Medicinal Fruits in Holy Quran - PDF Document

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  1. http:// ijp.mums.ac.ir Review Article Medicinal Fruits in Holy Quran Hamid Farhangi1, Maryam Ajilian2, *Masumeh Saeidi3, Gholam Hasan Khodaei4 1Assistant Professor of Pediatric Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. 2 Ibn-e-Sina Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. 3Students Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. 4Head of the Health Policy Council, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Abstract Fruits are one of the oldest forms of food known to man. There are many references to fruits in ancient literature. According to Quran, the fruits like grape, date, fig, olive and pomegranate are gifts and heavenly fruits of God. Fresh and dry fruits are the natural staple food of man. They contain substantial quantities of essential nutrients in a rational proportion. Persons subsisting on this natural diet will always enjoy good health. Moreover, fresh and dry fruits are thus not only a good food but also a good medicine. Holy Quran is one of the reference books describing the importance of plants used for different ailments in various verses. There are several verses in Quran talking about the fruits in Paradise, including; date, olive, pomegranate, grape, banana and fig. What has been mentioned in the Quran is what scientists have achieved over the time, since the Quran is governed by logic. Although we do not know the reasons for many things in the Quran, we consider it as the foundation. Key Words: Fruits, Paradise, Quran, Medicinal. * Corresponding Author: Masumeh Saeidi, Students Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Email: Masumeh_Saeedi@yahoo.com Received date: Jun 25, 2014 ; Accepted date: Jul 22, 2014 International Journal of Pediatrics (Supplement 4), Vol.2, N.3-2, Serial No.8, August 2014 89

  2. Fruits in Holy Quran Introduction The olive tree has a long history of medicinal and nutritional values. Over the centuries, extracts from olive leaf have been used for promoting health and preservation. For instance, ancient Egyptians used the leaves to mummify Pharaohs. Similarly, they have been valued as a famous folk remedy to treat fever and some tropical diseases such as malaria. Economically, the fruit of olive is an important commodity as it yields nutritious edible oil with potential medicinal functions. Olives are rarely used in their natural form due to severe bitterness; nevertheless, they are consumed in either one of the two forms, namely oil or table olives. Oleuropein is the bitterness-causing chemical component that must be eliminated from olives to make them palatable. Due to rising awareness about the beneficial effects of optimal nutrition and functional foods among todays’s cosmopolitan societies, the worldwide consumption of olives and olive products has increased significantly, especially in high-income countries such as the United States, Europe, Japan, Canada and Australia, resulting the rapid development of olive- based products. “Mediterranean diet”, in which olive oil is the main dietary fat, is considered to be one of the healthiest because of its strong association with the reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers. The health benefits of olive oil are mainly ascribed to the presence of high content of Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFAs) and functional bio actives copherols, carotenoids, phospholipids and phenolics, with multiple activities. Such components also contribute to the unique flavour and taste of olive oil. As with other crops, the composition of olive and olive oil components varies in relation to various factors, namely cultivar, ripeness and harvesting regime, agro Olive The Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a small tree, which belongs to the family Oleaceae and is native to tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. The tree, famous for its fruit, also called the olive, is commercially important in the Mediterranean region as a prime source of olive oil. The tree is typically distributed in the the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin, the adjoining coastal areas of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa as well as northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. Although olive is now cultivated in several parts of the world, the Medetarrianen region still serves as the major production area accounting for about 98% of the world’s olive cultivation. According to estimates, the cultivation of olive tree dates back more than 7000 years. Archaelogical evidence indicates that olives were grown commercially in Crete as far back as 3000 BC, by the Minoan civilization. Ancient Greek literature reveals uses of olive oil for body health. In the context of religious importance, olive tree and its fruit (olives) are narrated over several times in the Bible, both in the New and Old Testaments. as well as in the Quran . health conscious The traditional including to biological International Journal of Pediatrics (Supplement 4), Vol.2, N.3-2, Serial No.8, August 2014 90

