Sandalwood in the Pacific - PDF Document

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  1. Proceedings of the Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific April 9-11, 1990, Honolulu, Hawaii United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General Technical Report PSW-122

  2. Hamilton, Lawrence; Conrad, C. Eugene, technical coordinators. 1990. Proceedings of the Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific; April 9-11,1990; Honolulu, Hawaii. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. Berkeley, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 84 p. Sandalwood (Santalum spp.) trees grow in a variety of climates around the world and are culturally and economically important to about 15 countries. Exploitation of the fragrant heartwood for carvings, oil, and incense in the past has led to the need to conserve and manage the genus. The first substantial logging of sandalwood in Hawaii in 150 years generated local controversy in 1988, uncovered misinformation and speculation about the genus, and eventually led to the symposium in 1990. Papers in this proceedings cover history, distribution, status, ecology, management, propagation, and use of sandalwood. A synthesis paper summarizes the state-of-knowledge of the symposium participants. Research is needed to fill gaps in information on various aspects of sandalwood in many of the countries where it grows. Retrieval Terms: forestry, Pacific, sandalwood, Santalum, Australia, Hawaii, India, Indo­ nesia, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu Technical Coordinators: LAWRENCE HAMILTON is a research associate, Environment and Policy Institute, East- West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii. C. EUGENE CONRAD is director, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Honolulu, Hawaii. Views expressed in each paper are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the sponsoring organizations. Trade names and commercial enterprises mentioned are solely for information and do not imply the endorsement of the sponsoring organizations. This publication neither recommends any pesticide uses reported nor implies that they have been registered by appropriate governmental agencies. Publisher: Pacific Southwest Research Station P. O. Box 245, Berkeley, California 94701 August 1990

  3. Proceedings of the Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific April 9-11, 1990, Honolulu, Hawaii Technical Coordinators: Lawrence Hamilton C. Eugene Conrad CONTENTS The History of Human Impact on the Genus Santalum in Hawai‘i ...................................46 Mark Merlin, Dan VanRavenswaay Sandalwood: Current Interest and Activity by the Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife ..............61 Mark Scheffel Distribution and Status of Sandalwood in Hawai‘i ...........62 Lani Stemmermann Status and Cultivation of Sandalwood in India .................66 Shobha N. Rai Growing Sandalwood in Nepal—Potential Silvicultural Methods and Research Priorities ......................................72 Peter E. Neil The Status of Sandalwood (S. macgregorii) in Papua New Guinea .......................................................76 John H. Paul Status of Sandalwood Resources in Vanuatu ....................79 Leonard Bule, Godfrey Daruhi Preface .............................................................................. ii Lawrence Hamilton, C. Eugene Conrad Opening Remarks ............................................................ iii Leonard A. Newell Sandalwood in the Pacific: A State-of-Knowledge Synthesis and Summary from the April 1990 Symposium .................1 Managing Sandalwood for Conservation in North Queensland, Australia ........................................12 Grahame B. Applegate, Allan G. W. Davis, Peter Annable Status of Management and Silviculture Research on Sandalwood in Western Australia and Indonesia .........19 F. H. McKinnell The Sandalwood Industry in Australia: A History ............26 Pamela Statham Sandalwood—the Myth and the Reality ...........................39 Joseph Feigelson Propagation of Santalum, Sandalwood Tree .....................43 Robert T. Hirano i USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  4. PREFACE This publication results from the Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific held at the East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, in April 1990. The idea of convening a meeting on the valued and interesting genus Santalum came from a meeting of the Hawaii Society of American Foresters in early 1989. This interest in turn was predicated on the local controversy gener­ ated by the first substantial logging of sandalwood in 150 years in Hawaii during fall 1988. Speculation and misinformation about sandalwood abounded, and it seemed desirable to pull together what was known about its history, distribution, status, ecology, management, propagation, and use. Inquiries made to other countries where sandalwood was being exploited revealed a similar desire to obtain reliable information on these topics. Vanuatu had instituted a prohibition on commercial sandal- wood harvesting in 1987. High prices possibly were resulting in illegal logging in several other Pacific island countries. Active programs of management and exploitation were producing new knowledge in Queensland and Western Australia. New propa­ gation and establishment research was being carried out in Nepal, Indonesia, and New Caledonia. Long-term work on sandalwood has been carried out in India (especially in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu), but the information was not widely available. Sandalwood was being rustled with loss of human lives in India. Several species or varieties in various countries were in an endangered status; others were extinct; and many planting efforts had met with limited success. In view of the international nature of the interest and prob­ lems, it was deemed appropriate for the Environment and Policy Institute of the Center to adopt, as part of its program effort in Biological Diversity, the convening of a symposium on sandal- wood. This was held April 9 and 10, with a working session held on the 11th to produce a synthesis. The National Tropical Botanical Garden joined with the Center and the Hawaii Society of American Foresters in co-sponsoring this event, and indeed the Garden provided half of the funding to bring resource persons from various countries. The publication of the papers presented and a state-of-knowledge report synthesized during the symposium was made possible through the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry of the Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. The Nepal-United Kingdom Forestry Research Project, the University of Western Australia, the Western Australian De­ partment of Conservation and Land Management, and the FAO South Pacific Forestry Development Project provided support for the participation of resources persons from each of those organizations. The planning committee was composed of James Chamberlain, Robert Merriam, and Lawrence Hamilton. Most of the difficult work of preparing the papers for publica­ tion was done by technical publications editor Roberta Burzynski and editorial assistant Mark Dougherty of the Pacific Southwest Research Station. They deserve credit for making this publica­ tion readable. To all of the scientists and managers who prepared presentations for the symposium and to the symposium partici­ pants who so willingly contributed information from their expe­ riences, we express our thanks. Technical Coordinators: Lawrence Hamilton, Environment and Policy Institute, East-West Center C. Eugene Conrad, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry Pacific Southwest Research Station ii USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  5. Opening Remarks1 Leonard A. Newell2 key and science-centered. It is difficult to hold any meeting about trees and forestry in Hawai‘i without generating intense interest from many people—interest which can become misdi­ rected into political activism and sloganeering before knowl­ edge can be shared or digested. Our aim has been and remains to concentrate on scientific knowledge about the classification, distribution, propagation, silviculture, physiology, soils, ecology and utilization of the species of the Genus Santalum. Once we have learned what it is necessary to know about these things, we can formulate manage­ ment plans and apply this knowledge to the benefit of the forests of the tropics and the people of the earth. Your participation in this symposium will lay a foundation that all of us can build upon. This meeting will, I hope, be the beginning of an era of close cooperation among all of us who are interested in sandalwood and in assuring that its fine properties will be available to our great grandchildren, and to theirs. It is a fine task and a difficult one. Again, thank you for coming and welcome to Hawai‘i. Good morning and a warm Aloha nui loa to all of you from the Hawaii Society of American Foresters. It is a great pleasure and an inspiration to see so many people gathered to exchange information about the wonderful trees of the Genus Santalum. I particularly appreciate the effort that has been made by our international visitors to come here and share your knowledge with us. The difficulties of growing sandalwood in Hawai‘i are well known and have been often cited as reasons for not pursuing the planting of these species more aggressively. Those of us who can see beyond a 40-year time horizon—something which is becoming increasingly difficult to do—have long deplored the lack of progress in restoring sandalwood more conscientiously to its former prominence in our ecosystems and in our economy. The organizers hope this important meeting will be the begin­ ning of a new era in learning about and managing this fascinat­ ing, fragrant, and too-mysterious tree. When we were discussing the organization of this sympo­ sium, I and others expressed a concern that it be kept small, low- 1Presented at the Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific, April 9-11, 1990, Honolulu, Hawai‘i. 2Vice-Chairman, Hawaii Society of American Foresters, Honolulu, and Pacific Islands Forester, USDA Forest Service. iii USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  6. Sandalwood in the Pacific: A State-of-Knowledge Synthesis and Summary from the April 1990 Symposium1 ences but absent from this list are now considered to be included within the taxa in this list. Additional information is needed to clarify the distribution of this genus. Taxon and Authority Rainfall Elevation Range (mm) Distribution Range (m) Santalum acuminatum (R. Br.) A. DC. — 0-500 S. Australia Abstract: The economic and cultural values of sandalwood (Santalum spp.) are attributed to the fragrant oil found mainly in the heartwood. Sandalwoods grow naturally in a variety of climates from warm desert in Australia to subtropical regions with almost uniform rainfall in Hawai‘i and New Caledonia. Growth habit varies from large shrubs to tall trees. Species that grow in relatively favorable environments appear to readily regenerate naturally. Guidelines for propagation include these: pretreating seed before sowing, treating the potting medium with fungicide, providing primary and secondary host species, and preparing the site before outplanting. Propagation from cuttings generally is not successful; direct sowing or enrichment planting can be used in some cases. All species are fire-sensitive and palatable to livestock. Spike disease afflicts sandalwood in India and Hawai‘i, and a moth attacks S. album in Western Australia. Much of the sandalwood harvested is dead wood. Live trees are harvested selectively on the basis of size, which is related to heartwood content. The three major uses for sandalwood are carvings, incense, and oil. About 10 countries produce sandalwood for markets in France, Hong Kong, Nepal, Singapore, and Taiwan. Research is needed to fill gaps in information on various aspects of sandalwood in many of the countries where it grows. 300-30001 Santalum album L. 0-700 India 800-1500 0-2000 Indonesia: Timor, Sumba, Flores, and now planted in Java, Bali, and elsewhere in Asia and the Pacific Australia 1400-1800 0-250 New Caledonia2 Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieillard var. austrocaledonicum — — New Caledonia and Isles Loyalty2 1000-1500 0-300 Vanuatu var. minutum Halle 800 100-200 New Caledonia, Northest part of Sandalwood is economically and culturally important to many countries around the Pacific. Some countries that were ex­ ploited for their sandalwood in the past are now looking to replant sandalwood forests or to manage natural stands as part of their forestry operations. The symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific highlighted the known information on sandalwood in some of the countries where there is an established industry or where sufficient interest exists to establish or revitalize such an industry. This synthesis paper, produced by a small group of the participants at the April 1990 Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific, summarizes the state-of-knowledge on sandalwood. Topics covered are occurrence of sandalwood, ecology, propa­ gation, management, harvesting, marketing, and utilization. In addition, high-priority research needs are outlined. island2 New Caledonia2 var. pilosulum Halle 1000-2500 0-800 Santalum boninense (Nakai) Tuyama 1000 50-100 Ogasawara Island Santalum ellipticum Gaudichaud 50-1300 0-1390 Hawaiian Islands Santalum fernandezianum F. Philippi — — Juan Fernandez (extinct) Santalum freycinetianum Gaudichaud var. freycinetianum 760-3800 150-980 Moloka‘i, O‘ahu var. lanaiense Rock 500-1000 90-900 Lana‘i, Maui var. pyrularium (Gray) Stemmermarm 900-3800 15-1150 Kaua‘i DISTRIBUTION Santalum haleakalae Hillebrand 850-1900 1800-2590 Maui The present global distribution of Santalum species is listed below, with their approximate rainfall and elevational ranges (Fosberg and Sachet 1985, George 1984, Skottsberg 1930, Smith 1985, Sykes 1980, Tuyama 1939, Yuncker 1971, and Wagner and others 1990). Species reported in the cited refer- Santalum insulare Bertero var. insulare — <1000 Tahiti var. alticola Fosberg & Sachet Tahiti — 2000-2066 var. deckeri Fosberg & Sachet — 250-940 Marquesas var. hendersonense (F. Brown) Fosb. & Sachet — — Henderson Island 1Synthesized by Grahame B. Applegate, Queensland Forest Service, Atherton, Australia; James Chamberlain, Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association; Godfrey Daruhi, Department of Forestry, Port Vila, Vanuatu; Joseph L. Feigelson, Exotic Maui Woods, Inc., Haiku, Maui, Hawai‘i; Lawrence Hamilton, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawai‘i; Francis H. McKinnell, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Como, West Australia; Peter E. Neil, Nepal-United Kingdom Forestry Research Project, Kathmandu, Nepal; Shobha Nath Rai, Government of Kamataka, Khawad, India; Bo Rodehn, Paia, Hawaii; Pamela C. Statham, University of Western Australia, Nedlands; and Lani Stemmermann, University of Hawai‘i at Hilo, Volcano. var. marchionense (Skoots.) Skottsberg — 300-940 Marquesas var. Margaretae (F. Brown) Skottsberg — c.250 Austral Islands var. mitiaro Sykes — 0-10 Cook Islands 1 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  7. Taxon and Authority Rainfall Range (mm) Elevation Range Distribution found in generally drier sites at lower elevations. However, these comments are tentative as there seems little definitive information on the Hawaiian species. One interesting feature of S. paniculatum var. pilgeri is that it appears to have morpho­ logical features such as thick leaves which would seem to be an adaption to drier conditions. We have little information on the conditions under which S. yasi grows in Fiji, but it grows in coastal areas on some islands, predominantly in secondary forests and old village gardens. The range of climatic conditions under which many sandal- wood species grow is unknown. A particular species may be very adaptive and can tolerate and grow over a range of site conditions. However, many of these areas may not provide suitable conditions for heartwood development, the most com­ mercially valuable part of the tree. (m) Santalum insulare Bertero var. raiateense (J. W. Moore) Fosberg & Sachet Society Island (Raiatea) — 200-500 c.60 var. raiavanse F. Brown Austral Islands Santalum lanceolatum R. Br. 3 300-1300 0-700 Australia Santalum macgregorii F. v. Mueller 1000-1500 200-1800 New Guinea Santalum murrayanum (Mitchell) C. Gardn. — 0-500 S.W. Australia Santalum obtusifolium R. Br. 1400-2000 100-700 Australia Santalum paniculatum A. Gray var. paniculatum 380-2550 38-2100 Hawai‘i Soils var. pilgeri (Rock) Stemmermann 760-1350 730-1970 Hawai‘i In India, sandalwood usually grows on free-draining red loams with a pH range of 6-6.5. Occasionally it is found on sandy textures associated with lateritic soils. It is not found on waterlogged soils. The same species in Timor grows on grey clay and red loam soils formed on coral parent material, often extremely stony, and having a pH of 8-9. S. spicatum in Western Australia is found growing on red soils which have a high proportion of calcrete nodules where the pH is 7.5 and also on lateritic soils with a pH of 6.0. In Queensland S. lanceolatum grows over a wide area on "gilgai" soils, which are sandy clays with a high content of calcium carbonate and where the pH is 7.5-8.0. In Vanuatu S. austrocaledonicum grows on volcanic soils on Tanna, on humic ferralitic red loams on Erromango, and on Efate and the Cumberland Peninsula (on Espiritu Santo) on shallow soils formed on raised coral reef. In New Caledonia, the same species grows on lateritic soils with a high iron content on La Grande Terre. On Isle de Pins and the Loyalty Islands, the soils are said to be derived from coral parent material. In Hawai‘i, all species of Santalum grow on volcanic soils. It would appear, then, that the genus is quite adaptable as to soil conditions under which it will grow. The only common thread is that all soils are free-draining. Santalum spicatum (R. Br.) A. DC. 200-600 0-300 Australia Santalum yasi Seeman — 0-200 Fiji — 0-100 Tonga 1These ranges are for India. Shobha Nath Rai has suggested that these are extreme values, with most of the cultivated stands occurring between 500 and 2000 mm rainfall, and 300-600 m elevation. While there is some question whether Santalum is truly native to India, the conference participants consider it to be. No Santalum is native to Nepal, but S. album has been planted in Makwanpur (2000 mm rainfall and 450 m elevation) and Gorkha. It is also planted in China and elsewhere. 2Dr.J.F. Cherrierof Centre Technique Forestier Tropical in New Caledonia provided information through correspondence to Lawrence Hamilton in May 1990. 3This is the most widespread of the Australian species, found from Cape York to W. Australia and S. Australia. ECOLOGY Climate Sandalwoods grow naturally in a variety of climates from warm desert in Australia, through seasonally dry monsoon climate in India, Eastern Indonesia, and Vanuatu, to subtropical climate with almost uniform rainfall in Hawai‘i and New Caledonia. In Australia, S. spicatum grows where rainfall is as low as 200 mm, but is usually found only on water-gaining sites on the lower slopes and drainage lines. In India, S. album can be found in rainfall zones from 300 mm to 3000 mm, again generally on the lower slopes. In Vanuatu, S. austrocaledonicum is found in areas which have rainfall ranging from 1000 mm to 1500 mm. The Hawaiian species of Santalum vary markedly in their oc­ currence. S. haleakalae is found in higher elevations with cool, dry to moist climates and a rainfall of 850-1900 mm. S.freycinetianum grows in intermediate elevations and rainfall from 1000-3000 mm, while S. paniculatum and S. ellipticum are Environmental Factors Fire All species are fire-sensitive, which is is a major problem in maintaining the species in some countries, especially Indonesia and India. In Western Australia it is less of a problem for S. spicatum because wildfires in the desert are infrequent, de- pending on a large accumulation of fuel over three or four seasons. Nevertheless, fires have occurred there and killed large areas of the species. In Queensland, fire may be a major factor affecting the local distribution of S. lanceolatum. In Vanuatu on the island of Aneityum, fire has played a major role in reducing the natural cover. This and overexploitation may have led to the 2 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  8. extinction of S. austrocaledonicum on the island. of root suckers has a bearing on the ease with which one may propagate the species by vegetative means. Grazing Host Species All species seem to be quite palatable to livestock—horses, sheep, rabbits, pigs, goats, and cattle—and grazing is thus another critical factor in successful establishment of sandal- wood. Under some circumstances, such as in parts of Queensland, where there is no particular threat to the species, Santalum is reported to have been used as livestock fodder on a limited scale in times of drought. In India, several species of each of the following genera may act as host species for sandalwood: Acacia, Paraserianthes, Terminalia, and Pterocarpus. Associated understory species also parasitized are Carissa, Lantana, and Randia. In Western Australia, several species of Acacia, Eucalyptus, Cassia, Casuarina, Eremophila, Dodonea, Mariana, Atriplex, and Cratystylis are recorded as hosts. The last five genera are shrubs. In north Queensland, S. lanceolatum, which is thought to be parasitic, grows in association with Melaleuca, Eucalyptus, Acacia, and Excoecaria parvifolia (gutta-percha). An interesting difference occurs in Vanuatu, where grasses may act as hosts, along with Acacia spirorbis and Hibiscus tiliaceus. In Indonesia, a wide variety of species are recognized as sandalwood hosts, including Pterocarpus, Acacia, Cassia, Paraserianthes, Casuarina, Sesbania, and many more. In New Caledonia, common hosts are Acacia, Paraserianthes, and Casuarina. Very little seems to be known of host species for the Hawaiian sandalwood species. In Fiji, S. yasi is associated with H. tiliaceus, Cocos nucifera, and Alyx amoena. The opinion expressed by some, that sandalwood does not need a host at all, is usually based on observations of trees growing alone in the open. This does not necessarily indicate lack