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  1. Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Version 1.1.2016 August 2016

  2. Table of Contents Introduction ......................................................................................................................................5 Diagnosis ...........................................................................................................................................6 Patient Assessment ................................................................................................................................ 7 Management of Patients with PsA ......................................................................................................8 Peripheral Arthritis ............................................................................................................................... 10 Spondylitis and Sacroiliitis (axial PsA) ................................................................................................... 11 Enthesitis .............................................................................................................................................. 12 Dactylitis ............................................................................................................................................... 13 Monitoring ...................................................................................................................................... 14 Glossary........................................................................................................................................... 15 References ....................................................................................................................................... 16 Document Updates .......................................................................................................................... 18 United Rheumatology Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) V1.1.2016 Page ii

  3. List of Tables Table 1. Pharmacologic treatment of peripheral PsA in DMARD-naïve patients ...................................... 10 Table 2. Pharmacologic treatment of patients with peripheral PsA and an inadequate response to DMARDs .............................................................................................. 11 Table 3. Pharmacologic treatment of spondylitis ..................................................................................... 12 Table 4. Pharmacologic treatment of enthesitis ....................................................................................... 13 Table 5. Pharmacologic treatment of dactylitis ........................................................................................ 14 List of Figures Figure 1. CASPAR criteria for the diagnosis of PsA ...................................................................................... 7 United Rheumatology Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) V1.1.2016 Page iii

  4. Abbreviations ANA AS BSA CASPAR CBC CMP CRP CV CVD DMARDs ESR GI HBV HCV HIV HLA-B27 IBD IL MDA MDG MDHAQ NSAIDs PASI PDE4i PGA PsA QoL RA RF T2T TNFi VAS Antinuclear antibodies Ankylosing spondylitis Body Surface Assessment ClASsification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis Complete blood count Comprehensive metabolic panel C-reactive protein Cardiovascular Cardiovascular disease Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs Erythrocyte sedimentation rate Gastrointestinal Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis C virus Human immunodeficiency virus Human leukocyte antigen-B27 Inflammatory bowel disease Interleukin Minimal disease activity Physician Global Assessment Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Psoriasis Area and Severity Index Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor Patient Global Assessment Psoriatic arthritis Quality of life Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid factor Treat to target Tumor necrosis factor inhibitor Visual analog scale United Rheumatology Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) V1.1.2016 Page iv

  5. Introduction In the United States, approximately 3% of the general population (or 5 million adults) have been diagnosed with psoriasis. Between 0.4% and 2.28% of the population is reported to have undiagnosed disease.1 Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the skin, often presenting with patches of silvery scales on the skin and epidermal hyperplasia. Patients complain of dryness, itching, redness, soreness, and even pain in the affected areas. The skin overlying the elbows, knees, scalp, lower back, face, palms, and soles of the feet are the most commonly affected areas. Skin disease is often marked by unpredictable remissions and flares. Epidermal hyperplasia is a response to the activation of the immune system mediated by CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes.2 Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an autoimmune inflammatory arthritis that affects up to 30% of the patients with skin psoriasis. It is most frequently diagnosed between the ages of 30 and 50 years and has a chronic progressive course. Found equally in men and women, PsA can be very disabling and negatively impact the quality of life (QoL) of those affected. In a 2005 report in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 39% of the patients with PsA indicated that the disease was a significant or large problem in their everyday lives and 38% that it was a problem; only 23% reported that it was a small problem or no problem in daily life.3 Psoriatic nail lesions are seen in 80% to 87% of patients with PsA.4, 5 Data on the economics of caring for patients with PsA is poor. It is often included in the cost of caring for patients with psoriasis that include those with and without PsA. In addition, much of the data were generated prior to the introduction of effective but costly biologics. Brezinski et al.6 published a systematic review of the overall costs of caring for patients with psoriasis and adjusted the base-year costs to 2013 dollars. They found that the direct costs were between $51.7 billion and $63.2 billion, with indirect costs ranging from $23.9 billion and $35.4 billion. Caring for comorbidities contributed another $36.4 billion. A paper published in 20107 looked at the costs of caring for patients with PsA and estimated them to be as high as $1.9 billion in 2000, before the widespread availability of effective biologic drugs. In addition, patients with PsA often had a decreased QoL, with limited ability to perform activities of daily living. They showed diminished productivity at work, had increased absenteeism, and were less likely to be employed than people without PsA. Patients with PsA with skin and/or nail psoriasis may also experience decreased self-esteem and self-consciousness, which can lead to depression. It is widely believed that both psoriasis and PsA are complex genetic autoimmune disorders; however, the heritability of either disease is not clearly understood.8 Psoriatic arthritis usually presents with joint pain and swelling, erythema, and warmth around the affected joint(s). Patients may also complain about joint stiffness. In addition, painful swelling and tenderness at the enthesis (bony insertion of ligaments, tendons, or joint capsules) is common. Enthesitis (inflammation of the enthesis) most commonly occurs at the insertion of the plantar fascia, Achilles tendon, and around the elbow but can also be seen at the ligamentous attachments of the knees, ribs, spine, pelvis, and many other areas of the body.