  3. Farhangi et al. climatic conditions as well as the processing techniques employed (1,2). harmful oxygen-free radicals. In addition, the fruits contain good amounts of minerals like calcium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. Further, they are small sources of B- complex vitamins such as niacin, choline, and pantothenic acid. Oil expressed from these fruits is recognized as one of the healthiest edible oils since it contains less saturated fat, and composes linoleic (omega- 6) and linolenic acid (omega-3) essential fatty acids at the recommended 8:1 ratio. Recent studies have revealed that olives are not only tasty, but also are a healthy source of food. Their linoleic acid is especially useful for breast-feeding mothers. Any deficiency in this acid slows a child's development and contributes to some skin diseases. Health organizations, among them the World Health Organization (WHO), recommend that people living in societies with high arteriosclerosis and diabetes rates consume oil that contains at least 30% linoleic acid. And this raises the olive's worth. Vitamins E, A, D, and K in oil are essential for bone mineralization in children and adults. It strengthens bones by stabilizing calcium. Olive oil is vital for developing organisms. Such antioxidant elements and fatty acids as linoleic acid, which is of great importance to people, promote hormones and biological cell membrane synthesis. Since these vitamins renew cells, they also are used to treat problems associated with ageing and to feed and preserve the skin. Since it contributes to the natural development of the infant's brain and nervous system before and after birth, the only oil recommended to mothers by specialists is olive oil. Aside from having a level of linoleic acid very close to that of mother's milk, it functions as a natural source of nourishment as mother's milk when mixed with non-fat cow's milk. Still, olive oil's most significant health property is its effects upon cardiac and Traditionally, olives have been viewed as very healthy food. The fruit provides calories; contain significant amounts of plant-derived anti-oxidants, minerals, phyto- sterols, and vitamins. Olives are a moderate source of calories; 100 g of fruits provide just 115 calories. Their calorie content basically comes from fats. Nonetheless, the fruit composes healthy fat in the form of Mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) like oleic acid (18:1) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) that help lower Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) or "bad cholesterol" and increase High density lipoprotein (HDL) or "good cholesterol" in the blood. Research studies suggest that Mediterranean diet, which is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids help to prevent coronary artery disease and strokes by favoring healthy blood lipid profile. Olive fruit contains tyrosol phenolic compounds such as oleocanthal. These responsible for its bitter and pungent taste. Oleocanthal, oleurpein, and its derivative hydroxytyrosol are nature’s most powerful anti-oxidants. Together with vitamin E and carotenoids, they play a vital role fighting against cancer, inflammation, coronary artery disease, degenerative nerve diseases, diabetes…etc. Studies oleocanthal has ibuprofen Nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ant- inflammatory activities. Mediterranean diet that uses olive and its oil may be responsible in part for the lower incidences of coronary artery disease. Olive contains a good amount of vitamin E. 100 g cured, and canned fruits provide 1.65 mg (11% of RDA) of α- tocopherol. Vitamin E is a powerful lipid soluble antioxidant, required for maintaining the integrity of cell membrane of mucus membranes and skin by protecting it from oleuropein compounds and are development and suggest that International Journal of Pediatrics (Supplement 4), Vol.2, N.3-2, Serial No.8, August 2014 91