of a host. Sandalwood may be parasitizing grasses, as in Vanuatu, or other herbaceous plants. However, it is possible that older sandalwood plants may benefit from the presence of a host but may not require one. Careful studies on several species— S. spicatum in Australia, S. album in India, and S. austrocaledonicum in New Caledonia— have demonstrated the absolute need for a host during the juvenile stage. It seems unlikely that the other species in the genus would differ in such a fundamental feature. What is the value of parasitism to the Santalum? It can pho­ tosynthesize by itself but for some reason has developed special structures on its roots called "haustoria," which penetrate the roots of other plants, even other sandalwood plants. Research on S. spicatum has shown that there is direct xylem to xylem union between parasite and host. The parasite can therefore draw moisture from the host if needed. Other research on this species and on S. album indicates that N, P, and K may be transferred from the host to the sandalwood. Plants in the nursery often develop a chlorosis which is cured by the application of iron chelates. In the field this chlorosis is not normally seen so it is likely that the sandalwood can also obtain iron also from its host. Pests and Diseases The spike disease, well known and very destructive in India, is also suspected to afflict the Hawaiian species. This disease shortens the internodes, reduces leaf size, kills the haustoria connections, and blocks the vascular bundles in the phloem. It also causes tip dieback, in which leaves fall and give the tree a spiked appearance. In some districts in India, spike disease affects about 2 percent of the population of sandalwood. S. al- bum has also been attacked in Western Australia by a moth that girdles the stem to the depth of the cambium. Growth Habit Sandalwoods vary from large shrubs or small trees (S. spicatum) to tall trees 20 m or more in height (S. album in India and S. paniculatum in Hawai‘i). In New Caledonia, trees of S. austrocaledonicum on LaGrande Terre can be twisted and deformed on exposed sites, but on more sheltered sites their form is good, with strong apical dominance and a height of about 15 m. On Vanuatu, the same species is commonly forked close to the ground and often has a shrubby habit. S. lanceolatum in Queensland is generally an erect single- stemmed small tree, but on harsh sites it is reduced to a more shrubby form with crown break at about 1.5 m. Sandalwoods show marked variations in morphological fea­ tures such as leaf size, bark appearance and fruit size, and this variation has probably led to the confusion that existed in the taxonomy of the genus in the past and which plagues us even today. The kernels of most species are edible. In S. acuminatum, the fleshy exocarp of the fruit is also edible and has been grown commercially for this purpose to some extent. Coppicing ability varies widely among species. In Australia, S. spicatum does not coppice in the desert zone, but does so readily when close to the sea at Shark Bay, where the climate is much milder. S. lanceolatum also coppices freely, as does S. album in India but the latter only in the juvenile stage. S. austrocaledonicum in Vanuatu does not coppice at all. S. paniculatum on the Island of Hawaii also coppices from cut stumps. Root suckers are found on the Australian species S. lanceolatum, S. album in India, and S. paniculatum from Hawai‘i. They are not observed in the other species. Presence Heartwood and Oil The main reason for the economic and cultural values of sandalwood is the oil contained in its timber, mainly in the heartwood. Heartwood oil content varies widely between spe­ cies and, to some degree [in chemical composition], even within 3 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  9. species. S. album has the highest quality oil content, with about 6-7 percent; S. yasi from Fiji has about 5 percent; S. austrocaledonicum has 3-5 percent, depending on the source; and S. spicatum, 2 percent. As far as is known, only S. album, S. yasi, and S. austrocaledonicum are distilled for their oil. S. spicatum is now used only for incense (joss-stick) manufac­ ture, although it has been distilled in the past. No figures are available for the heartwood oil content of S. lanceolatum or the Hawaiian species. S. murrayanum and S. acuminatum from Australia have no or very little oil in their heartwood and have never been exploited for this purpose. Some species such as S. austrocaledonicum, S. album, and S. spicatum also have low oil content in their sapwood. Within the commercially used species, a considerable amount of variation in heartwood content exists from tree to tree and from stand to stand. Although much research remains to be done in this area, we can make some generalizations: (a) in relation to rainfall, heartwood contents tend to be higher for a given size tree in lower rainfall conditions (or any other situations where the tree moisture is often under stress); (b) in relation to genetic variation, evidence on S. album and S. spicatum indicates that oil content varies. There is, in fact, a tree selection program for this feature. There may also be genetic variation in the age at which heartwood development commences; (c) in relation to site quality, generally the faster the growth, the lower the heartwood content of a given size individual is, although it is difficult to separate the effect of growth rate and the indirect effect of other factors. On an individual tree basis, faster growth may well produce a lower proportion of heartwood, but on a per hectare basis faster growth may produce greater total heartwood bio­ mass. Oil from S. spicatum has an optical rotation of -8° to -3°, S. lanceolatum from -30° to -40°, and for S. album -15° to -21°. The oil of the two Australian species was formerly mixed to simulate S. album oil for some medicinal purposes, where the optical rotation of the oil was strongly correlated with the particular medicinal property being sought. There is no known published information on the oil produced from S. austrocaledonicum or S. yasi nor from the Hawaiian species. time and becomes woody. S. austrocaledonicum flowers twice a year in April and Octo­ ber, with seed maturing in May and November. The November crop is generally heavier; however, any crop can be adversely affected by cyclones, which are frequent in this part of the Pacific. For S. yasi there is a similar flowering cycle. Detailed information on S. lanceolatum or any of the Hawaiian species was not available when this paper was written. Birds apparently are the principal method of dispersal of the seed. They are attracted to the fleshy fruit and pass the kernels intact through their alimentary tract. This is certainly so for S. album in India and Indonesia, for S. spicatum in Australia, and for S. yasi in Fiji. In the natural regeneration of S. spicatum in Western Aus­ tralia, the percentage of seed which actually develops into trees is normally about 1 percent. In a very good season it can be as high as 16 percent. Growth Rates Detailed information on growth rates is available for the two most studied species, S. spicatum and S. album. For S. spicatum, the forthcoming Department of Conservation and Land Man­ agement publication "An Historical Review of Sandalwood Research in Western Australia" gives details of volume growth rates in two climatic zones—the wheatbelt and desert of Western Australia—and gives estimates of heartwood production from trees of various sizes. In the desert zone where the rainfall is 200- 250 mm annually, it generally takes 100 years to grow a tree of merchantable size (127 mm diameter at 150 mm above the ground), while. in the wheatbelt, where the winter rainfall is 300- 600 mm, 50 years are required to grow the same sized tree. For S. album in India, under natural conditions, girth incre­ ments of 1.0-1.3 cm per year can be expected. This rate can go up to 5 cm per year in the case of cultivated trees. In terms of heartwood the rule of thumb is that after the age of 15 years, on average, every tree adds 1 kg of heartwood to its weight per year. There is a parabolic relationship between tree diameter and rate of increment. Increment is lower in young trees and old trees, while it is comparatively higher in the middle diameter classes. According to a number trials on Erromango (Vanuatu), S. austrocaledonicum had a mean height increment of 1.1 m per year. The buffer rows in these trials were tended and there was no "formally" associated secondary host. Naturally growing stands have a low increment unless they are associated with a good secondary host. In New Caledonia, the same species was found to have a girth increment of 1.2-1.3 cm per year. Flowering and Seeding S. album starts flowering at age 3 years but does not produce viable seeds until age 5. It has two flowering periods each year, March and September in both India and Indonesia, and seeds mature in April and October. Both seed crops are of similar size. The seed is 6-7 mm in diameter with a thin fleshy exocarp of about 1 mm. S. spicatum also commences flowering at age 3, with good seed from about 5 years. In the desert, however, flowering is dependent on the right combination of rainfall, so it is extremely irregular in both time and space. In the same year it is possible to find abundant seed in one area but none at all in another, due to chance rainfall events. The seed in the species is 1.3 -1.5 cm in diameter with a leathery brown exocarp which hardens with PROPAGATION A reasonable amount of knowledge about the propagation of sandalwood has been accumulated for S. album, the Indian sandalwood, S. spicatum from Western Australia, and S. austrocaledonium from New Caledonia and Vanuatu. In the judgment of those having experience with other sandalwood species, this accumulated information seems generally appli­ cable. What follows is more or less a set of guidelines for 4 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  10. propagating sandalwood. These guidelines express in general what is known, though there are still serious gaps in knowledge. be pre-treated before sowing. Germination of most species is slow and erratic, but can be speeded up by presoaking in water or, better still, in 0.05 percent gibberellic acid (GA). Some interesting work in India has indicated that sandalwood leaves themselves have high levels of GA during the flowering cycle, and an infusion of sandalwood leaves contains sufficient GA to have a stimulating effect on seed germination. Another method of enhancing germination is manual scarification with a file or saw to remove the seed coat or to nick it, and then soaking the seed in water at ambient temperature before sowing. This pretreatment should speed up germination rates, increase germi­ nation percentage, and ensure that seed germination is more uniform. Germination generally does not begin for 2 weeks after sowing and may be spread over several months. A very efficient technique has been developed by CTFT which involves pre- soaking with GA, then germinating in vermiculite beds bottom heated to maintain a temperature of 25°C, transferring out the germinated seeds into plastic tubes, to which a primary host is later added. In India and Australia, S. album seedlings have been shown to be very susceptible to fungal attack, and regular treatment of seedlings with fungicide is necessary. In India, nematodes are also a problem, and a nematicide must be used in the seed b: d and the potting mix. The aim is to produce strong and vigorous seedlings of 30-45 cm, which have some lignification of the lower stem. Experi­ ence has shown that such stock survives best in the generally harsh environments where they are planted. This should be considered when planning the nursery program so that sufficient time is available to raise seedlings of appropriate size. The following mediums have been successfully used for germination: •Beds of a 1:3 sand to soil mixture that have been treated with nematicides and fungicides. •A mix of sterile peat moss, vermiculite, and fine cinders. However, vermiculite alone or a similar medium might be preferable. Beds should be kept at an optimum temperature of 28°-30°C. Germinants should be shaded (50 percent) and protected from extremes of temperature, frost, and wind. They should not be over- or under-watered. The sandalwood seedlings should be transferred into large plastic pots (e.g., 13 x 30 cm) at the four- leaf stage. Fertilizer should not be required if a good potting mixture is used. Chelated iron has sometimes been found to be a useful additive to the potting mix. The mixture also should be treated with fungicides and nematicides. Again, the transplants should be protected from extremes of weather, not over- or under- watered, and kept in partial shade (30-50 percent). Seed Source Seed should be obtained only a reputable source of high quality seed, (e.g., genetically selected S. album seed from seed production areas in southern India or recognized stands of the various species in other locations such as Hawai‘i, Australia, Fiji, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu. Seed Collection and Handling Preferably, all seed should be collected directly from trees, or if this is not possible, from below the trees soon after seed fall. This should be the case for all species of sandalwood. Seed should be depulped immediately by washing in water. Depulped seed should be treated with a disinfectant to reduce fungal and bacterial problems. The leathery exocarp of S. spicatum does not encourage the development of fungi, so fungicides are not required for this species. The exocarp must be removed or damaged, however, to enable the seed to germinate. Seed should then be dried under shade and stored in a cool place. Alternately, seed should be dried in an oven to 8 percent moisture content and stored in a refrigerator at about 5°C. If these storage methods are followed, germination percentage should remain good for a number of years. In New Caledonia, the Centre Technique Forestier Tropical (CTFT) specifies that seed of S . austrocaledonicum must be picked from the tree when mature, then depulped by rubbing against a steel mesh the same day, washed thoroughly, treated with 1 percent calcium hypo- chlorite for 1 minute, and dried for storage. There is a seed domancy period of two months for S. album and perhaps one month for S. austrocaledonicum. There is no known dormancy period for S. spicatum. Seed longevity appears to vary between species. In S. album and S. austrocaledonicum, it declines rapidly in the first 6 months and, if stored at ambient temperatures, declines to a very low level by 18 months. Seed life is prolonged by cold storage, although precise data are lacking. The effect of time on seed viability has been studied in S. spicatum. Fresh seed has a germination percentage of 84 percent and this declines steadily to as low as 20 percent after 9 years at ambient temperatures. The optimum storage method for this species is cold storage at 4°C over silica gel. Seed in this environment maintains a germination rate of 52 percent after 9 years. Nursery Techniques Germination and Propagation Primary Host Species Seed germination is affected by temperature. At CTFT it has been shown that the optimum temperature for germination of S. austrocaledonicum is 25° -27°C. This temperature range was also optimum for S. album in research at Curtin University in Perth, Western Australia. Seed of all sandalwood species should When sandalwood seedlings are transplanted into plastic pots, seed or seedlings of a primary host plant should also be trans- planted into the pots. Such host plants could include these: Acacia spp., Alternathera spp., Amaranthus spp., Breynia cerrua, Cajanus cajan, and Capsicum spp. The criterion for 5 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  11. selecting a host plant should be that the host should "assist" the sandalwood and not compete with it or physically obstruct it from normal growth. Species that develop a thick, fibrous, and succulent root system with a low growth habit are preferable. These primary host species should be able to take pruning to control competition and be easy to propagate. tolerance to lopping (e.g., Paraserianthes falcataria), a thin canopy, and some other use for local communities (e.g., fuelwood, fodder, or fruit). Sandalwood growth appears to be better with a nitrogen-fixing legume host than with non-legumes. The secondary host should also be reasonably long-lived. In places where grazing animals are a problem, host species with thorns are an advantage. In the desert regions of Western Australia, Mariana polystyrgia, a thorny legume which grows to a meter in height, effectively protects S. spicatum from sheep grazing. S. album is given the same protection by Acacia nilotica in India. Combinations of sandalwood and secondary hosts that have proven successful in the past include these: • S. album with Casuarina equisetifolia, Melia dubia, Pongamia pinnata, Terminalia spp., and Wrightia tinctoria. • S. austrocaledonicum with Acacia spirorbis and Paraserian­ thes falcataria. • S. yasi with Hibiscus tiliaceus and Cocos nucifera. • S. spicatum with Acacia aneura. Spacing and layout in the plantation with respect to sandal- wood and its secondary host will be dependent on the growth habit and potential end product of the host species. Fast-growing species with a wide spreading lateral root system can be grown further away from sandalwood than other species whose roots are more confined. Two different planting spacings have been reported. In India, plantations are established with alternative rows of S. album and host trees. S. album rows are 5-6 meters apart while the hosts are interplanted at the same spacing. In New Caledonia, a more diagonal planting method is used, where the sandalwood is planted on 4 by 4 meter grid and the host is planted in the center of the square. In other situations, it may be more appropriate to plant the host species and the sandalwood in the same rows. Vegetative Propagation Cuttings generally are not a successful method of propagating sandalwood, but tissue culturing S. album has been successful in India and Western Australia. After a considerable amount of research carried out in Western Australia, it was concluded that it is not possible to use tissue culture techniques to propagate S. spicatum. Cleft grafting of S. album has had up to a 60 percent success rate. Planting Site Selection Seedlings should be outplanted at the start of the rainy season. For S. album, the ideal planting site would be at an elevation of 700-1200 mm, with an annual rainfall of 600-1600 mm. Tem­ peratures should be in the range of an annual minimum of 10°C and a maximum of 35°C. For best growth, soils should be fairly moist, fertile iron-rich clays. Plantations have been successfully established on more adverse sites. Waterlogged or saline soils should be avoided. For many other sandalwood species, site requirements still need to be defined. Site Preparation General forestry practices involving site cultivation are rec­ ommended for plantations of sandalwood. No specific site preparation requirements for S. album are apparent to date. The planting site should be fenced to reduce the possibility of grazing damage. Precautions should be taken against fire. Regular weeding should be carried out in the first few months following establishment, particularly in areas of vigorous grass competition. Direct Sowing In a number of countries, sandalwood seed is in short supply, either because of past overexploitation or because of climatic factors, such as cyclones which have damaged seed-producing trees. In this situation, direct sowing is unlikely to be a viable method of plantation establishment. However, in countries with a plentiful supply of seed, the following steps should be followed: Seed should be dibbled into the ground in areas which already have potential hosts either naturally present or artifically estab­ lished. Broadcasting of seed is not recommended. In situations where sandalwood is sown directly in existing natural scrub, spacing and layout will depend upon the configu­ ration of the natural species. Some lopping and pruning of the natural vegetation may be necessary before sowing to avoid excess shading. In situations where artificially planted hosts have been estab­ lished before direct sowing of sandalwood, layout and spacing should depend on the growth habit and longevity of the host plant, as with out-planted seedlings of sandalwood. Secondary Host Species and Plantation Layout Secondary hosts should be established on the plantation site before to planting the sandalwood. In New Caledonia, second­ ary host species are planted in the year before outplanting S. austrocalendonicum. This year allows the roots of the host species to develop sufficiently to allow good host-parasite contact. The hosts could be of a very wide range of species, with large enough crowns to afford some protection, and preferably would be indigenous. Sandalwood seedlings are occasionally planted very close to their host; otherwise, hosts are planted in alternate or adjacent rows. Hosts should not be further than 2.2 m from the sandalwood, or its growth is significantly reduced. Desirable features of a secondary host are moderate vigor or 6 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  12. Enrichment Planting Illegal Cutting In certain situations, sandalwood seedlings can be directly planted into areas that already have a natural secondary host species present. Examples of these could be the following: • Acacia spirorbis (S. austrocaledonicum) in New Caledonia and Vanuatu. • Acacia koa (S. ellipticum) in Hawai‘i. • Acacia catechu, Dalbergia sissoo and in dry deciduous forest (S. album) in India. Excoecaria parvifolia and Melaleuca acacioides (S. lanceolatum) in North Queensland, Australia. Due to the high value of sandalwood logs relative to average incomes in most areas where they are found, illegal harvesting is often a severe management problem, to the extent that it can seriously threaten the long-term future of the species. Active management of the remaining stands of sandalwood, wherever they occur, is essential. This implies the enforcement of regu­ lations applying to their conservation and of severe harvesting control procedures. Where such regulations and procedures are lacking, they should be developed urgently in view of the apparent threat to survival of the germ plasm of some prov­ enances. (See section on Conservation