  6. Psoriatic arthritis can be oligoarticular (few joints) or polyarticular (many joints) and often involves the distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. If these joints are involved, nail psoriasis is almost always present.9 Dactylitis—a combination of enthesitis, tenosynovitis, and arthritis of all the joints of a single digit—is seen in up to 40% of patients with PsA. Clinically, there is diffuse swelling of a digit or digits. Psoriatic arthritis is often asymmetric in distribution helping to distinguish it from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is more commonly symmetric and less likely to involve the distal interphalangeal joints. The distinction between PsA and RA is based on clinical and laboratory data. In addition to the small joints of the hands and feet, large joints of the lower extremities, spine, sacroiliac joints, and pelvis may be affected by PsA. Approximately 40% of patients with PsA will have spinal involvement causing back pain and progressive ankylosis similar to ankylosing spondylitis (AS).8 Sometimes, it is difficult to differentiate PsA from other rheumatic diseases, other types of arthritis and mechanical tendonitis and fibromyalgia. Therefore, it is essential for patients to have a complete evaluation by a rheumatologist, and if there is significant skin involvement, a dermatologist. All PsA domains should be evaluated; including signs and symptoms of peripheral arthritis, psoriasis, enthesitis, dactylitis, spondylitis (spine and sacroiliac joints), and nail disease. In addition, it has now become clear that patients with PsA have systemic inflammation with multiple organ manifestations leading to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ocular inflammation, and others. When these are present co- management with physicians of other specialties is recommended. Diagnosis The CASPAR (ClASsification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis) criteria outlined below (Figure 1) should be used to establish the diagnosis of PsA. These criteria, published in 2006, are simple to use and have a sensitivity of 91.4% and specificity of 98.7%.10 United Rheumatology Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis V1.1.2016 Page 6

  7. Figure 1. CASPAR criteria for the diagnosis of PsA CASPAR, ClASsification criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis; PsA, psoriatic arthritis Adapted from Taylor WJ, et al. Arthritis Rheum 2006;54(8):2665-2673. Patient Assessment Initial evaluation of a patient who meets the CASPAR criteria for PsA should include the following:   Detailed medical history including a detailed vaccination history Laboratory tests oComplete blood count (CBC) oC-reactive protein (CRP) oErythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) oComprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)  Liver function  Renal function  Electrolytes  Glucose oScreening for hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) oRheumatoid factor (RF) United Rheumatology Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis V1.1.2016 Page 7

