple, if the digital sum=8 ● white, if the digital sum=9 20 27 28 36 29 37 8 45 38 17 46 3 26 54 47 21 12 35 30 44 48 39 53 49 52 40 31 51 43 50 22 34 What is Blue + 4? 42 41 13 25 4 16 32 33 Start from a blue value and move +4. Where do you get? The answer should be a color. 7 24 23 14 15 Talk with your group. Does the answer depend on what blue color did you choose at the beginning? 5 6

UCI Math CEO UCI Math CEO • Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) Meeting 5 (OCTOBER 26, 2016) 5 1 Compute the following operations. Remember, your answers should be colors. 10 2 9 11 19 18 ● Pink +5 = ________ 20 27 28 ● Red - 1 =_________ 36 29 37 8 ● Orange + 6 =______ 45 38 17 46 3 26 54 47 21 12 ● Yellow * 2 = _______ 35 30 44 48 39 53 ● Blue * 3 =_________ 49 40 31 52 51 43 50 Talk with your group. Why is the answer independent of what value you pick within the original color? 22 34 42 41 13 25 4 16 32 33 7 24 23 14 15 5 6

1 10 2 9 11 19 18 20 27 28 36 29 37 8 45 38 17 46 3 26 54 47 21 12 35 30 44 39 53 48 49 52 40 51 43 31 50 22 34 42 41 13 25 4 16 32 33 7 24 23 14 15 5 6