  4. Fruits in Holy Quran arterial diseases. Due to all of these features, olive oil has attracted the attention of specialists in recent years (3-6). protecting teeth against decay. The protein in dates contains 23 types of amino acids, some of which are not present in the most popular fruits such as oranges, apples and bananas. Dates contain at least six vitamins including a small amount of vitamin C, and vitamins B(1) thiamine, B(2) riboflavin, nicotinic acid (niacin) and vitamin A. The dietary fibre of 14 varieties of dates has been shown to be as high as 6.4-11.5% depending on variety and degree of ripeness. Dates contain 0.5-3.9% pectin, which may have important health benefits. The world production of dates has increased 2.9 times over 40 years, whereas the world population has doubled. The total world export of dates increased by 1.71% over 40 years. In many ways, dates may be considered as an almost ideal food, providing a wide range of essential nutrients and potential health benefits (7). Dates The fruits (dates) contain a high percentage of carbohydrate (total sugars, 44-88%), fat (0.2-0.5%), 15 salts and minerals, protein (2.3-5.6%), vitamins and a high percentage of dietary fibre (6.4-11.5%). The flesh of dates contains 0.2-0.5% oil, whereas the seed contains 7.7-9.7% oil. The fatty acids occur in both flesh and seed as a range of saturated and unsaturated acids, the seeds containing 14 types of fatty acids, but only eight of these fatty acids occur in very low concentration in the flesh. Unsaturated fatty acids include palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. The oleic acid content of the seeds varies from 41.1 to 58.8%, which suggests that the seeds of date could be used as a source of oleic acid. There are at least 15 minerals in dates. The percentage of each mineral in dried dates varies from 0.1 to 916 mg/100 g date depending on the type of mineral. In many varieties, potassium can be found at a concentration as high as 0.9% in the flesh while it is as high as 0.5% in some seeds. Other minerals and salts that are found in various proportions include boron, calcium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorous, sodium and zinc. Dates contain elemental fluorine that is useful in Health Benefits of Consuming Dates 1. contain very low fat. Dates are rich in vitamins and minerals. 2. They are rich source of protein, dietary fiber and rich in vitamin B1, B2, B3 and B5 along with vitamin A1 and C. 3. It helps improve the digestive system as it contains soluble and insoluble fibers and different kinds of amino acids. 4. Dates are great energy boosters as they contain natural sugars like glucose, sucrose and fructose. To get more advantage add dates to milk and make it a very nutritious snack. Dates are very low in calories and are extremely suitable for health conscious people. 5. Dates are rich in potassium and reduced in sodium. This helps regulate a healthy nervous system. Researches have revealed the fact that potassium intake up to a certain extent can reduce risk of stroke. Dates are free from cholesterol and potassium, International Journal of Pediatrics (Supplement 4), Vol.2, N.3-2, Serial No.8, August 2014 92

  5. Farhangi et al. Dates also help in lowering of the LDL cholesterol. 6. Dates have high iron content and are very useful in treating anemia. The patients can eat many dates for better advantages. Dates also have fluorine that slows down the process of tooth decay. 7. It helps people suffering from constipation. Soak dates overnight and take it along with water to have added advantage. 8. It helps increase one’s sexual stamina. Soak one handful of dates in goat’s milk overnight. In the morning grind the dates in the milk and add honey and cardamom powder and drink it. 9. Dates help in weight gain and are beneficial for those who suffer from over slimming problem. Dates are excellent for alcoholic intoxication. 10. Cures abdominal cancer. The best thing is that it does not have any side effect on the body and is completely natural as well as it works better than medicine. It also helps in improving eye sight and helps in curing night blindness as well (7). Banana ranked fourth among the world's food crops in monetary value. Americans consume more bananas than apples and oranges combined. Bananas, a very nutritive fruit, consists of water (75%), protein (1.3%), and fats (0.6%). Each banana also contains carbohydrates and a considerable amount of potassium. Besides helping to cure many diseases, bananas recommended for fever, digestive system disorders, cramps, and muscle slackness. The vast amount of potassium that it contains (0,24%) facilitates the excretion of waste products from the body. Bananas decrease blood pressure and are used to treat allergies. Their potassium functions together with sodium, promotes cell and muscle development, and regulates the body's water equilibrium and heartbeat. Any change in the sodium-potassium various disorders in the nervous and muscular systems. This is why a person must maintain his or her body's potassium equilibrium. Besides, since a potassium deficiency leads to edema and decreases the amount of sugar circulating in the blood, it is essential to maintain this balance. are especially balance causes Bananas, which are rich in vitamin B6, also play a significant role in triggering the chemical reactions of proteins and amino acids, and are instrumental in keeping the brain's functioning normal. They promote red cell