  8.  Screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in appropriate patients; baseline imaging is encouraged in areas of clinical involvement Patient Global Assessment (PGA) Patient pain VAS (visual analog scale) Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ; see Glossary). Physician Global Assessment (MDG) Number of tender joints Number of swollen joints If there is skin psoriasis, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI; see Glossary) or Body Surface Area (BSA) assessment        At this time, there is no confirmatory laboratory test to establish the diagnosis of PsA,11 but many patients test positive for human leukocyte antigen-B27 (HLA-B27), and negative for RF (by any method other than latex fixation) and antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Active disease is diagnosed in patients (who have met the CASPAR criteria above) with any of the following:12     > 1 tender and inflamed joint(s) > 1 tender enthesis point(s) > 1 dactylitic digit(s) Inflammatory back pain (IBP, see Glossary) Patients are considered to have a poor prognosis if they have at least 1 of the following:13      > 5 actively inflamed joints Elevated acute-phase reactants such as ESR or CRP Imaging evidence of disease progression Poor response to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy or prior use of steroids Loss of function or diminished QoL Management of Patients with PsA The management of patients with PSA should be based on a treat-to-target (T2T) paradigm, with therapy aimed at achieving remission or minimal disease activity (MDA). Early diagnosis and treatment help reach these goals. Regular close monitoring and re-evaluation of therapy are essential to maintaining stability of the disease, avoiding medication toxicity, and identifying comorbid conditions early. United Rheumatology Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis V1.1.2016 Page 8

  9. Remission is defined as no evidence of active disease (see ‘Patient Assessment’, above). To achieve MDA, the patient must meet 5 out of the following 7 conditions, with each condition equal to 1 point: 1.Tender joints ≤1 2.Swollen joints ≤1 3.Pain VAS ≤15 4.Patient Global Assessment ≤20 5.MDHAQ 6.PASI <1 or BSA ≤3 7.Enthesitis ≤1 When selecting pharmacologic therapy, comorbidities must be considered. These include but are not limited to:14              Uveitis IBD CVD Obesity, metabolic syndrome Diabetes Depression Chronic hepatitis Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis Chronic alcohol abuse Renal disease Malignancies, including skin cancer Osteoporosis Central sensitization syndrome (fibromyalgia) Interstitial lung disease Recurrent or increased susceptibility to infections   Due to dysregulated immune function and exposure to immunomodulating medications, patients with PsA have an increased risk of infection. Prior to starting therapy, it is important to obtain a detailed vaccination history. All patients with PsA treated with biologics should have a pneumococcal vaccination according to the CDC-recommended schedule, and an annual flu vaccination. Psoriatic arthritis patients with risk factors for HBV infection being treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs, see Glossary) or biologics should be vaccinated for HBV, if this has not been done previously. Herpes zoster vaccination (live virus) should not be given to patients who are currently being treated with biologics. However, if the patient has not yet started treatment with a biologic and is 50 years of age or older then a herpes zoster vaccination should be given. Biologics should not be administered for 2 to 4 weeks after the herpes zoster vaccination. The date and result of most recent tuberculosis (TB) evaluation should be documented and re-screening for TB in 1 year. A travel history to areas where certain fungal diseases are prevalent is also important. United Rheumatology Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis V1.1.2016 Page 9

  10. Peripheral Arthritis For DMARD-naïve patients with peripheral joint involvement, pharmacologic treatment should be started immediately upon confirmation of the diagnosis. Initial and ongoing symptom control may be attempted with NSAIDs at the lowest possible dose and for the shortest duration that is clinically appropriate, to avoid the well-known gastrointestinal (GI) and cardiovascular (CV) complications of these medications. Similarly, intra-articular injection of corticosteroids may be helpful initially or during the course of management if very few joints are involved. However, in all patients with active disease, DMARDs should be started. Methotrexate is the initial drug of choice for these patients if skin disease is present. For those with poor prognostic factors (see ‘Patient Assessment’, above) a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) should be prescribed as the initial drug or, if DMARDs fail to rapidly improve or stabilize the patient, rapid escalation to a TNFi is recommended (Table 1).13-15 Table 1. Pharmacologic treatment of peripheral PsA in DMARD-naïve patients Drug* Comments Oral corticosteroids may be used at a low dose and for the shortest time possible to avoid toxicity and a potential psoriasis flare NSAIDs Oral or intra-articular steroids Methotrexate is preferred, especially if there is skin disease DMARDs Methotrexate Leflunomide Sulfasalazine Caution should be used in patients with depression PDE4i Apremilast Direct use of TNFi in patients with poor prognostic factors should be considered TNFi Infliximab Etanercept Adalimumab Golimumab Certolizumab pegol *If available, generic medications are preferred. DMARDs, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PDE4i, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor; PsA, psoriatic arthritis; TNFi, tumor necrosing factor inhibitor Patients with peripheral PsA and either active disease or poor prognostic factors (see ‘Patient Assessment’, above) who have inadequately responded to DMARDs should receive a TNFi. If a patient has failed a TNFi, a different TNFi should be tried. In patients treated with infliximab, dose escalation can be considered prior to changing to another TNFi or changing to a biologic with a different mechanism of action. Another alternative for these patients are the interleukin inhibitors, ustekinumab and secukinumab. The phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor (PDE4i) apremilast may be an alternative in patients who have inadequately responded to DMARDs but should be used only in appropriate situations (Table 2).13-15 United Rheumatology Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis V1.1.2016 Page 10