of Germ Plasm). Species Selection Natural Stands Research into the most suitable secondary host for a given sandalwood species and country should be carried out. Only by using the most suitable host will optimum results be obtained. Many of these host species likely will be leguminous and have the ability to fix nitrogen. In countries such as India and Nepal, it would be appropriate to utilize species that could produce fodder or fuelwood to meet local needs. In other countries, the secondary hosts could well be species that produce a valuable product in their own right, e.g., timber, cabinet quality wood, or edible material. Harvesting Techniques Sandalwood growing in natural stands is harvested by taking the whole tree down to quite small branches. In S. album, S. spicatum, and S. austrocaledonicum, the stump and larger roots are also used, as they contain the best quality wood and highest oil content. Either live or dead trees may be used, as the wood retains its scent for many years after the death of the tree. Although heartwood is the most valuable portion of the tree, markets do exist for the sapwood of the three species mentioned above, since their sapwood contains some oil. In most areas where sandalwood harvesting regularly takes place, a well developed product grading system exists. Larger butt logs suitable for carving rate the highest quality, while chipped branches and even sawdust are assigned lower grades. Trees are selected for harvest on the basis of size, which is related to heartwood content. The ratio of heartwood to sap- wood varies considerably between species and even within species (especially the Hawaiian sandalwoods). In north Queensland, trees of S. lanceolatum are considered harvestable if the diameter is greater than 12 cm d.b.h. outside bark and when the sapwood is less than 1/6 the diameter of the tree at 1.3 m above the ground. Measurements are taken by the cutters by chopping into the stem into the heartwood boundary. This avoids unnecessary fellings of trees that cannot be utilized. In Western Australia, there is a simple minimum cutting system: only live trees with a diameter greater than 12.7 cm at 15 cm above the ground can be harvested. This height is a reflection of the frequent multi-stemmed habit of this species. In Queensland, sandalwood branches are utilized down to a heartwood diameter of 3 cm, and down to 1 cm in S. album in India and S. spicatum in Western Australia. In both India and Western Australia, dead trees of any size may be taken, and in some parts of both of these areas, dead trees form a major proportion of the harvest. MANAGEMENT Protection Fire Sandalwood is susceptible to fire. Direct or even indirect contact with fire will result in the mortality of even large trees. In S. spicatum, coppice from the base of the fire-killed stem has been observed, but it has not survived beyond 2 years. Other species in more favorable climates may well be able to produce viable coppice. A fire that affects only part of the stem may kill part of the cambium and create an entry point for decay of the sapwood. Grazing As noted elsewhere, sandalwood foliage is palatable to graz­ ing animals such as rabbits, sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, horses, and camels. In Australia, kangaroos are also occasionally a problem. It is essential to exclude grazing animals from stands containing small trees, as grazing will substantially reduce their growth and can, as in Western Australia, virtually preclude any regenera­ tion. Exclusion of grazing may well, on drier sites, bring with it a requirement for more weed control to enable the sandalwood seedlings to survive the first dry season. In native stands, wild animal populations may need to be controlled for a period to achieve adequate regeneration. Natural Regeneration Species that grow in relatively favorable environments appear to readily regenerate naturally. Regeneration of the Australian 7 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  13. species is much more uncertain and is dependent on having a series of good seasons in the arid zones in which they grow. Birds are an effective dispersal agent for sandalwood seeds as they are attracted to the succulent exocarp. Consequently, regeneration is often found beneath trees is which birds roost. In Western Australia, the large seeds of S. spicatum are dispersed by the large, flightless emu. The ability of a species to coppice or develop root suckers also has implications for management. If coppicing is to be used, either as the main form of regeneration or as a supplement to seedling regeneration, the harvesting techniques should pre­ clude the removal of stumps. If the species does not produce root suckers readily, then it is feasible to utilize the stump. On steep land this may be undesirable because of potential soil erosion problems. HARVESTING, MARKETING, AND UTILIZATION OF SANDALWOOD AND OIL Harvesting Much of the sandalwood harvested today is dead wood, i.e., either standing or fallen trees. Buyers in many ways prefer deadwood because it contains less moisture and thus provides more volume per tonne. Deadwood is also easier to clean than greenwood since sapwood is already decaying. Greenwood is defined as wood taken from standing trees with green leaves. In some cases, a load of deadwood commands higher prices than those currently received for a mix of greenwood and dead wood. However, the mix is sometimes produced since harvesting deadwood is generally more costly than harvesting greenwood because of the labor intensive process required to find dead trees. To date, sandalwood has not been managed on a sustained yield basis, and over-mature, standing trees show signs of decline with dead branches or rot. The value of these Trees is thus decreasing, although in many cases they will yield sufficient heartwood to be commercially viable. Harvesting mature trees should be very selective. Tests should be taken to determine the ratio of heartwood to sapwood, and this can be done quite easily by using increment borers or portable drills. Care should be taken to retain at least some of the best mature stems for seed production. At present, many of these criteria are not understood and therefore not practiced. Hopefully current research and commu­ nication will lead to better management of this resource. While most sandalwood is harvested using simple equipment (often a chain saw and a truck), the high value of good material can make it financially feasible to use a higher level of technol­ ogy. For remote areas and high value material, helicopters have been used for assembling material. Plantations Relatively little experience with managing sandalwood plan­ tations has been accumulated, except with S. album in India and S. austrocalodonicum in New Caledonia. Periodic cutting back of the secondary host is necessary, as is livestock or wildlife exclusion when trees are small. Little is known about the effect of fertilizers on the growth of sandalwood, apart from research in India that indicates an adverse effect of the application of boron. In Australia, chlorosis of S. album seedlings has been remedied by the application of iron chelates. Conservation of Germ Plasm Given the generally depleted state of sandalwood populations in most countries (except India and Australia), resource man­ agement agencies in countries with sandalwood should do the following to identify and protect the remaining higher quality stands as a future seed source: (1) Identify and"formalize" seed stands of various species and provenances. These areas should be set aside as protected seed reserves. (2) Identify "elite" trees with high oil content, high ratio of heartwood to sapwood, and vigor. Investigations will be needed to determine genetic "superiority" versus phenotypic variation due to site-tree interactions. For example, are oil content and heartwood to sap ratio dependent on site alone or are genetic factors involved? (3) Provide seed to other countries for species and provenance testing. All seed tested should be fully documented for source, latitude, altitude, rainfall and temperature information, date of collection, method of collection, and handling and storage. (4) In areas where the indigenous sandalwood is threatened by overexploitation or damaging environmental factors, seed should be collected and ex situ seed stands established. Marketing and Utilization Raw sandalwood has three major uses: carving, incense, and oil. Quality specifications, and hence prices for raw sandalwood, vary considerably between species in each of these categories, so it is best to look at each category separately, even though the markets for each use are not strictly differentiated (Appendix A). Carvings Carvings utilize the best quality sandalwood. Finished prod­ ucts range from large statues of deities to animals, boxes, beads, and other handicrafts. Fans are also made in considerable quantities both by hand and machine. Logs selected for carving usually fall into two major grades. Grade specifications differ for each country (or perhaps between buyers), but in general logs selected for carving must be 1 m (3 ft) in length, defect free (i.e., no cracks, rot, or other blemishes), and have a heartwood diameter of at least 12.5 cm (5 in). Distinctions between grades are made on the basis of heartwood diameter, and examples of grade specifications for three production regions are given in Appendix B. 8 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  14. Major buyers of sandalwood logs for carving are from Hong Kong and Taiwan. They in turn distribute to China, Japan, and Singapore. India produces the best sandalwood logs for carving due to the fine grain of the S. album, but utilizes it all domesti­ cally. Export of S. album logs is prohibited. Major exporters of top quality logs are Hawai‘i, Fiji, Indonesia, and Western Australia. Vanuatu, a producer of quality sandalwood, currently has a 5-year moratorium on all cutting and export. Tonga has also been a producer of quality logs, but its prgsent status is unknown. Papua New Guinea also supplies logs, but they are considered lower quality. Many logs for carving are sold clean of sapwood, though buyers prefer Grade A logs with sapwood in order to prevent cracking and splitting. The ends of logs for carving are usually sealed with a compound to prevent cracking and oil loss. Logs should have an oil content of at least 2 percent to facilitate carving. Distillation and Extraction—The water distillation method has been carried out in India in small units of production located principally on the West Coast, along the periphery of the Mysore Plateau, and at Kannuj in North India, since ancient times. The heartwood powder is soaked in water in a copper vessel which is then heated on an open fire. The vapors from the still are conducted through a bamboo or copper pipe to receivers kept in cold water. The floating oil in the distillate is mechanically ladled off, and the oil is refined further by filtration and decan­ tation. In this way, yields as high as 4.5 percent are obtained. The oil obtained by this method is claimed to possess a finer odor than the one produced in modern steam stills. More than 90 percent of the present production of sandal oil in India comes from four government factories employing the modem steam distillation method. The important distilleries are located in Karnataka, Andha Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Mahrashtra. These factories each utilize 1.50 tonnes of wood daily, which yield 90 kilograms of oil. The export price of the oil starts at $1,500 U.S. per kilogram and may go beyond this depending upon quality. The final product is a yellow oil, optically clear, possessing the characteristic sandalwood odor, and conforming to pharmacopoeial standards. Average yield of oil ranges between 4.50 and 6.25 percent. Two distillation plants are located on Timor and in New Caledonia. Production of oil by solvent extraction is possible; however, the product obtained by this method is not preferred by the perfume industry. Uses—Sandalwood oil is highly prized as a raw material in perfumery, because of its nonvarying composition, fixative properties, and—most importantly—its sweet, warm, spicy, and tenacious fragrance. Sandalwood oils are also used in soaps, face creams, and toilet powder. Apart from being a supremely satisfying source of the fra­ grance, sandalwood oil has many medicinal uses. The oil is used as an antiseptic, an antiscabietic, a diuretic, and for the treatment of gonorrhea, bronchitis, and bladder infections. However, its use as a base of fragrance has far outweighed its use in medicine. Most sandalwood oil is exported to perfumeries in France and New York. Incense The market for incense, an essential component of Hindu and Buddhist religions, is large and increasing. It has also been increasing in the Western world over the last two decades. Singapore and Taiwan are the two major incense (joss-stick) manufacturing sites. Mills reduce the wood into powder, which is either attached to bamboo slivers with wood resin or simply compacted into sticks. The latter are mainly for the Japanese and Saudi Arabian markets. The incense market absorbs mostly C grade logs, which are either below minimum length or have smaller heartwood diam­ eters. Many buyers prefer to purchase logs and do their own powdering to ensure quality. They also take roots and butts, as well as wood that has been chipped or powdered in the country of origin. Wood sold as chips and powder command prices of around $2,300 U.S. per tonne, and Singapore absorbs most of this product. The roots and butts of S. spicatum and S. album have a high oil content and are valued for incense, bringing at this writing some $7,000 U.S. per tonne. Prices of logs and pieces for incense vary from $2,000 to $5,000 U.S. per tonne, depending on quality, although prices higher than this may be obtained for S. album and S. spicatum. Australia supplies most of the world incense market at present. Although India allows some powder and chip export, quantities are limited. Since the sapwood of S. spicatum has a thin sap and a low oil content, the logs do not need to be de-sapped before use and the whole log can be chipped and then powdered. RESEARCH NEEDS Information is still lacking on many aspects of sandalwood from many of the countries where it grows, and the following research needs should be given a high priority: (1) Investigating the use of extracts from sandalwood leaves and other substances to improve germination percentages and to speed up the germination process. (2) Developing techniques to improve the germination of species from Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Hawai‘i, and other Pacific island countries. (3) For some species, such as those from Hawai‘i and Fiji, for which little is known about potential primary hosts, identifying suitable indigenous host plants and nutritional requirements. (4) Determining the optimum spacing and layout of sandal- wood and secondary hosts depending on the growth habits of the host species and its end use. Oil Sandalwood oil, obtained from the heartwood of the stem and the root of the sandalwood tree, is one of the most valuable oils in the world. It is a colorless or pale yellow liquid with a sweet and persistent woody odor, containing not less than 90 percent free alcohols by weight. The alcohols are principally of the sesquiterpene group and are referred to collectively as santalol. The major odiferous components are a-santalol and b-santalol, while a-santalene, b-santelene and santalyl acetate also contrib­ ute in a minor way to the overall odor character of the oil. 9 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  15. APPENDIX B (5) Identifying the nature, quality, and quantity of the oils of those sandalwood species for which that information is unavail­ able. (6) Developing reliable resource information for existing natural stands to support management for conservation of the species. (7) Developing yield tables for different sites and species in plantations and natural forests. (8) Defining the effects of different land use practices on sandalwood stand dynamics, growth, and distribution. (9) Establish an information network on individuals and institutions that carry out research or management of sandalwood. Grades and Approximate Prices Per Tonne (Metric) for Three Major Sandalwood Production Areas India—S. album Average selling price (green and dead), assuming 90 percent cleaned 1987 US$4,590 /tonne 1990 US$9,410 /tonne ( 78,000 rupees) (160,000 rupees) Wood A-grade logs 15 cm (6 in.) minimum heartwood, minimum 2 foot length: Average price: US$ 10,000 tonne B-grade logs under 15 cm (6 in.) heartwood, butts, and roots: Average price: US$7,060 /tonne APPENDIX A C-grade defective A and B grade logs & pieces: Average price: US$4,700 /tonne Distribution and Marketing of Sandalwood Logs 1989-1990 Chips and Powder Average price: US$2,300 /tonne Log Exports Log Import Country Oil Producing Country Species tonnes per annum (approx) Oil content is a crucial determinant of wood quality. Oil content of S. album is between 2.8 - 6.5 percent for the quantity of oil, differs between trees, and is difficult to determine beforehand. India S. album Prohibited, except small quantities Nepal Price for oil (government factories) is $1,500/kilo (export price) $ 470/kilo (internal price) Indonesia S. album ? Hong Kong/ Taiwan Australia S. lanceolatum S. spicatum 500 1,800+ Taiwan Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong Australia Western Australia—S. spicatum Logs, green and dead, sapwood on. Grade: Single grade, min. length 1 m (3 ft) Average Price: US$4,260 /tonne ($AUD5,700 /tonne) Hawai‘i S. ellipticum 300+ Hong Kong, Taiwan Grade: Roots & Butts Average Price: $5,600 US/tonne ($7,500 AUD/tonne) (Chips and powder; prices unknown) Fiji S. yasi/album 250 Hong Kong Queensland—S. lanceolatum Tonga S. yasi 40 Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore Logs, green and dead, all 90 percent cleaned of sapwood Grade 1. Min. length 1 m (3 ft), minimum heartwood diameter 7.5 cm (3 in.) Average price: US$2,000/tonne (AUD$2,500 /tonne) Vanuatu S. austrocaledonicum 5 yr moratorium since 1987 Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore Grade 2. Under 1 m (3 ft) length, heartwood diameter less than 7.5 cm (3 in.) (billets) Average price: US$1,600 /tonne (AUD$2000 /tonne) New Caledonia S. austrocaledonicum None (only oil) France Hawai‘i S. ellipticum logs, green and dead, 90 percent cleaned Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore Papua New Guinea S. macgregorii 250+ Grade A: 10 in. heartwood diameter and minimum length 3 ft, defect free Average price: US$ 10,000 /tonne Grade B: 5-10 in. heartwood diameter, minimum length 3 ft defect free Average price: US$4,500 /tonne Marquesas1 S. insulare S. marchionense ? ? Grade C: 2-5 in. heartwood diameter, minimum length 2 ft 5 in. Average price: US$3,400 US/tonne Solomon Islands1 ? Taiwan+? Wood under 2 in. must be solid heart and sap free, and is included in grade C as also are roots and butts. Note: Grade A buyers prefer sapwood on the logs to prevent cracks and splits, and price per tonne is adjusted accordingly. 1 Not known if currently producing. 10 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  16. Shineberg, D. 1967. They come for sandalwood. A study of the sandalwood trade in the south-west Pacific 1830-1865. Melbourne: Melbourne Univer­ sity Press; 216 p. Skottsberg, C. 1930. Further notes on Pacific sandalwoods. Acta Horti Gothoborg 5: 136-143. Skottsberg, C. 1930. The geographical distribution of the sandalwoods and its significance. Proc. 4th Pacific Science Congress (Java) 3:435-442. Smith, A. C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis Nova, vol. 3. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Statham, P. 1988. The Australian sandalwood trade, small but significant. Working Paper No. 100. Canberra, Australia. Department of Economic History, The Australian National University. 36 p. Stemmennann, L. 1980. Observations on the genus Santalum (Sontalaceae) in Hawai‘i. Pacific Science 34(1):41-54. Stemmermann, L. 1980. Vegetative anatomy of the Hawaiian species of Santalum (Santalaceae). Pacific Science 34(l):55-75. Sykes,W.R. 1980. Sandalwood in the Cook Islands. Pacific Science 34(l):77- 82. Tuyama, T. 1939. On Santalum boninense, and the distribution of the species of Santalum. Jap. J. Bot. 15:697-712. Yuncker, T. G. 197 1. Plants of Tonga. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220. Wagner, W. L.; Herbst, D. R.; Sohmer, S. H. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. REFERENCES Anon. Fragrant harvest. 1979. Landscope 40:(4) 26-30. Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management. Chavvin, J.P. 1990. La production de plants de santal en Nouvelle Caledonie. Bois et Forests des Tropiques N°218, 1-10. Fosberg, F. R.; Sachet, M.H. 1985. Santalum in Eastern Polynesia. Candollea 40(2): 459-470. George, A. S. 1984. Santalum. in Flora of Australia, vol. 22. Bureau of Flora and Fauna. Australian Government Publishing Service. Canberra, Australia. Maina, S. L; Pray, L. A; Defilipps, R. A. 1988. A historical note on the endangered Santalum boninensis (Santalacaea) of the Ogasawara Islands: Early reports by Jahrasi Tuyoma. Atoll Research Bulletin 319: 19-24. Mathur, N.K. 1979. An annotated bibliography of spike disease of sandal (Santalum album Linn.) Forestry Research Institute. Dehra Dun. 74 p. Neil, P. E. 1986. Sandalwood in Vanuatu. Forest Research Report, 5/86, Vanuatu Forest Service, Port Vila, Vanuatu; 8 p. Neil, P. E. 1989. Possible techniques for raising and planting sandalwood in Nepal. Banko Janakari 2(3):1-6; 1989. Parthasarathi, K; Rai, S.N. 1989. Physiology, chemistry and utilization of sandal (Santalum album Linn.) My forest 25(2): 181-219. Ross, M.S. 1985. Annotated bibliography on sandalwood, Santalum album, and its uses. Bos-Document 2. Dutch Forestry Development Cooperation, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 135 p. 11 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  17. was controlled under the Sandalwood Act of Queensland of 1934. Under the provisions of the Act, all sandalwood from Queensland was marketed by the Queensland Forest Service (Q.F.S.) and then sold in accordance with the terms of an agreement with the Australian Sandalwood Company of Perth, Western Australia. The Sandalwood Act prohibited any person from harvesting, getting, pulling, or removing sandalwood without a license issued by the Government. The sandalwood industry declined in Queensland in the late 1930's, and, although it had died out by 1940, it was revived again in 1983. The Sandalwood Act of 1934 granted a monopoly to the Australian Sandalwood Company that effectively halted pro­ duction of sandalwood in Queensland. The revoking of the Act in 1982 made way for the revival of the sandalwood industry in north Queensland with annual sales from Crown land initially limited to 500 tonnes. The quota was divided among three buyers who were operating on Crown land in the Gulf region from Normanton to just north of the Mitchell River—an area of about 30,000 km2. In February 1987, tenders were invited by the Q.F.S. for the exclusive rights to purchase sandalwood from Crown land over a period of 20 years. Although there was no guarantee of Managing Sandalwood for Conservation in North Queensland, Australia1 Grahame B. Applegate Peter A. Annable2 Allan G. W. Davis Abstract: Santalum lanceolatum, the commercial species of sandalwood har­ vested in Queensland, was worth $4.2 million in export earnings in 1988. The ecology of the species in natural forests is summarized, and information on seedling regeneration and coppice and root suckering strategies is provided. Stand characteristics and size class distribution in two different environments in northwest Queensland are provided. It is important to manage the resource for conservation. The harvesting guidelines, pricing criteria, and procedures are discussed along with information on heartwood recovery and moisture content of harvested sandalwood. Future research should be undertaken to monitor stand dynamics, growth rates, and the effects of land use practices on the distribution, growth, and dynamics of sandalwood in natural stands. The trade in this fragrant wood has been going on since the dawn of history and will probably not cease until the connection between santal trees and idolators existing from time immorial, shall have been broken up, by either the one or the other becoming as extinct a race as the Archaepteryx or the Dodo. (Sawyer 1892) Long before the southern part of Australia was settled by Europeans, the north may have been invaded by the Malays, primarily in search of sandalwood for use in making joss sticks and to carve idols to decorate temples. The first recording of sandalwood exported from Australia was in the State of Western Australia in 1846, when about 4 tonnes of wood were sent abroad for oil production. Sandalwood then became the State's major export income earner, with between 3000 and 4000 tonnes of sandalwood exported annually to the end of the century (Kealley 1989). Today Western Australia has a robust industry controlled by the Australian Sandalwood Company, which in 1988 ex- ported $A 9.1 million worth of sandalwood (Anon. 1988). The sandalwood industry commenced in Queensland in Cape York around 1865 (fig. 1). Initially, sandalwood cutters and export facilities were concentrated in the northern part of Cape York Peninsula around Cooktown, Coen, Weipa, and Somerset (fig. 1). Some cutting was carried out north of Normanton in 1917 and just north of the Mitchell River in 1923 (Wharton 1985). During the 1920's and early 1930's, the industry developed in Western Queensland and was centered on the basalt wall country near the town of Hughenden (Wharton 1985). During this period, the marketing of sandalwood harvested from both Crown (government-owned) and privately owned land in Queensland 1Presented at the Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific, April 9-11, 1990, Honolulu, Hawaii. 2Officer in Charge, Research Center, Atherton; District Marketing Officer, Atherton; Overseer, Atherton-all with the Queensland Forest Service, Austra­ lia. Figure 1—Major sandalwood producing areas in N.W. Queensland. 12 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  18. availability, the sandalwood was offered at the rate of 1000 tonnes (bark-on) per annum. The rights to purchase sandalwood from Crown land in Queensland was awarded to Unex Industries (Australia) Ltd. based in Sydney. The royalty paid for the sandalwood harvested from Crown land was in excess of $1500 per tonne (bark-on). Until late 1989, Unex had contractors harvest sandalwood from Crown holdings on the basalt wall north of Hughenden and in the Gulf region south of the Mitchell River (fig. 1). throughout the region would probably kill the sandalwood seedlings in the densely grassed open woodland but would seldom extend beyond it into the scrubs. Hence, fire is believed to be a contributing factor to the pattern of sandalwood distribu­ tion in the region. Cattle graze most of the area; consequently, the grasslands are burnt annually after the summer storms to provide fresh grass for fodder. Partly as a result of the fine-textured soils and present land use practices, erosion is evident over much of the area. On most areas near the Gulf where the vegetation has been disturbed or removed for roads or stockroutes, natural erosion is exacer­ bated and the loss of top soil and gullying of the subsoil is conspicuous. Another region that contains considerable sandalwood trees is the basalt wall near Hughenden (fig. 1). The basalt wall, which rises 60 m above the surrounding countryside, is an old tertiary lava flow which runs in an east-west direction just north of Hughenden. The sandalwood grows amongst the boulders, generally on the slopes and in the gullies. Current studies suggest that the trees on the slopes of the wall do not grow as tall or as upright as those in the river systems in the Gulf region. The basalt wall region is grazed by sheep and, as the ground is covered with basalt boulders, roads are few and grazing is very poor. SANDALWOOD RESOURCE Species Description Santalum lanceolatum R.Br. is the most widespread of all the Santalum spp. in Australia. It is found in tropical Australia (10°s) extending down into the south of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria (30°s) and across to Western Australia. It grows as a tall shrub up to 7 m, with a crown that is deep and usually drooping. There appears to be a good deal of variation in leaf form, size, and color. The species has a wide, but variable (1.5 to 3 cm) pale yellow sapwood band and a brown heartwood. It also appears to have growth rings, which are thought to be annual. The heartwood is quite heavy when freshly cut but dries out quickly when stacked in the open. It has an air dry density between 930 and 950 kg/m3, which makes it a moderately heavy timber. Microsite Sandalwood commonly grows within clumps of other species or adjacent to other sapling sandalwoods (usually < 10 m away). This feature was reported in 1932 on Mt. Frazer. "Rarely was a tree found in isolation in open woodland" (Brass 1932). When the trees do not grow in crowded conditions, the crowns—as expected—are well developed. Often these trees have lighter, less fissured bark than do trees growing in more gregarious conditions. Trees in clumps often have poorly developed crowns with dark fissured bark on their trunks. Although the trees appear overmature, some are quite small. This small size may be explained as follows: the haustoria need to attach themselves to roots of host plants, so seedlings must be close to their hosts to do this; although seedlings derive photosynthates from their hosts, their growth is suppressed by the overtopping crowns of the host plants. Observations of the wood of these trees (in clumps) indicate that they frequently have a slightly narrower sapwood band than open-grown trees of comparable size. Habitat of the Species Macrosite The general area of northwest Queensland has a sub-humid tropical climate with a distinct wet and dry season. The strongly seasonal rainfall comes from the northwest, with most of the rain falling between December and March. The annual rainfall is between 870 and 1250 mm, with the northern area receiving slightly more rain than the south. Temperatures are high throughout the year, with temperatures of around 22 °C occur- ring in June and July and exceeding 40 °C in December and January. The sandalwood found in the Mitchell Plains and Delta Country at the southern end of the Gulf of Carpentaria is concentrated in specific areas on old alluvium and colluvium soils. Some of these areas contain texture-contrast (duplex) soils that are solodised-solonetz formed under high levels of ex- changeable sodium or magnesium. They are highly erodible, especially when the subsoil is exposed. Sandalwood is rarely seen in the open woodlands but tends to be more common on the outer edge of the scrubs of Melaleuca acacioides and gutta percha (Excoecaria parvifolia), adjacent to gilgai areas and around drainage lines. These areas are sometimes adjacent to the woodlands where the topsoil has been disturbed as the subsoil disappears, forming "breakaway" areas. The ecotone in the immediate vicinity of the sandalwood, i.e., at the interface of the melaleuca scrubs and woodlands, has often only a sparse grass cover, if any, and is unlikely to carry a hot fire. Annual fires Regeneration Strategy Seedling Regeneration Although sandalwood is a reasonably prolific seed producer with a succulent fruit, seedling regeneration in some areas is not very conspicuous. Seeds are easily germinated under nursery conditions, so it is initially surprising that more seedling regen­ eration is not evident in the field. In some areas, however, seedlings are found in large numbers, often as "wheat field 13 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  19. regeneration" in the drainage lines of river systems after flood­ ing. Field observations indicate that many of these seedlings do not develop or are not given the opportunity to reach maturity. Some of the reasons why seedling regeneration is not more conspicuous are as follows: •Seedlings require a reasonable moisture regime to grow, and this is not available for much of the year in the Gulf region or on the basalt wall. •In the region around Hughenden, annual summer rains are not reliable so conditions there are not conducive to seed germination. These conditions may explain the lack of seedling regeneration in part of this area. •On the stumps where coppice shoots are observed, all are heavily browsed by animals. The animals grazing the regrowth are either livestock or native fauna. become independent from the root and can survive from the moisture and nutrients obtained by their own roots. This unknown is one of the reasons why living sandalwood roots are not harvested in north Queensland. Parasitic Habit Sandalwood appears to be a partial parasite, i.e., the seed is able to germinate readily on its own, but then the seedling seems to require a host plant from which it can sustain itself. One of the reasons why many young seedlings do not grow could be that their haustoria do not find a host plant soon enough after the seedling growth stage. This parastic habit could be one reason why many sandalwood trees that appear to be growing well are found among clumps of other species. There is no evidence to suggest that this species of sandalwood kills its host plant. Vegetative Regeneration Stand Structure Stump Coppice—The stumps of four different ages showed little coppice development. Although some stumps contained numerous coppice shoots, few—if any—appeared to be of a size that would indicate that they would grow into a tree. It is doubtful (from our observations) whether coppice shoots from stumps would have any effect on the long-term regeneration of the species in many parts of north Queensland. Root Suckers—Formation of root suckers appears to lead to successful regeneration of Santalum lanceolatum. In many of the forest types where sandalwood is found, solitary trees are seldom seen, and where two trees are found close to each other, one is usually smaller than the other. Roots from these larger parent trees were excavated and followed to a distance of 7 m from the stem, where a root sucker had produced the other stem. Other suckers were present on other roots coming from the same parent tree. Regeneration at least to 5 cm d.b.h. resulting from root suckers from the roots of a parent tree is common. Although fire and browsing animals may invade these areas, the presence of prolific and vigorous sucker regeneration would suggest that these suckers have the capacity to survive and grow even when conditions are not conducive for them to do so. No data is available on what triggers root suckering in this species of sandalwood. In other genera, e.g., Schima and Daphne spp. whose roots often grow close to the surface and sometimes protrude above it, injury to the exposed root causes a shoot to develop near the point of injury. The injury could result from a number of causal agents including fire, trampling by livestock, damage by falling limbs or trees, and the erosion of soil from around the roots—the latter of which is a common phenomenon in and around drainage lines in the Gulf region. As root suckers are often observed on the roots of unlogged parent trees, removal of stumps during logging would sever the roots, disturb any suckers and might cause them to die. Stump removal could have a major impact on the potential for the residual sandalwood stand to develop. At this stage it is unknown at what age or level of development the root suckers The structure of sandalwood stands varies with their environ­ ment. Two main sandalwood producing areas are located along the lower part of the Gulf of Carpentaria and on the basalt wall near Hughenden. The sandalwood stands in these areas have different structures and size class distributions. To illustrate these differences, the data from two plots, one at Rocky Creek in the Gulf region north of Normanton and another on the basalt wall near Hughenden, are provided (fig. 1). Table 1 shows the stand characteristics of sandalwood on Rocky Creek and table 2 shows the stand characteristics of sandalwood found on the Table 1— Stand characteristics of Santalum lanceolatum on Rocky Creek north of Normanton Parameter Stems per hectare Percentage of stand Total no. of stems >1.3 m ht. No. of stems >10 cm d.b.h.1 No. of stems >12 cm d.b.h. No. of stems >15 cm d.b.h. 21.0 13.0 11.5 6.5 100 61 54 30 1 d.b.h. is the diameter at breast height. Plot mean d.b.h. of all stems >12 cm d.b.h. Table 2— Stand characteristics of Santalum lanceolatum on the basalt wall near Hughenden Parameter Stems per hectare Percentage of stand Total no. of stems >1.3 m ht. No. of stems >10 cm d.b.h.' No. of stems >12 cm d.b.h. No. of stems >15 cm d.b.h. 21.2 6.3 4.9 3.0 100.0 29.3 23.0 13.9 1 d.b.h. is the diameter at breast height. Plot mean of all stems > 12 cm d.b.h. is 15.7 cm. 14 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  20. however, a very large proportion of the stand on the basalt wall site (36 percent) in the 1 cm to 3 cm d.b.h. range as compared with 8.7 percent at Rocky Creek. This difference could be a direct result of land use practices in the region at time of sampling. MANAGEMENT FOR CONSERVATION The Industry Following the successful tender by Unex Industries (Austra­ lia) Ltd. in 1987 to secure the sole rights to purchase sandalwood (Santalum lanceolatum) from Crown land in Queensland for 20 years, processing plants were established at Richmond and in Brisbane (fig. 1). The harvested sandalwood was transported as small logs or branches to Richmond and Brisbane, where the bark and sapwood were removed and the heartwood baled into wool bales for export. Some higher quality logs were not desapped, and instead exported under license as bark-on. In 1988, Unex Industries employed three cutters who operated on Crown land in the Gulf region and on the basalt wall. During this same period, a number of other companies began cutting and processing sandalwood from private land on the basalt wall in the same region. The five companies also obtained licenses to export their product to Asian countries, including Taiwan and Malaysia. Most of the sandalwood harvested in 1988 came from Crown land. Export licenses were issued for about 600 tonnes exported in desapped form at an average price of $A 5000 per tonne free on board (f.o.b.). A further 550 tonnes in the bark-on form were exported at an average price of $A 2200 per tonne f.o.b. The sandalwood exported had a combined market value of $A 4.2 million (Anon. 1989). Alleged breaches of contract by Unex Industries were de­ tected during 1989, resulting in the immediate cancellation of the contract by the Q.F.S. Hence, as of January 1990, no sandalwood is harvested from Crown land in Queensland apart from salvage operations during land clearing for pastoral pro­ duction. A new management document to solicit new expres­ sions of interest in harvesting sandalwood on Crown land in Queensland is being prepared. Sandalwood is still being har­ vested from freehold land. Figure 2—Frequency of sandalwood stands from the Gulf region (Rocky Ck.) and the Basalt Wall. basalt wall. A frequency distribution diagram for the two sites is given in figure 2. The diagram for the Rocky Creek plot shows a bimodal distribution of sandalwood, indicating the possibility of two populations. This theory corresponds to examples readily observed in many sandalwood areas, where a large parent tree is seen with one or more smaller trees growing off it as root suckers, or in close proximity to seedling regeneration. The largest tree that was found in the Rocky Creek plot was 28 cm d.b.h., with a small number in the 20 cm to 25 cm d.b.h. range. Most of the parent population range in size between 12 cm and 18 cm d.b.h., with the progeny centered around 5 cm d.b.h. The frequency distribution for sandalwood on the basalt wall, as shown in figure 2, indicates that there may be three popula­ tions: A large number of young trees in the 1 to 3 cm d.b.h. range, another population centered around 9 cm, and another at 15 cm d.b.h. Although total stocking levels between the two sites are similar, generally the number of stems on the basalt wall in the larger than 10 cm, 12 cm, and 15 cm class are about half that of comparable size classes on the Rocky Creek site. There is, Harvesting Guidelines Before 1988, the lower cutting limit for sandalwood was set at 10 cm d.b.h. Stand table data showed that if this figure was adopted, about 50 percent of the stand would be harvested. This percentage took an actual account of the trees that cutters accidentally bypassed, and therefore remained standing, trees which contained too many defects (often caused by ants, fire, and heartwood rot) or trees with a wide sapwood band. To ascertain a suitable lower cutting limit, two major aspects had to be considered: (1) whether a viable residual stand re­ mained after harvesting and (2) whether, for economic and 15 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  21. conservation reasons, the heartwood constituted the major pro- portion of the tree that was harvested. Preliminary investigations showed that the sapwood band could vary considerably between trees of similar diameter. Although in many cases, trees with deeply fissured bark often had a narrower sapwood band than smoother barked trees (the shape and general appearance of these latter trees indicated that they may have been younger), fissured bark was not fully reliable as a means of determining whether a tree had a narrow sapwood band. Sampling was undertaken to assess the width and amount of heartwood likely to be found in a tree of given size. This sampling was carried out to assist in determining the harvesting guidelines with respect to the limits of the sapwood/ bark band width for trees of a particular size. Figure 3 shows a linear regression equation that relates the d.b.h. to the diameter of heartwood estimated from 50 trees sampled from the Gulf region and the basalt wall. Based on the combined equation calculated from data from the two sites, a tree with a 12 cm d.b.h. would have an expected heartwood diameter of 6.2 cm. The heartwood, in this tree as seen in figure 3, represents only about 27 percent of the cross sectional area of the bole section of the tree, i.e., a theoretical heartwood recovery of about 30 percent. The field sampling showed that increasing the lower cutting limit from 10 cm to 12 cm increases the number of trees in the residual stand by 7 percent on the basalt wall and by 10 percent in the stands in the Gulf if all of the stems greater than or equal to 12 cm d.b.h. were harvested. Before the commencement of the Unex operation in 1988, some cutters wanted to harvest the sandalwood by removing both stump and root, a practice carried out in parts of India. This practice was partly to blame for the decimation of the sandal- wood resource in some southern Indian states such as Mysore, since it prevents coppice regeneration from roots and stumps. In many parts of the Gulf, sandalwood grows on duplex soils which are highly erodible. For this reason, as well as the fact that sandalwood coppices from the root, stump and root harvesting is not practiced in Queensland. Harvesting Rules and Regulations on Crown Land Due to the scattered nature of the resource and the huge area over which sandalwood is found, it was not possible to provide resource information to the purchaser. The responsibility for providing such information was given to the purchaser. Once an assessment is made on a Crown holding, logging areas are allocatedby Q.F.S. officers, who then direct harvesting on those areas in accordance with harvesting guidelines. The purchaser is required to comply with the following guidelines, which are primarily aimed at conserving the re- source and minimizing environmental disturbance: • Trees harvested are not to be smaller than 12 cm d.b.h. unless they are dead, dying, damaged, fungus-infected, or otherwise declining. • Trees harvested should have a maximum stump height of 10 cm. • Trees harvested should be utilized to a heartwood top-end diameter of 3 cm. This would include all limbs with at least a 3 cm heartwood diameter. • Under no conditions are the stumps or roots of trees to be harvested. • To ensure that trees with a large sapwood to heartwood volume ratio are not harvested, trees are to be blazed to the Figure 3—Linear regression equations relating the natural log of the d.b.h. to the natural log of the diameter of heartwood from the Gulf region, the Basalt Wall, and a Combined Equation using data from both sites. 