production, keep the chemical balance among bodily fluids, help energy production, and provide endurance against stress. Their carbohydrates function as helper enzymes in the metabolic processing of fats and proteins. In addition, bananas cure anemic diseases (a deficiency in the number of red blood cells or in their hemoglobin content), are instrumental in developing cells and muscles, maintain the body's liquid balance, and cure heart diseases. On the other hand, a deficiency in Bananas are one of the most widely consumed fruits in the world for good reason. The curved yellow fruit packs a big nutritional punch, wrapped in its own convenient packaging. Some scientists believe that the banana may have even been the world's first fruit. Today, bananas are grown in at least 107 countries and are International Journal of Pediatrics (Supplement 4), Vol.2, N.3-2, Serial No.8, August 2014 93

  6. Fruits in Holy Quran one's vitamin B6 may result in fatigue, affect one's ability to concentrate, and result in irritability, insomnia, anemia, kidney calculi, skin diseases, and so on (8-10). when served slightly chilled. The juice of the pomegranate is a favorite in many Middle Eastern countries and can be bought from vendors selling the cool, tasty red juice. The juice is also used to make jellies, sauces, flavorants and syrups. Pomegranate juice is a powerful anti-oxidant. Anti- oxidants guard the body against free radicals, harmful molecules that are believed to contribute to heart disease, premature ageing and cancer. Pomegranate Medicinal Uses Pomegranates are used medicinally for diarrhea, earache, bad vision, fevers, teeth and gum disorders and indigestion according to Unani Tibb medicine. Apart from its nutritious value, the pomegranate also has medical benefits. It is commonly prescribed under the homeopathic as well as the Unani Tibb medical systems. Unani Tibb, with roots in Greek, Egyptian, Arabic and Indian medicine, is a healing system based on scientific data and holistic principles, while homeopathy is a system of medicine that is based on natural therapeutically some 200 years ago (11-17). Pomegranates, contain a plentiful supply of potassium as well as such minerals as phosphorus, calcium, iron, and sodium, and vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, and C. Acting together with sodium, potassium regulates the body's water equilibrium and ensures that the heart beats maintaining the body's potassium-sodium balance, it also helps the nervous and muscular senses to function regularly, prevents edema, and decreases the amount of sugar circulating Pomegranates revive tired muscles and enable them to move easily, and also strengthen the heart. normally. By laws applied Grape in the blood. Nutritious Value The uses of the pomegranate, as was seen with the two other plants of the Quran, dates and olives, are numerous. The fruit is nutritious and has a calorific value of 65. Its protein and fat contents are insignificant, while it is "a rich source of sodium and also contains a good amount of riboflavin, thiamine, niacin, vitamin C, calcium and phosphorous" (Farooqi, 1997). It is delicious Grapes have a long and abundant history. While they've grown wild since prehistoric times, evidence suggests cultivated in Asia as early as 5000 BC. Grapes were also pictured in hieroglyphics they were International Journal of Pediatrics (Supplement 4), Vol.2, N.3-2, Serial No.8, August 2014 94

  7. Farhangi et al. in ancient Egyptian burial tombs. During the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations, grapes were revered for their use in winemaking. Around this time, over 90 varieties of grapes were already known. Worldwide, about 30,000 square miles of land are planted with grapes, resulting in the annual production of 150 trillion pounds of grapes. Grape production in five countries: Italy, China, Spain, and France accounts for about half of all commercial production, and about one-third of all world vineyards are found in the three countries of Italy, Spain, and France. Other producing countries include Turkey, Chile, Argentina, Iran, South Africa, and Australia. One cup of red or green grapes contains 104 calories, 1.09 grams of protein, 0.24 grams of fat, 1.4 grams of fiber, 4.8 milligrams of vitamin C, 10 micrograms of vitamin A, 288 milligrams of potassium, 0.54 milligrams of iron and 3 micrograms of folate. Grapes are high in water content and good for hydration. High water-content fruits and vegetables are nutrient dense, meaning they provide a large amount of essential nutrients while containing few calories. Grapes contain 70 milliliters of fluid per cup. Grapes are high in antioxidants important for eye health such as lutein and zeaxanthin, and red grapes contain the phytochemical resveratrol in their skins, and conditions. Grapes also boast the power of the flavonoids myricetin