  11. Table 2. Pharmacologic treatment of patients with peripheral PsA and an inadequate response to DMARDs Drug* Comments Use in patients who have either active disease or poor prognostic factors and have failed DMARDs TNFi Infliximab Etanercept Adalimumab Golimumab Certolizumab pegol Consider in patients without poor prognostic factors Methotrexate is preferred if skin disease is present DMARDs Methotrexate Leflunomide Sulfasalazine IL inhibitors Ustekinumab (IL-12, IL-23) Secukinumab (IL-17) Caution should be used in patients with depression Use in patients with mild to moderate PsA and mild skin disease who have an inadequate response or contraindication to methotrexate Consider use in patients with contraindications to biologic therapies PDE4i Apremilast *If available, generic medications are preferred. DMARD, disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; IL, interleukin; PDE4i, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor; PsA, psoriatic arthritis; TNFi, tumor necrosing factor inhibitor Spondylitis and Sacroiliitis (axial PsA) Axial disease rarely occurs alone; it is seen more frequently in combination with peripheral PsA. Inflammatory back pain or imaging findings of sacroiliitis establish the diagnosis of axial disease. Initial treatment for this domain should begin with NSAIDs and physical therapy. Sacroiliac joint injections can be considered in appropriate situations. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are not indicated for the treatment of patients with poor response to NSAIDs. For patients failing to respond to NSAIDs, biologics are indicated (Table 3).14, 16. In patients treated with infliximab, dose escalation can be considered prior to changing to another TNFi or changing to a biologic with a different mechanism of action. United Rheumatology Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis V1.1.2016 Page 11

  12. Table 3. Pharmacologic treatment of spondylitis Drug* Comments Should be combined with physical therapy NSAIDs Should be combined with physical therapy DMARDs should not be used TNFi Infliximab Etanercept Adalimumab Golimumab Certolizumab pegol IL Inhibitors Secukinumab Ustekinumab *If available, generic medications are preferred. DMARDs, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; IL, interleukin; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; TNFi, tumor necrosing factor inhibitor Enthesitis Inflammation at the attachments of ligaments, tendons, and joint capsules to the bone is quite common in PsA. In fact, enthesitis and/or dactylitis may be the initial presenting complaint or symptom, or the only complaint or symptom in some patients.17 According to expert consensus, NSAIDs should be started initially. These medications should be used at the lowest possible dose and for the shortest duration that is clinically appropriate, to avoid the well-known GI and CV complications of these medications. Physiotherapy should be tried initially as well. Local steroid injections should be used with extreme caution because data suggest potential structural damage and rupture of the enthesis.18 Disease- modifying antirheumatic drugs are not recommended for patients whose main domain is enthesitis.18 If there is an inadequate response to NSAIDs, the patient should be switched to a TNFi or to another biologic agent such as ustekinumab or secukinumab or to apremilast (Table 4).18 In patients treated with infliximab, dose escalation can be considered prior to changing to another TNFi or changing to a biologic with a different mechanism of action. United Rheumatology Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis V1.1.2016 Page 12