16 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  22. There are a number of theories concerning the relative amounts of sapwood and heartwood in a tree. Three of these theories are as follows: 1. Trees with a relative wide band of sapwood to heartwood are young, relatively fast-growing trees. 2. The amount of sapwood is genetically controlled and is quite variable. It could be independent of age. 3. It could be a combination of 1 and 2, i.e., the sapwood/ heartwood ratio is a variable characteristic (like leaf shape and size) and yet is also dependent to some degree on age or rate of growth. Although the cutting regulations were partly based on achiev­ ing a 40 percent recovery of heartwood, variation in the sapwood band from tree to tree and within the same tree necessitated actual field sampling of the processed tree to determine more accurately the heartwood recovery. To provide such information for the cutting regulations, sample trees were harvested from three sites: two from the basalt wall and one from a tributary of the Flinders River leading to the Gulf of Carpentaria. The stems were weighed before processing and the sapwood was immediately removed using the contractor's desapping machine at Richmond. Not only were trees of commercial size sampled, but also those below 12 cm d.b.h. (table 4). heartwood at 1.3 m above the ground to determine the percent- age of sapwood present. Trees should not be harvested if the sapwood plus bark thickness is greater than 1/6 of the d.b.h. outer bark. • The quantity of timber sold is determined by mass recording over a weighbridge with the documentation of the weights presented for inspection. Pricing Criteria Sandalwood growing on Crown land, whether a Crown Hold­ ing or State Forest, commands a royalty to be paid by the purchaser. Many timber forest products sold in Queensland by the Q.F.S. are based on volume measurements. There is a tendency to replace this expensive and time consuming form of pricing with weight scaling. Sandalwood is currently sold by weight measurement with the bark on. The environment in which sandalwood grows becomes very hot in summer, with temperatures often exceeding 40°C for weeks at a time. Consequently when harvested sandalwood is stacked awaiting transportation and subsequent weighing, weight loss occurs. The amount of the loss depends on both the time period between cutting and weighing and the prevailing weather. Hence, if logs are sold by weight, either as bark-on or heartwood only, the royalties payable could be quite variable for a given volume of harvested timber. To ascertain possible weight losses and subsequent losses in royalty, two studies were undertaken: (1) using bark-on sandal- wood and measuring weight loss over a 23-day period, and (2) using heartwood only and recording weight losses over a 6-week period. 1. Bark-on Drying Study: This study involved seven sandal- wood stems and 28 branches. The samples were weighed immediately after harvesting in February (hot, dry season) and stacked in the open at Richmond. After 3 1/2 weeks (23 days), the pieces were reweighed. The stems had lost 9.8 percent of their initial weight, while the branches had lost 14.2 percent. The overall loss of weight from the stack was 11.7 percent. Based on these figures, the Crown would sustain a considerable loss in royalty if the purchaser waited a month before passing the stack of sandalwood over the weighbridge. 2. Heartwood Drying Study: A number of stems and branches cut from trees in three locations near Richmond were processed (within 2 days of harvesting) and the heartwood weighed before it was stacked under cover. Although the results were quite variable, the stems had lost 13 percent of their weight after three and a half weeks (table 3). After 6 weeks they had lost 16 percent of their fresh weight. The branches provided similar results to that of the stems with a loss of 12 percent after 3 1/2 weeks and 14 percent after 6 weeks. Table 3—Weight losses recorded from the trial at Richmond Location Percent Loss in Weight 3 1/2 weeks 6 weeks Kara (Basalt Wall) Stems Branches Torquay (Basalt Wall) Stems Branches Saxby (Gulf) Stems Branches 12.4 14.4 14.8 16.5 11.6 8.6 15.4 10.0 13.8 15.3 16.6 17.7 Mean Stems Branches 12.8 12.3 15.8 14.2 Table 4—Recovery details of the heartwood expressed as a percentage of the bark-on weight of sandalwood harvested from three locations in N.W. Queensland (fig. 1)1 Recovery of Heartwood All Stems Location Stems >12 cm Percent 41.6 (32.9-50.2) Stems <12 cm Kara (Basalt wall) 35.4 29.3 (29.5-41.3) (22.7-35.8) Torquay (Basalt wall) 36.1 37.0 33.5 (32.9-39.3) (34.1-39.9) (18.7-48.3) Utilization and Recovery Saxby (Gulf) 1Numbers in parentheses are the 95 percent confidence limits of the 27.0 29.9 18.4 (22.4-31.6) (24.7-35.0) (13.1-25.4) Observations carried out on cut stumps and logs suggest that for a given size tree, the sapwood band can be quite variable. 17 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  23. RESEARCH ACTIVITIES Plantations Only some very basic plantings have been undertaken with S. lanceolatum as part of Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (A.C.I.A.R.) plantings in the dryland region of north Queensland. Other sandalwood species should be planted in some of the wet tropical regions closer to the east coast of north Queensland. Stand Dynamics Preliminary data collected to date indicate that stands of sandalwood show a large variation in the number of stems per hectare, size class distribution, both on apparently similar sites and between different sites. Further research should be under- taken in the natural stands monitoring growth rates of existing stems, seedling regeneration, and coppice regeneration and also by looking at the processes that result in the different size class distributions between sites. CONCLUSIONS Conservation of sandalwood and the long-term viability of the associated industry are economically important to Queensland. The harvesting guidelines devised by the Queensland Forest Service are designed to meet both of these goals. Even though no State Forests exist in areas with commercial stands of sandalwood, National Park reservations in Cape York and the lower Gulf region do cover areas with sandalwood. It is an essential part of the Queensland Forest Service's conservation philosophy that a sandalwood management plan include (1) harvesting guidelines designed to protect the envi­ ronment, particularly in areas dominated by highly erodible duplex soils, and (2) harvesting and marketing strategies that take account of the wide range of this resource and results from land use practice studies. This information will help define practices that promote regeneration and development of sandal- wood in the predominately pastoral areas in which it is found. Effects of Land Use Signs are clear that the pattern of sandalwood distribution is influenced by current and past land use practices. It is necessary, therefore, to monitor sandalwood plots in detail to study stand dynamics and the effects that various events and land uses have on the distribution and growth of the tree. These include livestock grazing (light and heavy), floods, fire and browsing by the native fauna. Marketing Because of the variable nature of sandalwood, it would greatly benefit both the Crown and the purchasers to investigate alter- native methods of selling the product that might take more account of the variability of heartwood recovery and the quantity and type of oils contained in the heartwood and sapwood. Other factors that should also be taken into account include climate and its effect on drying rates, the land tenure from which the sandalwood is harvested, and the isolated and comparatively scattered location of much of the resource. REFERENCES Anon. 1989. Top 500 exporters. Australian Business Nov. Anon. 1989. Unpublished report. Dept. of Primary Industry, Canberra. Brass. 1932. Unpublished records. Queensland Forest Service. Keally, I.1989. Fragrant harvest. Landscope 4(4):35-39. Conservation and Land Management Department, Western Australia. Wharton, G. 1985. Antiquarians and sandalwood-getters: the establishment of the Cape York Collection at Weipa. In: Proceedings of the North Australian Mine Rehabilitation Workshop, No 9, Weipa, 1985. 18 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  24. timber but little of the other species. S. acuminatum, or quandong, is grown to some extent for its fruit and edible kernel. S. album (cendana) from Indonesia has a very long history of exploitation, going back perhaps more than a thousand years. Some believe that the species is an exotic in India, having been taken there from East Indonesia by traders of the fragrant wood. It would be interesting to carry out chemical studies to try to clear up this point. It occurs naturally now mainly on Timor and to a small extent on Sumba and Flores. The current harvest is about 1000 tonnes per year. Considerable concern has arisen in the government of Indonesia at the continuing failure to mount an effective regeneration program and to protect existing resources. The original limits of cendana are difficult to define as it has been extensively planted in Java, Bali, and other Indonesian islands. It is also found to a small extent around the northern coast of Australia, and debate exists over whether it is truly endemic to Australia or was imported by fishermen or birds from East Indonesia centuries ago. Overall, tropical sandalwood resources have been greatly reduced in the last 100 years, and real concerns about their regeneration and long-term management have arisen in all tropical countries from India to Tahiti. Still, only in Western Australia is there tight control of the harvesting industry and a long-term management plan that considers both conservation of the species in its various ecological associations and sustainability of the yield. Significant variations exist in heartwood oil content between the commercially utilized species. S. album and S. yasi average 5-7 percent, S. austrocaledonicum 3-6 percent depending on source (Cremiere pers. comm.), and S. spicatum averages only 2 percent. The last is considered too low for distillation under present economic circumstances, and is used only for the in­ cense trade. However, it has been used for distillation in the past. In Indonesia, the wood of S. album is distilled for the oil and the residue is marketed to the incense trade. The main markets for the oil appear to be New York and Paris, while the centers of the incense trade are Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Korea. Every indication is that these markets are relatively stable (although sensitive to resource prices) and that there is little likelihood of the intrusion of artificial substi­ tutes. Status of Management and Silviculture Research on Sandalwood in Western Australia and Indonesia1 F. H. McKinnell2 Abstract: The current status of the conservation and management of Santalum spicatum in Western Australia and S. album in East Indonesia is outlined. Natural and artificial regeneration techniques for both species in selected areas are discussed. The present Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research program on S. album in Nasa Tenggara Timur is described in relation to the management needs of the species in that province. In S. spicatum, research on silviculture is essentially complete, and interest is now focused on the marketability of the kernels for human consumption. This paper is intended to be an overview, albeit incomplete, of current research on silviculture and the management status of the various sandalwood species of Western Australia and Indonesia. It is incomplete because it deals only with those areas with which I have direct experience and is not in any way an exhaustive survey of the whole region. Trees given the appellation of sandalwood (or various ver­ sions such as sandal, santal) occur discontinuously over a huge area extending from India, through Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia, and many Pacific Islands as far east as Juan Fernandez Island. They are primarily tropical species, with the exception of four species occurring in Australia that extend into the warm temperate deserts. All are species of the genus Santalum and most (those known as sandalwood) are distinguished by the presence in the mature wood of distinctive oils which have been sought after for centuries for a variety of medicinal, ceremonial, and perfumery purposes. The taxonomy of the genus is still somewhat untidy, but the following species distribution is a fair approximation of the present occurrence of sandalwood in the Australia-Indonesia- South Pacific region: Indonesia—S. album Australia—S. spicatum, S. acuminatum, S. lanceolatum, and S. murrayanum New Guinea—S. macgregori New Caledonia—S. austrocaledonicum Vanuatu—S. austrocaledonicum Fiji—S. yasi The species from Indonesia, New Guinea, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, and Fiji are all "merchantable" in that they contain relatively high amounts of heartwood oil, but of the Australian species only S. spicatum has had any sustained exploitation. Sporadic use has been made of S. lanceolatum in Queensland for MANAGEMENT IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA The Western Australian sandalwood is a small tree up to about 8 m in height, with a bushy growth habit and a crown diameter of about 2 m. It occurs naturally over a very large area of Western Australia, from the edge of the high forest zone out to the huge desert interior of the state (fig. 1). It has virtually dis­ appeared from the 300-600 mm rainfall zone due to widespread conversion of the natural woodland to wheat and sheep farming activities, but is still found over some 42 million ha on the arid zone. Sandalwood is usually found in the mulga (Acacia aneura) and eucalypt woodland vegetation types, and particularly at the junction between the two. Sandalwood tends to avoid pure woodlands of one eucalypt species, for example, Eucalyptus dundasii, E. longicornis, E. salmonophloia, or the Chenopod 1Presented at the Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific, April 9-11, 1990, Honolulu, Hawai‘i. 2Director, Information Resources, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. 19 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  25. Figure 1—Sandalwood occurs naturally in Western Australia. 20 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  26. communities. Normally, there are only two merchantable stems per hectare of sandalwood in the arid zone, but the huge area involved means that there is still a large resource. Most of this area is under pastoral lease for sheep grazing. The Western Australia sandalwood industry has been in existence for 150 years (Kealley 1989, Talbot 1983, Statham 1988), the first 100 years or so being quite colorful. For the last 50 years it has been under very tight government control, with all operators in the industry being licensed and all production directed through one company. A Sandalwood Export Commit- tee, which represents both the company and the State Govern­ ment, is responsible for marketing and setting the level of cut, which at present averages about 1800 tonnes a year. Despite this tight control, concern has arisen about the future of the species in Western Australia because its principal supplies are located in the semi-arid pastoral zone where regeneration is naturally infrequent due to uncertain climate and the prompt destruction of most regrowth by sheep, feral goats, or rabbits. This concern is the reason for the long-standing interest in sandalwood re- search in Western Australia. Areas where sandalwood can be harvested are specified by the Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM) from its inventory data, and licensed "pullers" are allocated an annual quota of so many tonnes of green or dead wood. Since all harvesting activity is closely supervised by CALM and since there is only one timber processor in the state, the industry is under very tight control. Sandalwood "pullers" are permitted to take only those live trees with a girth greater than 40 cm at 15 cm above the ground. Dead trees of any size are taken. Currently, about half of the sandalwood harvest is of dead wood, a consequence of periodic drought and a series of large wildfires several years ago (Kealley 1987). Sandalwood is very fire sensitive and is killed outright by even a mild fire. There are also restrictions on where the trees may be harvested in relation to homesteads, roads, etc. Virtually the whole tree is utilized down to about 2 cm diameter on the branches, and the stump is pulled out of the ground (hence the term sandalwood puller rather than cutter). Stems and branches are cut into standard lengths or "pieces" and loaded into pallets. Small branches are chipped and sold at a lower price than the pieces. Formerly the sapwood was removed and wasted, but it is now included in the product. Most of the present harvest of sandalwood takes place north and east of Kalgoorlie, with some coming from near the west coast at Shark Bay. Harvesting is generally carried out by full- time sandalwood pullers, but licenses for restricted periods are sometimes given to pastoralists undergoing hard times. A long-term plan (known as the Sandalwood Conservation and Regeneration Plan, or SCARP) for the conservation of the species and the management of the sandalwood industry has been developed and approved by the State Government (De­ partment of Conservation and Land Management, in press). It identifies areas to be set aside from harvesting and prescribes the purchase of additional areas of pastoral lease to widen the representation in secure reserves of the ecological types in which sandalwood grows. Although some very large reserves containing sandalwood exist in the southern part of its range, there are few reserves in the Murchison and Gascoyne areas at present. SCARP also provides for the establishment of a series of sandalwood plantations in the wheatbelt zone to demonstrate plantation management to farmers as part of long term program to return the species to the wheatbelt area. RESEARCH IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA Initial research trials on regeneration of sandalwood in West- ern Australia began in 1895 following the first reservations of land as State forest in the Western Australian Goldfields area. They were not successful and there commenced a long series of trials under the Forests Department extending up to 1982, supplemented after 1978 by research in Curtin and Murdoch Universities in Perth. Following the amalgamation of the Forests Department and other land management agencies in Western Australia in 1985, there has been continuing interest in the regeneration of sandalwood. Departmental research was initially concerned with natural regeneration of sandalwood in the area where it was considered likely to survive as a species—the pastoral and desert regions of Western Australia. Later, research moved toward the establish­ ment of plantations of the species. The clearing of native vegetation in the agricultural zone was so complete that no future for sandalwood was foreseen for it there. However, this situation has now changed dramatically. There is a great resurgence of tree planting in the agricultural zone, as part of a general trend toward more sustainable farming practices, and prospects for increased planting of sandalwood by farmers are real. All the department research has been written up by Loneragan and is being published (in press). This report will cover aspects such as phenology, parasitism, adaptation to drought, wood and oil properties, seed production, seed handling and viability, germination, coppicing, fire resistance, growth studies, and regeneration research. Work on sandalwood was rendered more difficult by the fact that much of it was undertaken in the arid zone. Under natural conditions successful regeneration is dependent on having a run of 3 years of above-average rainfall. This enables the sandal- wood to progress through the sequence of flowering, seed set, and establishment of seedlings. Thus, one may have to repeat an experiment for 4-5 years in order to get realistic results. The research at Curtin concentrated on refining the regenera­ tion technique for plantations on farming land (Crossland 1982, Barrett 1987, Fox and Wijesuriya 1985), while the work at Murdoch focused almost entirely on exploring ways of vegeta­ tive reproduction in S. spicatum with the ultimate objective of propagating clones with superior oil content. All the University work was funded by the Western Australian Sandalwood Re- search Institute, a private research organization sponsored by the Australian Sandalwood Company. The total of all the research on S. spicatum has been the de­ velopment of a reliable establishment technique and good infor­ mation on its growth under varying conditions, but a complete failure to propagate it vegetatively. Both cuttings and tissue culture have been intensively studied without success (McComb 21 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  27. pers. comm.). In tissue culture researchers were able to develop plantlets with shoots but could not, after much work, find a way to promote root formation. The most reliable establishment technique is to grow the sandalwood seedlings in a large plastic pot, together with a low- growing Acacia host, and plant out the two together. This technique is really only a research tool as it is necessary to take extreme care to not damage the host/parasite connection during transport and handling. It is also an expensive system. Suitable low growing species for the wheatbelt zone are Gastrolobium microcarpum and A. pulchella. The most suitable long-term host is raspberry jam, A. acuminata. In the desert zone suitable primary hosts are Atriplex subspinescens and Mariana polysterygia, while the usual long- term host is mulga, Acacia aneura. Mariana is a particularly useful host as its prickly stems very effectively protect young sandalwood from browsing. With this protection sandalwood can survive even in areas of intense grazing pressure such as sheep holding yards. For practical establishment, direct sowing can be used, but a tree percent (i.e., the percentage of seeds actually ending up as a free) of only about 1 percent must be expected unless condi­ tions are very favorable. In a good season the tree percent can be as high as 16 percent. Successful direct seeding requires: (1) Fresh seed, no more than 2 years old. (2) Spot sowing 50-70 mm deep into uncultivated spots, four seeds per host plant, at the drip line of the host