and quercetin which help the body to counter-act harmful free radical formation (18-23). important grape- Grapes, which are highly nutritive and rich in vitamins and metallic substances, are an important food. About 20-25% of their content is sugar, which quickly enters the bloodstream. Therefore it is good for those who make physical and mental efforts, for it removes physical and mental weariness and fights anemia. The plentiful amount of iron and sugar contained within each grape also fosters blood production and acts as a natural medicine for liver, kidney, and digestive system diseases. They stimulate the kidneys and help them excrete such waste matters as urea. By discharging the body's excess water, grapes lower high blood pressure. Patients with stomach ulcers, gastritis, joint inflammations, small intestines inflammation, rheumatism, tumid liver or spleen, as well as those who have been poisoned, are recommended to drink grape juice. Grapes also strengthen the heart's muscles, are instrumental in treating bronchitis and coughing, and enhance the skin's beauty by purifying the blood. Since it increases the secretion of milk, nursing mothers are advised to drink grape juice. Some chemicals found in grapes even decrease the probability of skin cancer. Fig Figs can trace their history back to the earliest of times with mentions in the Bible and other ancient writings. They are thought to have been first cultivated in Egypt. They spread to ancient subsequently, around the 9th century BC, to ancient Greece, where they became a staple foodstuff in the traditional diet. Figs were held in such esteem by the Greeks that they created laws forbidding the export of the Crete and then International Journal of Pediatrics (Supplement 4), Vol.2, N.3-2, Serial No.8, August 2014 95

  8. Fruits in Holy Quran best quality figs. Figs were also revered in ancient Rome where they were thought of as a sacred fruit. During this period of history, at least 29 varieties of figs were already known. Fig fruit tree is native to temperate climate of Asia Minor or Turkey, and today, it grown as an important fruit of commerce in the eastern Mediterranean region, USA, and Spain. However, it is also cultivated as a fruit tree in the home gardens in many other regions as well. During each season, fig bears several hundreds of pear-shaped fruits twice a year, which vary in size and color depending on the variety. levels in type-II diabetes mellitus (adult onset) condition. Fresh, as well as dried figs contain good levels of B-complex group of vitamins such as niacin, pyridoxine, folates, and pantothenic acid. These vitamins function as co-factors for carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Dried figs are an excellent sources of minerals like calcium, copper, potassium, manganese, iron, selenium and zinc. 100 g of dried figs contain 680 mg of potassium, 162 mg of calcium, and 2.03 mg of iron. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure. Copper is required in the production of red blood cells. Iron is required for red blood cell formation as well for cellular oxidation. (Source: USDA database) (24-26). metabolism of Health benefits of figs Fig fruit is low in calories. 100 g fresh fruits provide only 74 calories. However, they contain health benefiting soluble dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins, and pigment anti- oxidants that contribute immensely towards optimum health and wellness. Dried figs are an excellent source of minerals, vitamins and anti-oxidants. In fact, dried fruits are higher concentrated sources of energy, minerals and vitamins. 100 g dried figs provide 249 calories. Fresh figs, especially black mission, are good in poly-phenolic flavonoid anti- oxidants such as carotenes, lutein, tannins, chlorogenic acid...etc. Their anti-oxidant value is comparable to that of apples at 3200 umol/100 g (Trolex equivalents). In addition, fresh figs contain adequate levels of some of the anti-oxidant vitamins such as vitamin A, E, and K. Altogether these phyto-chemical compounds in fig fruit help scavenge harmful oxygen derived free radicals from the body and thereby protect us from cancers, diabetes, degenerative diseases and infections. Furthermore, research studies suggest that chlorogenic acid in them help lower blood sugar levels and control blood-glucose National Nutrient Methods and Materials The current study is a review survey which was conducted to evaluate some of medicinal fruits that is mentioned in Islam and Quran by studying Quran and medical science texts. To evaluate the texts, the singular or combination forms of the following keywords were used: “Quran”, “Fruits”, “Paradise” and “Medicinal”. To evaluate the electronic Persian databases the following websites were searched: Google, scientific information database (SID), ministry of healthcare, medical articles library of Iran (medlib.ir), Iranian research institute for information (Iran Doc), publication database (Magiran, Iran medex), and also search in other electronic databases such as Google Scholar, Scopus and PubMed. Also, library search was performed by referring to the journal archives of libraries, and evaluating the available Persian references such as International Journal of Pediatrics (Supplement 4), Vol.2, N.3-2, Serial No.8, August 2014 96