  13. Table 4. Pharmacologic treatment of enthesitis Drug* Comments Oral corticosteroids may be used at a low dose and for the shortest time possible to avoid toxicity and potential psoriasis flare NSAIDs Oral or intra-articular steroids DMARDs should not be used TNFi Infliximab Golimumab Certolizumab pegol Etanercept Adalimumab IL inhibitors Ustekinumab (IL-12, IL-23) Secukinumab (IL-17) PDE4i Apremilast *If available, generic medications are preferred. DMARDs, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; IL, interleukin; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PDE4i, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor; TNFi, tumor necrosing factor inhibitor Dactylitis Dactylitis or so-called ‘sausage digit’ describes inflammation of an entire digit with diffuse swelling, pain, and tenderness of the digit and is frequently associated with progressive disease. Unfortunately, there is only weak evidence supporting the use of any specific drug. Initial therapy should begin with a trial of NSAIDs for a duration that is clinically appropriate to avoid the well-known GI and CV complications of these medications. Local injections of steroids (joint, tendon sheath) may also be tried as an initial treatment. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs can be used if the patient fails to respond to NSAIDs and/or local steroid injections, although data supporting the use of DMARDs for this indication are poor. Patients with severe dactylitis, involvement of multiple digits, or functional deficits due to dactylitis, or patients who failed to respond to DMARDs should receive a trial of TNFi such infliximab, certolizumab pegol, golimumab, or adalimumab. In patients treated with infliximab, dose escalation can be considered prior to changing to another TNFi or changing to a biologic with a different mechanism of action. If the patient fails to respond to TNFi therapy, IL inhibitors such as ustekinumab or secukinumab may be prescribed. Studies of apremilast are weak; therefore, TNFi agents are preferred (Table 5).19 United Rheumatology Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis V1.1.2016 Page 13

  14. Table 5. Pharmacologic treatment of dactylitis Drug* Comments NSAIDs There are weak data to support the use of DMARDs for dactylitis TNFi agents are preferred DMARDs Methotrexate Leflunomide Sulfasalazine Data to support the use of etanercept are weak No recommendation for the use or avoidance of etanercept can be made in this domain TNFi Infliximab Certolizumab pegol Golimumab Adalimumab Can be used as first- or second-line treatment for refractory dactylitis. IL inhibitors Ustekinumab (IL-12, IL-23) Secukinumab (IL-17) There are weak data to support the use of apremilast for dactylitis TNFi agents are preferred PDE4i Apremilast *If available, generic medications are preferred. DMARDs, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; IL, interleukin; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PDE4i, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor; TNFi, tumor necrosing factor inhibitor Monitoring When caring for a patient with PsA, clinicians must have a treatment target, which is often remission. In clinical practice, fewer patients achieve and maintain a remission than MDA. Once patients have started therapy, they should be seen at 4- to 6-week intervals until the disease is stable. Once patients are stable on medication, they should be seen at least every 12 weeks. Minimal disease activity should be measured at every visit. Once patients have achieved MDA, they can be seen every 6 to 12 months, with disease measures obtained at each visit. Any patient experiencing a change in symptoms or functional ability should be seen as soon as possible. Monitoring of blood tests should be performed at regular intervals as clinically appropriate. United Rheumatology Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis V1.1.2016 Page 14

  15. Glossary Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) There are conventional and biologic DMARDs. For simplicity in this document, the term ‘DMARDs’ refers to the conventional DMARDs— methotrexate, leflunomide, and sulfasalazine. Biologic DMARDs are termed ‘biologics’. Chronic back pain for at least 3 months and 4 of the following 5 parameters:20 1.Age of onset <40 years 2.Insidious onset 3.Improvement with exercise 4.Lack of improvement with rest 5.Nocturnal pain that improves upon arising The MDHAQ is a practical patient self-report tool assessing that patients can complete in the waiting room. (https://integrationacademy.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/MDHAQ_0.pdf). Inflammatory back pain (IBP) Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ) Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) A form is available at The PASI measures the severity of psoriasis of the skin, based on the body surface area involved. The affected body surface area is the percent of skin on the head, trunk, arms, and legs with erythema, induration, and scaling of the skin, with 1% body surface area equivalent to the surface area of the patient’s palm (including the fingers). A free PASI online calculator can be found at http://pasi.corti.li/. United Rheumatology Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis V1.1.2016 Page 15