crown. (3) Protection from grazing. There is now little interest in further research on this species in Western Australia, except in the area of development of the kernel as a high priced food nut (cf. macadamia nut). There has been some development of quandong (S. acuminatum) for this purpose already. Sandalwood nuts have been consumed by Australian aborigines and by farmers for many years, but in view of suggestions that the kernels of Santalum species contain substances similar to those suspected of having carcinogenic properties, further research is required. This concern has also affected the use of quandong for kernel production. If this aspect can be satisfactorily cleared up, there are bright prospects indeed for the promotion of sandalwood nuts as an intermediate product (Barrett and others in press) and the economics of growing the species would be transformed. It could lead to the creation of a large sandalwood resource in the Western Australian wheatbelt, and perhaps in other Australian States. Sedgley (1982) reported on the results of 7 years experience in the domestication of quandong in South Australia. The trees commenced bearing fruit at 3 years of age, and the best trees at 7 years were producing 10 kg of fruit containing about 6 kg of the flesh. Although the fruits were quite palatable, the kernels were less so, and further work is required to improve that trait. A feature of this work was the high degree of variability in many morphological features, indicating a high potential for selection of desired traits. There is some evidence in S. spicatum that this variability extends to the oil content of the timber. The success in establishing S. spicatum has not brought about an extensive regeneration program by CALM, basically because it would be quite uneconomical to do so. As it takes 50 years to grow a merchantable size tree of 10 cm diameter in the agricul­ tural zone, and 100 years in the desert zone (e.g., around Kalgoorlie), normal economic considerations rule it out. For this reason, combined with the general lack of natural regenera­ tion, sandalwood in Western Australia—grown purely for the timber—has been considered to have no long-term future. Interest several years ago turned to S. album as a possible future plantation crop for timber production. INTEREST IN S. ALBUM IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA rhagodioides, Cratystylis The Sandalwood Research Institute (SRI) was the first to take an interest in S. album, as the Australian Sandalwood Company was keen to ensure its long-term future, even though CALM inventory data indicated there was about a 60 years supply of S. spicatum remaining in Western Australia. There was also the possibility that S. album would allow the company to diversify its markets. There is adequate land to grow this species in the tropical Kimberley region of Western Australia, and small amounts of the species have been seen growing there and further east in the Northern Territory. A further consideration which has encouraged CALM involvement is a State government policy of actively exploring commercial activities that might diversify the economy of the Kimberley, especially where there is a prospect of value-added processing of the timber for oil production. Several trial plots were established in the Kimberley from 1986 onward and the next planting season will see the com­ mencement of an operational scale field trial at Kununurra and the first of a series of field trials on different soil types and in different climatic zones. Early results are very promising: mean heights of 3 m were being achieved in 2 years under irrigation at Kununurra. Sur­ vival has been generally good and no real difficulties are foreseen in establishing the species routinely if a suitable nurs­ ery procedure can be developed. Early plantings used several Kimberley Acacia species as host. There were distinct differ­ ences in growth of the sandalwood with different acacias, e.g. there was markedly better growth in the first 2 years with A. trachycarpa than with A. ampliceps. In the early trials, the sandalwood was grown under supplementary irrigation, as there is ample water available at Kununurra though the annual rainfall is only 500 mm. All the seedlings in the initial trials were raised in the same pot as the hosts, and some difficulty was encountered in finding a host that did not overcrowd the rather slow-growing sandalwood seedling. Pruning the host was the answer, but that could clearly not be used in anything more than a research trial. A further problem appeared 2 or 3 years after planting out when it was found that the host was too close to the sandalwood and was pushing the sandalwood over. This prompted a move to a two- stage host system: the primary host being a small, low-growing species such as A. trachycarpa and the long-term host being a variety of large acacias and other species of tree. The only real problem so far with sandalwood in the Kimberley has been some damage from a stem girdling moth. Damage is erratic and only noticeable in some seasons, and it is not seen as 22 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  28. a real threat at this stage. However, it will have to be watched. There is also a research program on S. album in progress at Murdoch University in Perth. Funded both by the SRI and a Commonwealth Government research grant and with field sup- port from CALM, it has field trials in the Kimberley to determine the best secondary host species and has also been working on vegetative propagation by tissue culture. Secondary host spe­ cies being tested are these: Khaya senegalensis, Cordia sebastina, Acacia gracillina, Adenanthera parvoniana, Azaderachta indica, Casuarina equisetifolia, Melaleuca leucodendron, Terminalia pilularis, T. platophylla, Dahlbergia sissoo, Cassia siamea, and Pterocarpus indicus. Vegetative propagation of S. album was taken up as it was believed that if a plantation approach to growing this species was to be followed, then it would pay to use only high-yielding strains of sandalwood. This field of research is finally, after some years, meeting with success and has reached the stage of having seedlings growing in pots for field planting in 1990 (Richmond pers. comm.). These trials will give invaluable experience in handling clonal material, and the vegetative propagation technique will be a very useful research tool. Most of this research has been carried out by Dr. John Fox at Curtin University in Perth. The project so far has concentrated on parts 2, 3, 4, and 5. In view of the steadily declining conservation status of the species in West Timor, it seemed that it was urgent to promote the reservation and protection of any high quality stands that could be identified as desirable sources of seed for any future regenera­ tion program. Dr. Fox has liaised with the Inventory Staff of the regional forest service in Kupang and located a number of suitable areas for reservation, although the necessary action to ensure their preservation is not yet proceeding. After preparation of a literature view relevant to the project objectives (Bar ett 1988), most of the research has been devoted to the development of a reliable nursery technique for the establishment of the species. Although planting seedlings may not be the technique used by a large-scale regeneration program, it is an essential research tool and at the very least, a fall-back operational establishment procedure, especially if seed resources are limiting. A two-stage host system has been the approach taken after preliminary trials indicated that use of a single host species sown into the same plant container as the sandalwood resulted in later physical difficulties due to their proximity. The theory is that the primary host may live only 1 or 2 years, be of a nature that permits easy attachment of the sandalwood root haustoria, and be able to provide adequate nutrient supplies to the parasite without competing too strongly with it (or if it does compete strongly, be amenable to pruning). The secondary host(s) must be much longer lived and provide support to the sandalwood for the rest of its useful life. A number of plants have shown promise as primary hosts. An unidentified species of Alternathera from the Kupang area en­ abled the cendana seedlings to reach a height of 45 cm in 5 months. Similar results have been obtained in trials carried out at the Balai Penelitian Kehutanan (Sutarjo pers. comm.) by Cajanus cajan, Sesbania grandiflora, Acacia villosa, and Amaranthus spp. Previous experiments on cendana increment under different hosts reported by Kharisma and Sutarjo (1988) indicated that a wide variety of plants could be used as hosts, but that the habit of some of them was not always suitable for operational use. The following data are taken from Kharisma and Sutarjo's paper. Mean monthly height increment of cendana seedlings over 9 months (cm) were as follows: THE ACIAR PROJECT At about the same time as interest in S. album grew in Western Australia, CALM became involved in the management of a research project in West Timor. The project was funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), which was partly concerned with the development of reliable techniques for regeneration of S. album. This has ac­ celerated the pace of sandalwood research in Western Australia and widened its scope to a considerable degree. S. album, or cendana, is a tree of great economic and social significance in Timor. It has been intensively harvested for something like 1000 years from the Eastern Indonesian area. For all practical purposes it has gone from Flores and East Timor, is at a low ebb in Sumba, and is becoming in short supply in West Timor. The Government of Indonesia is very concerned at the current lack of regeneration of the species and has established a research station in Kupang partly to work on this problem. The ACIAR project is a cooperative one with the Balai Penelitian Kehutanan (forest research station) in Kupang. The poor regeneration of the species has been attributed to the effects of uncontrolled fire, grazing, and inappropriate regula­ tory provisions in a hard-hitting review by Hussain (1983). The writer's observations in West Timor over the last 4 years indicate that little has changed since. The ACIAR project has several distinct parts: (1) Determining the effect of tree age and rate of growth on sandalwood oil content; (2) Identifying high quality stands of S. album for reservation as seed production areas; (3) Developing reliable nursery techniques; (4) Conducting seed viability studies; (5) Determining silvicultural requirements of S. album; (6) Conducting direct seeding studies. Control (no host) Phaseolus radiatus Glycine max Lycopersicum esculentum Cassia sophora Capsicum frutescens Breynia cerrua Capsicum annuum Calitropis gigantea 0.36 0.38 0.89 1.31 2.09 2.49 2.71 2.74 3.25 Some of these species, such as the Calitropis, do not meet the desirable host criteria outlined above and would cause the same problems encountered in the Kimberley, namely, too much competition with the cendana and later physical obstruction of 23 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  29. The lower-growing species such as Breynia, however, would be quite suitable for a silvicultural system that included raising the seedlings in a nursery with a primary host and then trans- planting out to an already established plantation of a secondary host such as Acacia auriculaeformis. The economics of doing this on any scale might be dubious, depending on the time taken to grow a tree of marketable size, but at least it works. A persistent problem with growing sandalwood in the nursery has been loss of small seedlings or failure to survive the post- germination phase due to fungal attack. It seems certain, from research by Centre Technique Forestier Tropical (CTFT), that thorough seed cleaning very soon after collection is an important requirement. I suspect that failure to appreciate this point has been responsible for past failures of direct sowing in West Timor. A further problem has been failure to provide adequate control of weeds for the critical first wet season. With adequate weed control and a good host, the cendana seedling can attain a height of 1 meter in its first year. Micro water harvesting structures may also be advantageous. It is commonly observed that cendana grows naturally in secondary forest or old swidden areas. It is rarely, if ever, found growing in high forest. It is also not often seen growing in the open, so it is of interest to determine if it has a shade requirement in its early growth stages. Field trials at Curtin University indicate better early growth with some shade, but satisfactory growth is obtained from open grown seedlings, so one could conclude that shade is not necessary, although useful in the early stages. Determination of a minimum rotation length is a crucial point for sandalwood. It is important to know at what age heartwood formation commences and whether the onset of heartwood is influenced by site quality or by cultural practices. Unfortunately there is little experimental material available for such studies and the work would take many years. Perhaps the best way for this aspect to progress is for the work to be coordinated by some international research working group (under the auspices of IUFRO) so that experiences on different sites could be pooled. It is also important to determine to what degree high oil content is a heritable factor, as this could greatly influence the profit-ability and rotation age of a crop. Vegetative propagation will be a key tool in evaluating this aspect, although an isoenzyme analysis technique has been reported as having promise in this respect. The effect of rate of growth on the timing and degree of heartwood development is clearly an important field of study, but suitable material is difficult to find. It is also of great interest to compare the growth of different species of sandalwood and their adaptation to a range of sites. Some additional funds were obtained from ACIAR in 1988 to support the establishment of an international species and prov­ enance trial to follow up this aspect. It was originally intended to include Australia, Indonesia, New Caledonia, Fiji, and Vanuatu, but could be extended to include other countries if desired. Progress has been slow due to seed losses caused by cyclones and by the withdrawal of Indonesia, but the first plantings should take place this year. I am hopeful that some of the Hawaiian species may now be included. DISCUSSION We are now at something of a crossroads in sandalwood research in Western Australia. We have virtually concluded our research on Santalum spicatum except for the work on the ed­ ibility of the kernel mentioned above. If that is successful, then we can look forward to a continued planting program with this species in the wheat and sheep farming zone of Western Austra­ lia as farmers withdraw increasing areas of land from farming for reforestation to control soil salinization and erosion. Such areas are ideal for farmers to develop sandalwood silviculture as a sideline, harvesting the kernels from age 5 to 50, then harvesting the trees at age 50 for the valuable timber. The conservation status of the species is assured in a number of nature reserves, and the sandalwood industry is managed on a long-term basis through a very effective management struc­ ture. It is proposed to progressively extend the area of land growing sandalwood in public ownership by the purchase of selected pastoral leases in Western Australia so that there will eventually be a comprehensive reserve system covering all its ecological associations. We are pushing ahead with research on S. album, with funds generated by the existing sandalwood industry, with the objec­ tive of developing it as a plantation crop in the Kimberley. Initially, this will use seedlings raised on the primary host system in a conventional nursery, but when seed supplies are more freely available, direct seeding must be a much cheaper method of establishment. Given the success of this technique with S. spicatum, there seems no reason why it should not work in S. album, provided sufficient attention is given to good seed handling to avoid fungal problems. We will establish a series of operational scale plantations as a lead up to a full scale plantation establishment program. It is likely that we will be attempting to interest farmers on the Ord River irrigation area to grow sandal- wood as a sideline to their other activities. We are hopeful that it will be possible to begin to harvest some of the sandalwood as thinnings from the age of 25 or 30. The ACIAR project is drawing to the end of its initial phase. It has made some useful progress, but much remains to be done. Perhaps it is unrealistic to expect more rapid progress in a difficult species such as this, and there are practical difficulties in field research in Indonesia due to the critical lack of resources for research there. As to management of the cendana resource in Indonesia, a crisis point is rapidly approaching. It appears that the present cendana resource has a life, at current harvesting rates, of only 10 years. A rapid decline after that time will have severe adverse economic impacts in West Timor. It will also have a severe social impact among the indigenous people, as cendana is a substance of great cultural significance to them. I believe we will see a marked increase in the effort devoted to its regenera­ tion when the gravity of the situation becomes more widely appreciated. In this context, the ACIAR project is of vital importance in providing the tools for the task of regeneration. We look forward to stronger international cooperation, espe­ cially with our neighbor, Indonesia, in sandalwood research. We also hope that the research in train will also be of value to 24 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  30. Kharisma and Sutarjo, S. 1988. Effects of Host Plants on Seedling Growth of Cendana (Santalum album L.). Santalum 2:1-8. Kealley, I. 1989. Fragrant Harvest. Landscope 4(4):35-39. Kealley, I. 1987. Management of Inland Arid and Semi-arid Woodland Forest of Western Australia. Proc. Conference of The Institute of Foresters of Australia, Perth, Sept. 28 - Oct. 2, 1987. Loneragan, O.W.L. An Historical Review of Research on Sandalwood in Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. (in press) Sedgley, M. 1982. Preliminary Assessment of an Orchard of Quandong Seedling Trees. J. Aust. Inst. Agr. Sci. 48(l):52-56. Statham, P. 1988. The Sandalwood Trade: Small But Significant. Working Paper No. 100, Department of Economic History, Australian National Uni­ versity, Canberra. Talbot, L. 1983. Woodland Gold: Early Days of the Sandalwood Industry. Forest Focus 30:21-31. Forests Department of Western Australia. some of the smaller South Pacific nations that have a need to diversify their economies. In that, sandalwood could well play a significant part. REFERENCES Barrett, D.R. 1987. Germination and planting out techniques for the Western Australian sandalwood (Santalum spicatum). Mulga Research Centre Jour­ nal, Curtin University, Perth. 9:31-32. Barrett, D.R. 1988. Santalum album (Indian Sandalwood) Literature Survey. Mulga Research Centre, Curtin University, Perth. Barrett, D.R.; Flanagan, F.; Edmiston, K.; Stein, M. 1990. Sandalwood Nuts as Food. Mulga Research Centre Journal, Curtin University, Perth. (in press). Crossland, T. 1982. Germination of sandalwood seed. Mulga Research Centre Report, Curtin University, Perth. 5:13-16. Fox,J.E.D.; Wijesuriya,S.R. 1985. Sandalwood planting with property owners. Mulga Research Centre Journal, Curtin University, Perth. 8:3340. Hussain, A.M. 1983. Report on the Rehabilitation of Sandalwood and the Trade in Nusa Tenggara Timur Indonesia. PPIPD West Timor. 