  9. Farhangi et al. religious books and Quranic texts, and also articles of research-scientific educational journals, and articles of the annual seminar of medicine and Quran. (27). "In them are fruits and date-palms and pomegranates"(28). and "He brings forth gardens, trellised and un trellised, palmtrees and crops, different to eat, and the olive and pomegranates alike and unlike. when it bears fruit eat of it and pay what is due (the zakat) of it upon the harvest day. but do not be wasteful; he does not love the wasteful" (29). Results In Holy Quran, following fruits have been mentioned: date, olive, pomegranate, grape, banana and fig. Some of the verses that contains these words are here: Date Pomegranate in Holy Quran According to the emphasis of Quran on the consumption of pomegranate, this fruit has many health benefits. In Holy Quran, the pomegranate has been repeated three times. The princely pomegranate, ar-Rumm in Arabic, is mentioned in the Quran as one of the many delicious rewards awaiting in Paradise. Its numerous uses in cooking and medicine, as well as its beautiful structure, make the fruit a wonder for Muslims who believe pomegranate seed is a sign of the sustainer. Pomegranates are mentioned three times in the Quran: As one of the fruits that will be found in paradise: The word “date” has been mentioned in the Holy Quran more than 20 times. that each "It is He Who produces gardens, both cultivated and wild, and palm-trees and crops of diverse kinds, and olives and pomegranates, both similar and dissimilar. Eat of their fruits when they bear fruit and pay their due on the day of their harvest, and do not be profligate. He does not love the profligate" (29). "It is He Who sends down water from the sky from which We bring forth with it buds of all (plants), and from that We bring forth the green shoots and from them We bring forth close-packed seeds, and from the spathes of the date palm date clusters hanging down, and gardens of grapes and olives and pomegranates, both similar and dissimilar. Look at their fruits as they bear fruit and ripen. There are signs in that for people who believe" "And in the earth there are tracts side by side and gardens of grapes and corn and palm trees having one root and (others) having distinct roots— they are watered with one water, and We make some of them excel others in fruit; There are Signs in that for people who use their intellect" (30). International Journal of Pediatrics (Supplement 4), Vol.2, N.3-2, Serial No.8, August 2014 97

  10. Fruits in Holy Quran "And by it He makes crops grow for you and olives and dates and grapes and fruit of every kind. There is certainly a Sign in that for people who reflect" (31). "In it are fruits and date-palms with covered spathes" (40). "In them are fruits and date-palms and pomegranates" (41). "And from the fruit of the date-palm and the grape-vine you derive both intoxicants and wholesome provision. There is certainly a sign in that for people who use their intellect (32). They say, 'We will not believe you until you make a spring gush out from the earth for us; or have a garden of dates and grapes which you make rivers come pouring through "(33). "And olives and dates" (42). Banana Bananas are also has mentioned in the Quran as one of the fruits of Paradise: Allah Almighty says in Quran: "Amid thornless lote-trees, and banana-trees (with fruits), one above another, and extended shade, and water flowing constantly, and abundant fruit, neither intercepted nor forbidden" (43).This ayahs of Quran mentions the blessings that the dwellers of heaven will enjoy. Banana fruit is one of such blessings, therefore, the availability of banana fruit in the world should also be considered a blessing, which is available to people in both the worlds. As with all other blessings, the bananas enjoyed by believers in Paradise will be far more perfect than any bananas we can imagine in this world. After all, the bananas will never become rotten and will have a taste and smell that we cannot now imagine. However, in this world too, Allah has created a fruit very similar to that of Paradise and has placed it at our disposal. "Make an example for them of two men. To one of them We gave two gardens of grape- vines and surrounded them with date-palms, putting between them some cultivated land" (34). "The pains of labour drove her to the trunk of a date-palm. She said, 'Oh if only I