  16. References 1.Kurd SK, Gelfand JM. The prevalence of previously diagnosed psoriasis in US adults: results from NHANES 2003-2004. J Am 2009;60(2):218-224. criteria from a large international study. Arthritis Rheum 2006;54(8):2665-2673. and undiagnosed 11.Dhir V, Aggarwal A. Psoriatic arthritis: a critical review. Clin Rev 2013;44(2):141-148. Acad Dermatol Allergy Immunol 2.Krueger JG. The immunologic basis for the treatment of psoriasis with new biologic agents. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;46(1):1-23. 12.Gossec L, Smolen JS, Ramiro S, de Witt M, Cutolo M, et al. European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of psoriatic arthritis with pharmacological therapies: 2015 update. Ann Rheum Dis 2016;75(3):499-510. 3.Gelfand JM, Gladman DD, Mease PJ, Smith N, Margolis DJ, et al. Epidemiology of psoriatic arthritis in the population of the United States. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;53(4):573. 13.Ritchlin CT, Kavanaugh A, Gladman DD, Mease PJ, Helliwell P, recommendations for psoriatic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2009;68(9):1387-1394. 4.Lavaroni G, Kokelj F, Pauluzzi P, Trevisan G. The nails in psoriatic arthritis. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh) 1994;186:113. et al. Treatment 5.Williamson L, Dalbeth N, Dockerty JL, Gee BC, Weatherall R, Wordsworth BP. Extended report: nail disease in psoriatic arthritis— clinically important, potentially treatable and often overlooked. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004;43(6):790-794. 14.Gossec L, Smolen JS, Gaujoux-Viala C, Ash Z, Marzo-Ortega H, et al. European League Against Rheumatism recommendations for the management of psoriatic arthritis with pharmacological therapies. Ann Rheum Dis 2012;71(1):4-12. 6.Brezinski EA, Dhillon JS, Armstrong AW. Economic burden of psoriasis in the United States: a systematic review. JAMA Dermatol 2015;151(6):651-658. 15.Coates LC, Kavanaugh A, Ritchlin CT. Systematic review of treatments for psoriatic arthritis: 2014 update for the GRAPPA. J Rheumatol 2014;41(11):2273-2276. 7.Lee S, Mendelsohn A, Sarnes E. The burden of psoriatic arthritis: a literature review from a global health systems perspective. P T 2010;35(12):680-689. 16.Nash P, Lubrano E, Cauli A, Taylor WJ, Olivieri I, Gladman DD. Updated guidelines for the management of axial disease in psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2014;41(11):2286-2289. 8.Duffin KC, Chandran V, Gladman DD, Krueger GG, Elder JT, Rahman P. Genetics of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: update and future direction. J Rheumatol 2008;35(7):1449-1453. 17.Salvarani C, Cantini F, Olivieri I, Macchioni P, Niccoli L, et al. Isolated peripheral enthesitis and/or dactylitis: a subset of psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol 1997;24(6):1106-1110. 9.Gladman DD, Antoni C, Mease P, Clegg DO, Nash P. Psoriatic arthritis: epidemiology, clinical features, course, and outcome. Ann Rheum Dis 2005;64(Suppl 2):ii14-ii17. 18.Orbai AM, Weitz J, Siegel EL, Siebert S, Savage LJ, et al. Systematic review of treatment effectiveness and outcome measures for enthesitis in psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2014;41(11):2290-2294. 10.Taylor W, Gladman D, Helliwell P, Marchesoni A, Mease P, Mielants H. Classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis: development of new 19.Rose S, Toloza S, Bautista-Molano W, Helliwell PS. Comprehensive treatment of dactylitis in United Rheumatology Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis V1.1.2016 Page 16

  17. psoriatic 2014;41(11):2295-2300. arthritis. J Rheumatol chronic back pain: a real patient exercise by experts from the SpondyloArthritis international (ASAS). Ann Rheum Dis 2009;68(6):784-788. Assessment of Society 20.Sieper J, van der HD, Landewé R, Brandt J, Burgos-Vagas R, et al. New criteria for inflammatory back pain in patients with United Rheumatology Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis V1.1.2016 Page 17

  18. Document Updates Document Version Description of Changes Approval Date 1.1.2016 Creation of first version 30 Aug. 2016 United Rheumatology Clinical Practice Guideline Psoriatic Arthritis V1.1.2016 Page 18