25 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  31. inland beyond the Eastern Goldfields through to the foothills of the Darling Ranges (Talbot 1983, p. 25; Irwin 1847; Robertson 1958, p. 4). It also grew on the western borders of the Nullabor in South Australia. S. lanceolatum, the second major type of sandalwood ex- ported, flourishes in Northern Australia, around Shark Bay and the Kimberleys in Western Australia (Talbot 1983) and in Northern Queensland above Cairns and in the Hughendon- Cloncurry area, a basalt region which also contained a small patch of sandalwood of the album variety. Interestingly, 4 tons of this last mentioned wood were apparently used at Ghandi's funeral in 1948 (North Queensland Register 22.9.1979). The northern species of sandalwood were, and still are, highly prized by the aboriginals as the wood and its scent are regarded as fundamental elements in sex-magic (Sansom 1980). It is thus possible that the value they placed on the wood prevented its ready exchange with visiting Macassan fisherman and so de- layed world cognizance of its existence until the mid-19th century! The growth patterns, variance, and problems in propagating and cultivating these native species are discussed in other chapters. The Sandalwood Industry In Australia: A History1 Pamela Statham2 Abstract: From its inception in 1805, when it contributed to Sydney merchant incomes from whaling ventures, until today, when it earns several million dollars in export revenue, the sandalwood industry has played a small but significant part in Australia's economic development. The history of the industry falls into three major stages: first is the off-shore exploitation of the wood from Sydney, from 1805 to the 1840's and beyond; second is the free exploitation of Australian grown sandalwood from 1844 to 1929; and finally the period of government controlled exploitation from 1929 to the present. Sandalwood is a highly aromatic wood that has been highly prized for centuries, particularly by the Chinese and Indians. Powdered sandalwood is burnt in joss sticks as incense and forms an integral part of religious ceremonies (see report on details of joss stick manufacture in Forests and Forest Products and Industries of W.A., 1921), while certain species of the wood can be carved into many delicate forms such as fans, inlaid boxes and ornaments, and incense holders. Large carved sandalwood boxes have been especially valued as bride or trouseau boxes, as the wood is said to deter moths and other insects. Sandalwood cones, again of powdered wood, are used today as mosquito deterrents. Sandalwood oil, when distilled from the heartwood, is equally valuable being used as a fixative in making soaps and perfumes, and for medicinal purposes. It is mostly used today in perfumes and up to the Second World War, before penicillin, it was even used to treat venereal disease (Donovan 1975; Underwood 1954, p. 21). The many uses of sandalwood and its religious significance to vast populations, on one hand, and the relative scarcity of the wood and its very slow growth rate, on the other, have combined to make it an extremely valuable commodity in many parts of the world. Although sandalwood grows in a number of countries, most consume it domestically, and in several nations where the tree does not grow, demand is also high (e.g. Singapore and China). Consequently, a large international demand exists for the fragrant wood. Australia, basically a nonuser, has thus become one of the principal suppliers. Australia has several native species within the broad genus Santalum, but only two—Santalum spicatum and Santalum lanceolatum—have been used for export because of their "true sandalwood" fragrance. These two types can also be ranked in terms of their export potential. S. spicatum (also called S. cygnaum) has been the major export earner and flourishes mainly in Western Australia. Originally it grew in a broad range from above the Murchison River to Esperence in the South, and STAGE I: THE OFFSHORE INDUSTRY Australia's romance with the sandalwood industry began very early. Just 15 years after its foundation in 1788, Sydney merchants were looking for cargoes that could be exchanged for tea from China, for which even the convicts had developed a passion. In this period such trade was difficult not only because the Chinese would accept only limited commodities—including fur and sandalwood—in exchange, but because the British East India Company claimed a monopoly on all British trade in the region. To overcome this monopoly, the Sydney traders soon developed trading links with American whalers in the area and transferred to them the whale oil, seal furs and skins, and the sandalwood they had obtained on their own account, receiving tackle and tea in exchange. No sandalwood grows naturally on Australia's East Coast. It does grow in northwestern Queensland but not in areas that were readily accessible to the eastern coast in the days of bullock transportion (Boland 1984). All wood collected by the Sydney traders in the early years, therefore, came from stands growing on Pacific Islands, principally Fiji. Initial exploitation of the wood has been attributed to the increasing activity of Sydney-based sealers and whalers in the Pacific region (Hainsworth 1964-65, p. 2; Shineberg 1967, p. 2) because merchants financing such voyages ordered crews to look for payable cargoes in off-season periods. In this manner merchant Simeon Lord brought the first sandalwood cargo into Sydney in April 1805 (Hainsworth 1964-65, p. 3-5). By 1808 Simeon Lord's London agents were gathering in remittances from Nantucket, which totaled some £30,000 (N.S.W. Archives 1822-26)—a fortune when the Governor's yearly salary was only £500. But the risks of sandalwood voyages for the small colonial vessels and their crews were horrendous. Not only were the Fiji Islands guarded by dangerous reefs, their inhabitants 1Presented at the Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific, April 9-11, 1990, Honolulu, Hawai‘i. 2Senior Lecturer, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Perth, Australia. 26 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  32. were cannibal warriors customarily engaged in tribal warfare (Hainsworth 1971, p. 177). Overtime, moreover, the natives became dissatisfied with the beads and nicknacks they had previously accepted in exchange and demanded more valuable goods for the wood they brought to the beaches, hence increas- ing the costs of each voyage. For all these reasons the sandal- wood trade remained small scale, and even during this first boom period total quantities extracted from Fiji did not exceed several hundred tons (Hainsworth 1964-65, p. 18). Prevailing high prices began to falter in 1809 (mainly due to oversupply) and only sporadic cargoes were collected between then and 1816 when Fijian stands "were to all intents and purposes cut out" (Shineberg 1967, p. 7). Those merchants who had profited had done so, I believe, because the costs of collect- ing sandalwood had been largely swallowed in the general costs of equipping the whaling and and sealing voyages they were already financing; and because, in the early period at least, the wood was exchanged for scrimshaw—the carved whale's teeth that sailors etched during long periods of inactivity (Hainsworth 1971, p. 164). Carved whale's teeth were known as "Tambua" in Fiji and were worn by chiefs on a string of female pubic hair as a symbol of power. The Tambua are still highly prized and have enormous significance in transactions. Presentation of a Tambua is a matter of great honor, and by law they are not allowed to leave the island. One presented to Prince Charles had to remain in Fiji (oral evidence). Although isolated incidents of trade in sandalwood by the Sydney traders have been traced to the 1820's and 1830's, low prices in China and political difficulties between China and Britain generally depressed the trade until the 1840's. With the end of the Opium Wars in 1842-43 and the recommencement of open trade with China, however, sandalwood prices began to rise, initiating the second main sandalwood boom which lasted— despite fluctuations—to the 1860's (Shineberg 1967, p. 64-70, 72). The Sydney traders were quick to reenter the trade and extended their collections from Fiji to a wide range of Pacific Islands, especially the Marquesas and the New Hebrides. But the Sydney traders this time had American and English competi- tors for the wood, and supplies on the small islands were not limitless. To counteract diminishing returns, ships and crews had to venture further and further afield, sometimes into un- charted waters, which increased the risks of shipwreck. Prob- lems with the natives of the islands also escalated with their continuing exposure to Europeans, and natives' demands for more valuable trade items also increased. Profits were thus never as high in this second boom as they had been in the first, and by the mid-1860's the Sydney-based industry collapsed— mainly due to the exhaustion of commercially viable stands in the South Pacific (table 1). But by that time the Chinese mer- chants were being supplied from another Australian source— and this time with native Australian sandalwood. Table 1—New South Wales Sandalwood Exports 1842-1862 Tonnage Carried Total Total Value1 Cargos £'s Imported Exported2 Tons Value Exports £'s (est.) Value Whale & Seal Oil £'s (est.) Year 1842 1843 18441 18451 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 18553 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1,730 655 622 529 992 1,342 1,251 811 388 352 712 1,136 480 555 n.a. n.a n.a. n.a n.a n.a. n.a. 24,205 11,665 10,326 7,577 17,677 23,606 22,396 15,289 7,641 6,410 11,517 11,517 7,395 8,825 n.a n.a n.a n.a n.a n.a. n.a 1,485 205 302 429 309 462 375 133 17 90 389 389 315 325 150 346 103 66 3 1/4 152 233 19,305 2,665 3,926 5,577 4,017 6,006 4,875 1,729 221 1,170 5,057 5,057 4,095 4,225 1,950 4,498 1,339 858 77,012 72,989 57,493 96,804 70,126 80,528 68,969 45,468 29,368 25,877 34,562 34,562 28,155 20,770 25,355 32,306 1,450 532 136 42 1,976 3,029 — — Sources: 1842-55: Shineberg. 1967, Appendix I, p. 219-244. 1855-62:N.S.W. Statistical Register—Oil exports from the 1865 NSW Statistical Register. 1 Cargos sold in China valued at an estimated average £20/ton, cargos sold in Sydney at an estimated average of £13/ton. 2 Assuming all wood imported was exported. 3 End Shineberg, begin Statistical Register Series. incense. An overview of the volumes of wood exported from Western Australia in this period of free exploitation, however, reveals three separate phases. The first phase, 1844-1880, was the era of discovery and initial exploitation when sandalwood cutting was closely linked with the expansion of the pastoral and wheat industries (table 2). The second phase, 1880-1918, was Western Australia's golden era when sandalwood and gold prospecting were closely linked (table 3). The third phase, 1918- 1929, was marked by a rapid boom, the entry of other states, and by first attempts to regulate and stabilize the industry (tables 4, 5). 1844-1880 When the Sydney traders experienced rising prices for sandal- wood at the end of the Opium Wars, the news quickly travelled to Swan River, on the other side of Australia, where a cessation of immigration and a critical trade deficit were seriously alarm- ing the government of the 15-year-old colony (Statham 1979). News of a potential new export did not go unheeded! Indian and Chinese laborers introduced in the late 1830's and early 1840's to work for Swan River pastoralists probably first recognized the commercial potential of the wood, which had been noted by the explorer Ensign Dale in 1832. Sufficient interest was then aroused for the government to agree to send a trial shipment of the wood on the colonial schooner Champion to Bombay to "test the market" (Perth Gazette 25.1.1845, Inquirer (editorial) 5.2.1845). Enormous excitement greeted the STAGE II. AUSTRALIAN SANDALWOOD, 1844-1929 In the period 1844 to 1929, Western Australia was a dominant exporter of sandalwood, which was purchased mainly by Chi- nese merchants in Singapore and Shanghai to be powdered for 27 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  33. Table 2—Sandalwood exports 1844-1880, compared with wool exports, from Western Australia Table 3—Annual sandalwood exports from Western ustralia (volume and value) 1880-1918 compared with gold exports A Wool Sandalwood Year Sandalwood Export, Vol. (tons) Sandalwood Export Value £'s Sandalwood Average Price per Ton (£'s) Gold Export Qty. (ozs) Year Quantity (tons) Value (£'s) Quantity (tons) Value (£.'s) Avg.£ per ton —sample cargo only— 4 32 370 1,335 1,204 n.a. 219 0 0 0 — — 280 745 1,278 1,687 2,558 2,393 2,807 2,724 1,686 2,965 2,305 3,256 4,124 6,112 3,366 3,942 6,292 7,057 6,646 6,577 4,247 4,675 4,667 5,197 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 140,155 145,254 291,368 229,297 301,965 276,073 309,640 359,317 356,153 397,428 442,881 493,073 500,996 478,486 543,504 594,665 656,815 723,965 806,006 1,212,183 550,598 1,358,874 1,234,070 1,312,016 1,572,068 1,880,426 1,787,812 1,665,915 1,839,562 1,761,323 2,874,992 2,428,160 2,831,174 3,992,487 3,019,051 3,505,688 4,342,606 7,008 7,757 13,363 11,464 15,098 14,374 15,482 17,883 16,768 19,870 22,341 24,723 25,672 35,886 33,969 44,599 49,261 54,297 60,450 84,088 41,294 101,915 92,555 87,467 98,254 94,021 89,390 111,061 122,637 132,099 215,624 182,112 165,152 199,624 150,953 175,284 271,412 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 5,197 7,716 9,605 7,031 2,620 4,527 3,431 4,317 4,470 6,385 5,136 3,760 5,713 3,892 2,748 3,851 6,848 5,852 4,349 4,084 5,095 8,864 7,995 4,406 4,510 5,521 8,848 9,212 9,564 4,805 8,228 6,907 3,154 6,260 4,702 8,375 6,270 7,230 6,504 51,970 77,165 96,050 56,250 20,960 36,216 27,450 34,533 33,525 57,465 355 37,600 42,580 32,160 23,430 30,863 65,800 49,480 31,812 29,719 39,038 73,931 61,771 37,913 25,417 38,817 70,958 65,999 76,668 37,456 70,775 65,506 27,533 47,589 39,800 78,929 61,381 72,699 81,834 10.0 10.0 10.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 7.9 7.5 9.0 10.0 10.0 7.5 8.2 8.5 8.0 9.6 8.4 7.3 7.2 7.6 8.3 7.7 8.6 5.6 7.0 8.0 7.2 8.0 7.7 8.6 9.5 8.7 7.6 8.5 9.4 9.7 10.1 12. — — — — — — 302 4,873 3,493 15,493 20,402 30,311 59,548 110,891 207,131 231,513 281,265 674,994 1,050,183 1,434,570 1,414,311 1,703,417 1,871,037 1,871,037 2,064,801 1,955,316 1,794,547 1,697,554 1,647,911 1,595,269 1,470,632 1,370,867 1,282,658 1,314,043 1,232,977 121,112 182,670 10.0 10.0 12.0 10.0 8.8 — 7.2 — — — — — 9.0 10.0 13.5 9.7 9.7 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 7.9 8.0 7.9 7.9 8.0 9.9 10.0 10.0 10.0 7.4 7.5 7.4 10.0 40 320 4,444 13,353 10,710 1,220 1,593 0 0 0 51, — — 2,524 7,455 17,259 16,360 24,945 21,541 25,265 24,520 13,490 23,722 18,442 26,045 32,998 48,890 26,926 31,536 62,916 70,572 66,465 65,772 31,851 35,064 35,001 51,970 — — Sources: WA Blue Books 1844-1880 and Battye 1924 6 news, on the Champion's return early in 1845, that the wood would fetch £ 10 per ton in Bombay or Mauritius and £20-30 per ton if taken directly to Canton (Inquirer [editorial] 5.2.1845; Inquirer 9.7.1845; W.A. Gov. Gazette 9.12.1848). In contrast, exports of heavy timber and whale oil and bone from Swan River were returning no more than £4.10.0-per ton at that time, and were far more costly to exploit than the light, spindly, and fragrant sandalwood. At first, activity was centered in the Avon Valley (inland from Perth), where trees were simply felled with an axe, stacked, and sent by bullock dray down to Fremantle for export. When the first commercial cargos reached Bombay, an entrepot for the China trade—as were Singapore and Mauritius—the Australian wood was subject to close scrutiny. Buyers con- cluded that while inferior to the top Timor and Indian wood (S. album) and not suitable for carving given its lower oil content, the aromatic quality of the Western Australian wood was ex- cellent. This was a sought-after characteristic for wood to be pulverized for incense—which was good news for Western Australian exporters as there was a major demand for sandal- wood from the joss stick and incense makers. Even the butt and roots of the sandalwood tree were valuable for incense, and so trees were later "pulled" out by horse or camel and chains, rather than felled, before they were trimmed of bark, cut into sticks, and stacked (Richmond 1983). About 200 of the 3-foot sticks constituted a ton, and payment was made by the ton on delivery to the merchants at Guildford (the town at the navigable head of the Swan River) or at the Port of Fremantle. By mid-1847 sandalwood mania had gripped Swan River Colony's population. Feverish competition arose between land- owners and laborers as they laid claim to abundant sandalwood areas. Poaching and trespassing increased, and on unallocated Crown lands stand-up fights between teams were not uncom- mon. In the more settled areas workmen deserted their employ- ers to go cutting sandalwood or charged exorbitant wages to stay 28 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  34. mid-1847 to tax those who were causing the problem and to use the revenue for road improvement. An export tax of £ 1 per ton was imposed on sandalwood, but strong opposition led to its replacement in October the same year by a system of licenses to cut in a particular area and a 10-shilling toll (Perth Gazette 11.9.1847, 27.5.1848; Gov. Gazette [W.A.] 1.10.1847, 22.10.1847; Underwood 1954, p. 9-10). Problems frequently arose when both local and central authorities issued licenses to cut the same area of land (Erickson 1973, p. 71). Some idea of the extent of the boom can be gauged from export figures of the time, which show sandalwood to have risen from virtually zero in 1844 to a position where, in 1848, it challenged whale oil and wool as a leading export earner (W.A. Blue Books, 1844-50). The sandalwood export figures entered for 1 year tended to represent cutting activity in the previous year due to delays in inland and overseas transport. Given this, the feverish activity that occurred in 1847 can be seen in the peak £ 13,353 earned for the export of 1,335 tons in 1848. By mid-1847 the newspapers reported that there were over 1,500 tons of sandal- wood cut over the hills waiting transport (Inquirer 4.8.1847). Some of this was lost in winter floods and December bushfires, but the rest was safely carted to Guildford where it accumulated because bad roads and low water prevented its dispatch to the port. In April 1848 it was said that stacked stocks covered more than 1 acre (Inquirer 5.4.1848). By this time, however, most of the sandalwood stands in the Avon Valley had been exhausted, and cutting teams were having to venture further and further inland for payable loads. Transport costs gradually became prohibitive for, as Eliza Brown recorded, it cost eight or nine times more to send a wagon load from Fremantle out 40 km to the Avon Valley than it did to send it from London to Fremantle! (Cowan 1977). All would have been well if overseas prices of sandalwood had risen to cover the extra transport costs, or if the wood had been easily regrown within a feasible distance from the Port. But neither of these events occurred. Regrowth was prevented by lack of understanding of the parasitic nature of the tree, by widespread land clearance and by the practice of pulling out the tree roots and all, while oversupply of sandalwood on the Chinese market brought prices tumbling in the second half of 1848 (Lefroy 1848; Shineberg 1967, p. 80). By mid-1949 the boom was over (Gov. Gazette 9.12.1848; Underwood 1954, p. 9). At £8.10.0 per ton on overseas markets further exploitation was unprofitable. Cutting all but ceased. Throughout that year cutting teams slowly returned to the towns to seek alternative work, but their return resulted in rising unemployment in Perth and Fremantle—a fact that flew in the face of the labor-scarcity arguments then being forwarded by the pastoralists who were lobbying for the introduction of convicts! (Statham 1981a). Sandalwood actually had a lot to do with Western Australia's convict decision. It was the scarcity of manpower caused by the 1846-47 sandalwood boom that brought about the pastoralists' first request for convicts. Later it was the deteriorating state of the roads and the lack of other needed public works that finally convinced the townspeople that a limited introduction of first offending convicts would be a good idea. In any event, the colony was hoodwinked by the British Government, which Table 4—Annual Western Australian sandalwood exports (volume and value) 1916-1929, c/f gold and wool export volumes S-W S-W Value (£'s) Annual S-W Price/ton (£'s) Gold Volume (Fine ozs) Wool Volume (000's lb's) Volume (tons) Year 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 Source: Battye 1924 6,270 7,230 6,504 8,998 14,355 10,839 3,990 7,623 14,081 6,243 7,771 6,821 4,829 7,582 61,381 72,669 81,834 117,072 240,579 181,801 54,769 102,912 348,713 186,775 238,203 199,754 147,426 225,208 9.7 10.0 12.6 13.0 16.7 16.8 13.7 13.5 24.7 29.9 30.6 29.2 30.5 29.7 182,670 — — — 41,296 29,103 24,405 10,632 29,645 59,600 43,132 58,693 41,925 86,234 35,015 49,689 53,788 61,240 57,045 66 — — 90,523 36,117 49,619 91,080 14,261 10.535 Table 5—Total volumes of Australian sandalwood exports by state, 1918- 1945 (in tons) Year W.A. S.A. Queensland Total 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 6,504 8,998 14,355 10,839 3,990 7,623 14,081 6,243 7,771 6,821 4,829 7,582 714 1,606 1,386 3,068 2,508 2,223 1,593 2,513 747 1,058 1,167 400 — — — — — — — 347 1,621 1,292 1,543 2,214 895 543 1,323 1,004 964 653 844 432 153 354 102 40 132 546 635 224 135 291 199 144 96 73 159 339 89 546 446 463 310 169 169 65 42 — — — — — 6,910 9,130 14,901 11,474 4,214 7,758 14,372 6,789 9,536 8,209 6,531 9,955 1,948 2,238 3,255 4,518 3,935 3,186 2,606 2,606 956 1,454 1,269 400 — — — — 2 2 — — — — Source: Forests Department Annual Reports (de Bugh 1981, Irwin 1847). Farmers also complained about the difficulty of procuring transport to bring in supplies and take out their produce, as most of the bullocky teams and horse drays were committed to the sandalwood trade (Erickson 1973, p. 70- 71). In fact, the increased road traffic inland put enormous pressure on the colony's few main roads, and the cleared tracks soon deteriorated into deep rutted and pitted nightmares for the wagoners. To rectify the situation, the government decided in 29 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  35. declared Swan River to be a full-fledged penal settlement before informing even the Governor. In the long run, however, this declaration had advantages as it gave colonists the moral power to argue for, and get, considerable concessions, such as a commensurate immigration of free settlers, only male convicts, and full financial support from the British Government! (Statham 1981b). Somewhat surprisingly, the cheap labor of the convict era, 1850-1868, did not bring about any major resurgence of sandal- wood cutting activity. Prices remained low until 1859, when they rose to £13 per ton in Singapore and Bombay, and £20 per ton in China (Underwood 1954, p. 13; Ware 1975, p. 4). Between 1861 and 1865, some 2,300 tons of the wood were exported at an average price of £9.3.0 per ton. Of this, the government took £1.10.0 in tax, which was bitterly resented. Tax and license fee revenue, nevertheless, was used to extend and improve inland roads as initially promised (Colbatch 1929, p. 177). Supplies of the wood in the 1860's came increasingly from further afield. The northern and still uninhabited areas of Western Australia had to be serviced by sea and provided wonderful opportunities for evading the Government tax—in fact, it is said that "Smugglers Cove," above Geraldton was so named because of the illegal sandalwood exports shipped from there! (Donovan 1975, p. 3). From the end of the convict era in 1868 to the second big Western Australian sandalwood boom of the early 1880's, sandalwood cutting and export continued to provide a useful second income for some farmers and a living for a number of independent teams. This was a period of rapid pastoral exten- sion northwards and southwards onto leased, sandalwood-bear- ing Crown lands. Sandalwood was cut by shepherds in off-peak periods and stacked until a sufficient quantity had been accumu- lated to arrange transport. It was discovered in this period that sandalwood foliage provided excellent feed for sheep and cattle, so the two activities were mutually supportive in more ways than one. Extreme yearly fluctuations in exports could occur in this period through shipping delays (both downriver and overseas), natural h i7ards like bushfires and floods, and supply conditions in overseas markets when sandalwood-laden ships arrived, for prices depended on the season and the frequency of supply vessels. From 1868 to 1880, a total of 58,656 tons were exported, though annual tonnages tended to rise over the period (table 2). During the early 1870's the Mysore sandalwood plantations in India failed to meet domestic demand, and restrictions were placed on export. As a result, Indian import demand increased, and competition was lessened in other markets, allowing the Western Australian industry—marketing mainly in Singapore and Bombay at this stage—to treble in size (Talbot 1983, p. 25- 26). The peak of 9,605 tons exported in 1882 was in fact not surpassed for almost 40 years, though annual export tonnages remained high, aided by the construction of railways which significantly lowered the costs of transporting the wood from inland districts to Fremantle. Figure 1—Sandalwood cutters worked in the Goldfields region of West- ern Australia around 1930. Photo: Neil Mitchell, Battye Library, Western Australia. 