had died before this time and was something discarded and forgotten!' A voice called out to her from under her, 'Do not grieve! Your Lord has placed a small stream at your feet. Shake the trunk of the palm towards you and fresh, ripe dates will drop down onto you" (35). "By means of it We produce gardens of dates and grapes for you, in which there are many fruits for you and from which you eat" (36). Grape Grape is one of the best natural sources for glucose and fructose. constitute 20% of grape. Beside sugars, grape contains tartaric acid and malic acid. There are high amounts of minerals, such as Na, K, Ca, and Fe, in grape; but its protein and fat is negligible. Grape is useful for skin and eye diseases (44). "and cultivated fields and palms with supple spathes?" (37). Theses sugars "We place in it gardens of dates and grapes, and cause springs to gush out in it "(38). "And soaring date-palms with layered spathes" (39). International Journal of Pediatrics (Supplement 4), Vol.2, N.3-2, Serial No.8, August 2014 98

  11. Farhangi et al. underneath and containing all kinds of fruits, then to be stricken with old age and have children who are weak, and then for a fierce whirlwind containing fire to come and strike it so that it goes up in flames? In this way Allah makes His Signs clear to you, so that hopefully you will reflect" (45). It is He Who sends down water from the sky from which We bring forth with it buds of all (plants), and from that We bring forth the green shoots and from them We bring forth close-packed seeds, and from the spathes of the date palm date clusters hanging down, and gardens of grapes and olives and pomegranates, both similar and dissimilar. Look at their fruits as they bear fruit and ripen. There are Signs in that for people who believe (27). "Gardens and grape vines" (46). Fig In the first Quranic verses in sura al Teen, the medicinal advantages of the fig are discussed the Quran says: "I swear by the Fig and the Olive" (47). Fig plant is one of the fruits mentioned in the Quran, along with olives, grapes, pomegranate, banana and dates. Grape is one of the most delicious fruits God created. In Holy Quran, grape has been mentioned eleven times in singular (Enab) and plural (Anab) forms. "And in the land, there are adjoining plots, gardens of vines, sown fields and palm trees in pairs and single that is watered with one water, yet we make some excel others in produce. Surely, in that are signs for a nation who understand" (30). Olive Another fruit extensively mentioned in both Quran and hadith is Olive (Zaitoon). Olive is an oval shaped fruit with 2-3 cm length. The olive tree gives 10 to 20 kg fruit. Olive has high medicinal value. If it is taken orally, is a nutritional, relaxing, mild laxative fruit which improves gastric ulcers. Olive oil is laxative. External use of olive oil softens the skin and eczema blisters, and is suitable for massaging. “Olive” in Quran, has been repeated six times. Also, Surah Al- Mumenoon, verse 20, pointed indirectly to a tree which gives oil and grows in Sina Mountain. The olive name alone has been mentioned twice, whereas it has been repeated five times with other fruits such as dates, grapes, and fig. "He sends down water from the sky, and with it we bring forth the plant of everything. From these we bring forth green foliage and composite grain, palmtrees laden with clusters of dates within reach, vineyards and olive groves and pomegranates alike and unlike. Behold their "They say, 'We will not believe you until you make a spring gush out from the earth for us; or have a garden of dates and grapes which you make rivers come pouring through" (33). "Make an example for them of two men. To one of them We gave two gardens of grape- vines and surrounded them with date-palms, putting between them some cultivated land" (34). "By means of it We produce gardens of dates and grapes for you, in which there are many fruits for you and from which you eat "(36). "We place in it gardens of dates and grapes, and cause springs to gush out in it "(38). "Would any of you like to have a garden of dates and grapes, with rivers flowing International Journal of Pediatrics (Supplement 4), Vol.2, N.3-2, Serial No.8, August 2014 99

  12. Fruits in Holy Quran fruits when they bear fruit and ripen. Surely here are signs for a nation who believe" (17,27). The Quran has sworn to the olive and fig. “By the fig and the olive! And the mount, Sinai, and this safe country (Mecca)! foodstuffs. Holy Quran says: "He sends down water from the sky, and with it we bring forth the plant of everything. From these we bring forth green foliage and composite grain, palm trees laden with clusters of dates within reach, vineyards and olive groves and pomegranates alike and unlike. Behold their fruits when they bear fruit and ripen. Surely here are signs for a nation who believe" (27). According to Holy Quran, believers are the most competent people to use divine blessings, such as clean foods. Centuries ago, Quran has mentioned the beneficial properties of many foodstuffs, and today scientists have found a part of them through many studies, it helps to realize the greatness of God. Finally, more consumption of these fruits with properties for health care is recommended. "Indeed, we created the human with the fairest stature" (48). "And a tree (olive) that springs forth from Mount Sinai, that grows oil, and (it is a) relish for the eaters" (49). "Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His Light is as (if there were) a niche and within it a lamp, the lamp is in glass, the glass as it were a brilliant star, lit from a blessed tree, an olive, neither of the east (i.e., it neither gets sun-rays only in the morning) nor of the west (i.e., nor does it get sun-rays only in the afternoon – but it is exposed to the sun all day long), whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself), though no fire touched it. Light upon Light! Allah guides to His Light whom He wills. And Allah sets forth parables for mankind, and Allah is All-Knower of everything" (50). "He sends down water from the sky. From it you drink, and from it come the shrubs among which you graze your herds. By it He makes crops grow for you, as well as olives and dates and grapes and fruit of every kind. There is certainly a Sign in that for people who reflect" (31,51). References 1. Ghanbari R, Anwar F, Alkharfy KM, Gilani AH, Saari N. Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.)—A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci 2012, 13, 3291-3340. 2. Covas, M.I. Bioactive effects of olive oil phenolic compounds in humans: Reduction of heart disease factors and oxidative damage. Inflammopharmacology 2008, 16, 216–218. 3. Covas MIو Nyyssonen K, Poulsen HE. The effect of polyphenols in olive oil on heart disease risk factors. Ann. Int. Med. 2006, 145, 333–431. 4. Viola P, Viola M. Virgin olive oil as a fundamental nutritional component and skin protector. Clin. Dermatol 2009, 27, 159–65. 5. Gilani AH, Khan AU, Shah AJ, Connor J, Jabeen Q. Blood pressure lowering effect of olives is mediated through calcium channel blockade. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr 2005; 56(8): 613–20. 6. Gilani AH, Khan AU, Shah AJ. Calcium antagonist and cholinomimetic explain the medicinal uses of olives in gut disorders. Nutr. Res2006; 26(9): 277–83. Conclusion Today, scientific medical studies have demonstrated that fruits( Banana, Fig, Olive, Date, Pomegranate and Grape) are useful and necessary for health. Quran, the Muslims’ Holy Book, has noted this important matter and has introduced these fruits in different versus. According to the reviewed studies, in Quran God has paid special attention toward therapeutic and beneficial properties of activities International Journal of Pediatrics (Supplement 4), Vol.2, N.3-2, Serial No.8, August 2014 100

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  14. Fruits in Holy Quran 32. Surat An-Nahl, Verse 67. 33. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Surat al-Isra', Verses 90-91. 34. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Surat Al-Kahf, Verse 32. 35. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Surat Maryam, Verses 24-26. 36. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Surat Al-Mu'minun, Verse 19. 37. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Surat ash-Shu'ara', Verse 148. 38. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Surah Ya Sin, Verse 34. 39. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Surah Qaf, Verse10. 40. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Surat ar-Rahman, Verse 11. 41. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Surat ar-Rahman, Verse 68. 42. Surah 'Abasa, Verse 29. 42. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Surat 'Abasa, Verse 29. 43. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Surat Al-Waqi'a, Verse 29. 44. Nazari M. The properties of fruits. Nashr payam azadi; 2002. p. 39-49. 45. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Surat al-Baqara, Verse 266. 46. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Surat an-Naba', Verse 32. 47. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Sura At-Tin, verse 1. 48. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Sura At-Tin, verse 1-4. 49. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Surah Al-Muminoon, Verse 20. 50. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Surah al-Noor , Verse 35. 51. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. Surat an-Nahl, Verse 10. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. The Noble Quran, translated by Qarib. International Journal of Pediatrics (Supplement 4), Vol.2, N.3-2, Serial No.8, August 2014 102