1880-1918 Although this period of Western Australia's history was dominated by the discovery of gold, the sandalwood industry also played its part. From the early 1880's, when news of gold finds in the Kimberleys sent many men north, sandalwood began to acquire its reputation as "the Gold-diggers best-friend." When prospectors found Kimberley gold to be elusive (Colbatch 1929, p. 193), they gladly fell back on new stands of sandalwood they came across as a source of finance for provisions and transport—a relationship that was to continue and intensify in future years. (See table 3 for comparison of sandalwood and gold exports.) The Kimberley and Pilbara gold finds were soon totally eclipsed by the discovery in the early 1890's of the "Golden Mile," some 300 miles due east of Perth. Conditions in this semi- desert region were appalling, but the lure of gold brought people from far and near. Within 5 years Western Australia's popula- tion had increased 46 percent (population 1890—46,290, in 1895—101,1430) and kept on increasing rapidly to the end of the century (Ware 1975). While alluvial gold was easily obtained there was little incen- tive to seek out and pull sandalwood, but as surface gold became 30 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  36. harder and harder to find after 1895, sandalwood provided a welcome substitute. As eager prospectors moved east, they discovered new, unexploited stands of sandalwood and, when long unlucky stretches exhausted their provisions, they became sandalwood pullers to earn the funds to continue their search (fig. 1) (Talbot 1983, p. 27). Sandalwood stands were (and still are), fairly abundant in the Eastern Goldfields Region, and exploitation of this area led to the third main boom from 1896 to 1911, when annual quantities exported reached 8000 and 9000 tons (Ware 1975 and table 3). As sandalwood's value as an export commodity became more widely recognized, fears arose about the industry's long-term survival. The Department of Woods and Forests, created in 1896 (Robertson 1958, p. 8) attempted to conserve and extend sandalwood resources, particularly though reforestation pro- grams. Few of these proved successful, for even when the matter of a suitable host for the seedlings had been determined, germi- nation was not uniform; and pests and grazing animals (espe- cially rabbits) destroyed most seedlings (Western Australia Woods and Forests Dept. 1897). A story related in a departmental journal clearly indicates the precarious existence of the sandalwood plantations at this time. A small area was fenced and seeded, with hosts, in the eastern Goldfields, and forestry officers were watching it with pride. Unfortunately a local Arab had also noted the new growth and thought it highly suitable for his camels. He therefore applied to the Government for a lease over the land—and got it! Despite immediate objections from the department, the arab and his camels won and another sandalwood plantation failed to mature (Austral. For. J. 15.1.1923). In November 1908 the old license system was repealed, and a royalty of £5.0 per ton was introduced on all sandalwood pulled, to be collected by the Railways Department together with freight charges (Woods and Forests Dept. Report 1909, p. 15: W.A. Gov. Gazette 27.11.1908). Revenues increased immediately, from £215 in 1908 under the licensing system to £ 1,390 in 1909, the first full year of the royalty system (Woods and Forests Dept. Report 1909, p. 16). In 1913 another sandalwood venture began in Western Aus- tralia when a man named Braddock established a plant at Belmont, just outside Perth, to distill sandalwood oil. By 1917 he was exporting over 3,000 lbs of the oil to England, where there was a ready market (Donovan 1975, p. 7; Underwood 1954, p. 21) due to the British Medical Association's finding that sandal oil, when used in capsule form, helped cure venereal disease (Underwood 1954, p. 22) With the outbreak of World War I the demand for sandal oil for this purpose increased markedly, clearly working to Braddock's advantage. Moreover, the British Pharmacopea announced that tests on the Western Australian oil (all from S. spicatum) had an unusual positive refraction, which gave it a unique advantage in medicinal use (Donovan 1975, p. 7). Since the oil was also used in addition as an antiseptic, a fixative in perfumes, and as a base for soaps and creams, demand was high both at home and abroad. The export of Western Australian Sandalwood also did well throughout the war years and by 1916 commanded four-fifths of the Chinese market (Schorer 1974, Poole 1923). By this time, however, Western Australia had another Australian competitor in the sandalwood trade—albeit a minor one. Queensland had begun exporting small amounts of sandalwood from the Cape York Peninsula in the 1890's (North QueenslandRegister22.9.79, 6.5.83). This wood, of the lanceolatum variety, was exported through a Chinese merchant, See Yick, in small quantifies via Thursday Island (Bloodwood 1979). Figures are unobtainable for this period, and annual tonnages were well below 100, but it was a portent of a new era in the history of the Australian sandalwood industry. 1918-1929 Not only was the post-war era characterized by the entry of other Australian states, it was also marked by a boom of unprecedented dimensions and the first Government attempts to control the industry. Increased post-war activity was stimulated by two factors: first, an increased supply of labor for sandalwood getting, as many men returning from the war saw this as a means of raising the finances to settle on the land; and second, a significant rise in overseas prices. From an overage of £10-£ 13 per ton in China before the war, merchants were receiving an average of £36 by 1920, and even higher prices in the smaller markets of Manila, Singapore, and Bombay (Robertson 1958, p. 16). As a result of these combined forces, Western Australia exported some 14,355 tons of sandalwood in 1919-1920 (Forest Dept. 1920-21), the highest annual export quantity ever recorded (tables 4, 5). During the "frenzied" cutting of sandalwood, some form of Government regulation was necessary. Despite vigorous oppo- sition from the goldfields population (West Australian 11.2.1920, 13.2.1920; Kalgoorlie Miner 11.2.1920), an increase in the royalty payable on sandalwood cut from Crown land from £5.0 to £2 per ton was approved in March 1920 (Forests Dept. Report 1920). The increase in royalty, however, did little to discourage the sandalwood getters, especially as there was a noticeable recession in mining! Overproduction of cut wood in fact led to the accumulation of huge sandalwood stocks on the wharves at Fremantle (Donovan 1975, p. 4; Talbot 1983, p. 30). and to fears that the wood was being overcut. In consequence, strict new regulations were drawn up and introduced in 1923 (W.A. Gov. Gazette 30.10.1923; Underwood 1954, p. 22). These 1923 regulations were designed to protect the getters, conserve supplies, and ensure that the Crown received due reimbursement for the export of a valuable resource. They called for: (a) An overall quota on yearly production, to be determined by the Cabinet and not to exceed 6000 tons. (b) The introduction of export licenses to be held by those accepting the wood. (c) The increase in royalties to £9 per ton; and (d) The appointment of forest rangers to check illegal sandal- wood cutting, to enforce the minimum size rules, and to assist with programs of reforestation. It was hoped that by restricting supply the world price of sandalwood would be forced upwards, allowing maximum benefit to be obtained from the large stocks of wood still held in 31 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  37. Figure 2—Immense stacks of sandalwood awaited shipment at the port of Fremantle in Western Australia in the 1920's. Photo: Courtesy of Battye Library, Western Australia. Fremantle (fig. 2) and at country rail sidings. To protect the sandalwood getter in the face of this marketing strategy, the government set minimum prices for clean, average quality wood delivered to Fremantle at £16 per ton, free of royalty. Buyers were forced to pay this both by the license system and by the stipulation that without evidence of payment of the minimum price to getters the royalty payable would be £25 per ton. These curbs on the industry reduced the record profits of the early 20's and spelt the end for some of the contracting compa- nies that had grown up in the good years. Four firms continued: Paterson and Co., Western Australian Sandalwood Co-op; J. Hector and Sons; and Burridge and Warren, but they were only permitted to remove 500 tons between them per month, with the actual allocations being based on the market share each firm had held in past years (Forests Dept. Report 1930, p. 6). One loophole remained, however, for the regulations only applied to sandalwood cut on crown land, and in no way restricted the pulling of sandalwood from private property (Donovan 1975, p. 8; Robertson 1950, p. 21-22). Consequently, the amount of wood delivered to country sidings ostensibly from private prop- erty, but in fact from Crown land, increased markedly (Forests Dept. Report 1924, p. 19; 1925, p. 13). However, resulting legal wrangles ate considerably into the profits of the four export companies until the problem was resolved in 1929. Another major change was introduced in 1925 when respon- sibility for the allocation of sandalwood orders was transferred from the licensed private trading companies (about whom com- plaints had arisen over the distribution of orders) to the Forests Department, which set up separate advisory boards to deal with the two distinct types of applications normally received (Robertson 1958, p. 23). Unlike the regular getters, who obtained orders of about 30 tons each per annum, prospectors were usually allotted 10-12 tons to be supplied in two lots, one in May and the next in August-October. Actual orders, however, were fairly evenly distributed between the two groups, with the edge going to the prospector (table 6). These orders, however, were all for sandalwood obtained from Crown land; and throughout this period the problem of additional cutting from private property continued and the amount of stockpiled wood grew. Opinion was split over the effectiveness of the 1923 and 1925 regulations, but the four licensed companies now had worries on other fronts, for in 1925 South Australia entered the Sandalwood market (Forests Dept. Report 1926, p. 13). Queensland was still producing sandalwood (and rosewood, which was used as a substitute in the incense market), but this did not worry the Table 6—Sandalwood orders granted in Western Australia 1925-1929 1925-6 1926-7 Persons Tons Persons Tons Persons Tons 1927-8 1928-9 Type Persons Tons Getters Prosp- ectors 208 215 4,115 2,000 184 197 4,270 2,286 170 186 3,498 2,076 170 202 5,962 Source: Annual Reports W.A. Forests Dept. Note: The split-up in the type of orders was discontinued after 1929. 32 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  38. Western Australian merchants as they were dealing in very small quantitites. South Australia, on the other hand, was attempting to break into markets that the Western Australian merchants had considered entirely theirs, and this was a very different matter (tables 5, 7). Trading through a single company, The South Australian Co- operative Sandalwood Co., the South Australians proceeded to undercut the Western Australian companies by offering their wood, which was on average slightly inferior in quality, at lower prices (table 7). Also, the South Australians paid no royalty at that time (Robertson 1958, p. 24). In South Australia the wood grew in the west, on the Nullabor Edge, and in the north, and was exploited mainly by marginal wheat farmers settled in those regions on government soldier settlement schemes. Explaining South Australia's late entry into the market, officials stated that the tree had not been recognized until it was drawn to their attention by an ex-West Australian sandalwooder! (oral evi- dence). To relieve stress in the industry, representatives of the South and Western Australian governments met in January 1927. They agreed that there should be a measure of joint control of sandalwood pulling, and so total quotas were set for each state— 2,600 tons for South Australia and 5400 tons for West Austra- lia—roughly a 1/3-2/3 split (Forests Dept. Report 1927, p. 12). The agreement was successful (neither state reached their quota) and was continued in the next 2 years (table 7). To further reduce the exigencies of open competition, the four licensed sandal- wood trading companies in Western Australia formed a Sandal- wood Merchants Association in 1928, which then dealt on behalf of the companies with the South Australians and with overseas buyers (West Australian 19.2.1928). Partly to combat this growth of counterveiling power and protect the getters, and partly to close the private-property sandalwood loophole, the W.A. Government decided to intro- duce further legislation to effectively control the industry. The strict controls that ensued, combined with a world depression, introduced a new and less active stage for the industry as a whole. active but sandalwood export languished (table 8); and finally, 1971 to the present day, when rising demand overseas has made the Australian industry a multimillion dollar export earner (table 9). 1929-1943 The Western Australian Sandalwood Control Act of 1929 effectively closed all previous loopholes. It legalized the 1923 regulations and the 1927 Export Agreement with South Austra- lia. But it also went much further. A Government-set quota was to be imposed on all sandalwood pulled in Western Australia in any one year, and of that quota only 10 percent could come from private property. All wood taken from private property, more- over, was to be inspected and branded by forest rangers before it was removed, with a fee of £1 per ton levied for the service! By this time the four private trading companies were in a parlous state. China was tom by civil war and demand for sandalwood had collapsed: only 943 tons were shipped out in 1929-30 after a per annum average of over 5000 tons in the previous 5 years (Robertson 1958, p. 27). Huge stocks accumu- lated, and by June 1930, 7000 tons were stacked at the port. The four companies could not even pay the pullers for orders given, causing great distress in the goldfields area (West Australian 3.4.1930). To relieve the situation the Government of the day Table 8—Western Australian sandalwood exports 1945-71 Wood Sandal Oil Year Tons Value £'s Avg. Price £'s lbs 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 — 143 835 147 156 210 429 468 558 438 510 605 683 584 486 648 856 649 556 587 830 — — — 7,584 100,616 35,571 35,635 45,546 75,430 87,230 105,792 100,973 101,739 119,415 140,503 113,342 112,414 140,360 198,485 183,928 159,859 179,195 237,008 53 121 242 228 217 176 186 190 230 28,723 — 34,726 4,200 n.a. 3,743 5,686 4,405 600 5,800 7,793 6,686 10,590 4,134 6,956 13,637 10,662 6,452 5,265 4,616 Stage III: 1929 to the Present—Government Control 199 197 205 194 231 217 232 283 The period of Government control can also be divided into three phases: first 1929-43, when controls were first imple- mented (table 5); second, 1945-197 1, when the oil industry was 288 305 Table 7—West Australian and South Australian sandalwood exports 1925- 1931 285 W.A. £ Value S.A. Tonnes $ $ Avg. Price per Ton £ £ Avg. Price per Ton £ 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 804 691 620 585 939 842 314,987 476,606 453,008 409,108 549,156 535,517 392 690 731 699 585 636 4,374 3,291 3,561 8,335 3,136 Year Tons Ton Value 1925: 1926 1927 1928 1930 1931 6, 7, 6, 243 771 821 4,829 714 606 1, 186,775 238,203 199,754 147,208 22,228 43,790 29.9 30.6 29.2 29.7 31.1 27.2 347 1,621 1,292 2,214 895 543 10,409 46,986 35,712 55,887 18,028 9,642 29.9 28.9 27.6 25.2 20.1 17.7 Source: Forests Department Annual Reports to 1951; thereafter G. Hughes, Chairman of Directors and ex-manager W.A. Sandalwood Company, from company files. Source: Sandalwood Export Committee 33 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  39. determined by the Export Committee) to be taken from accumu- lated stocks, and the remainder from new pulling. This provi- sion, it was hoped, would reduce surplus stocks while maintain- ing employment in the industry (Talbot 1983, p. 30). Given the aim to control Australian sandalwood supplies arriving in China, it is perhaps strange that no attempt was made at this stage to involve the Queensland Government in the export agreement. In 1932—the year of the agreement—Queensland wood accounted for some 17 percent of total Australian sandal- wood exports, although for the rest of the decade its exports remained well below 10 percent of the total Australian sandal- wood supply. When the agreement came up for review in 1934, however, Queensland was included (Robertson 1958, p. 32) although its exports were limited to 500 tons per year—except when total Australian exports exceeded 2,750 tons, when Queensland could increase its production by 10 percent (Queensland Parliamentary Acts 1934). The agreement also stipulated that the Australian Sandalwood Co. of Western Aus- tralia would act as the sole agent for the Queensland Govern- ment in all overseas sales of sandalwood and substitutes such as rosewood, and that a 5 percent commission would be payable for the service! Activity in Queensland ceased in 1940, mainly due to the War, and, apart from a couple of small consignments (under 5 tons), remained inactive until 1982 (North Queensland Register 6.5.83). For South and Western Australia the policy of restricted supply embodied in the Export Agreement worked well. Prices rose throughout the 1930's (table 10), despite continued dis- ruption in China as a result of civil war, abnormal floods, and a fall in the value of their export commodities (Forests Dept. Report 1933, p. 10). With higher prices, the scaled royalties in Western Australia increased to over £11 per ton by June 1933 (Robertson 1958, p. 31). By that time the accumulated stocks in Western Australia had all but been liquidated and the number of orders issued to getters increased not only for wood for export but also for wood for oil distillation (Forests Dept. Report 1933, p.10). Two hundred eighteen orders were issued for 1,420 tons of new wood for export (the highest for four years), and a further 13 orders for 125 tons of wood for oil distillation. In 1922 Plaimar Ltd., representing the interests of the Plaistow Confectionary Co. and the chemist-cum-manufacturer J.H. Marr, had taken over Braddocks' sandalwood oil distillery, and so became the only sandalwood oil producer in Australia (Robertson 1958, p. 18-20; Forests Dept. Report 1922-3). Marr revolution- ized production methods by introducing a method to replace steam extraction, which had proved inefficient with the low-oil wood from Western Australia, by soaking shavings and sawdust in a solvent and then taking the oil out. Although figures are incomplete (table 10), they indicate that the industry continued to flourish throughout the 1930's until affected (as was wood exports) by a further deterioration of conditions in China and the outbreak of World War II. Wood cut for oil distillation was apparently ordered over and above the quota set. Although quantities cut for this purpose remained very small, they did help smooth out the pattern of total cutting until the war, and thus helped getters affected by the Government's ruling that half the Western Australian quota for export had to come from accumu- Table 9—Western Australian sandalwood exports 1971-1989 Tonnes Total Value Exports Australian $ 535,517 613,549 906,544 918,208 799,917 1,560,854 1,195,322 1,480,249 1,849,032 2,275,483 2,346,452 2,434,716 2,434,716 3,109,464 4,366,017 4,366,017 6,544,541 9,068,841 11,480,875 Avg. Price Aust. $ per Tonne Year 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 842 954 1,429 1,403 1,051 1,206 1,222 1,267 1,502 1,557 1,644 1,653 1,650 1,746 1,829 1,837 1,810 1,816 1,960 636 649 633 654 761 1,277 943 986 1,188 1,377 1,427 1,488 1,622 1,781 2,202 2,376 3,615 4,993 5,857 Source: Western Australian Forests Department Reports and records of the Australian Sandalwood Co. negotiated an agreement with the four companies to buy up all existing stocks—on the condition that they would combine their sandalwooding interests in one new company (Richmond 1985) In effect this agreement meant that the loose association already formed among the Sandalwood Merchants would become a separate entity—the four companies concerned all being to that time general importers and exporters. This Government pro- posal was agreed to in 1930, and the Australian Sandalwood Company Ltd. came into being (Forests Dept. Report 1930, p. 6), a company that still operates today. In its first full year of operation, the new company managed to export only 1,606 tons, despite representation in China. In view of the accumulated sandalwood stocks held by the Govern- ment, the Forests Department was forced to severely curtail orders issued to pullers, and that year a mere 212 tons of the wood were obtained from Crown lands (Robertson 1958, p. 29). It was recognized that if the industry was to survive, shipments to China would have to be restricted to their actual market requirements. To that end, control would have to be exerted over all Australian exports as Australia, holding 80 percent of the market, was by far the major supplier (Forests Dept. Report 1932, p. 9; Talbot 1983, p. 30). With this in mind the Western Australian Government entered into a new export agreement with South Australia in July 1932. Henceforth the management of the export business of the two states, marketing policy and price setting, were to be vested in a Sandalwood Export Commit- tee, consisting of one representative from each government, and one joint representative from the companies (Talbot 1983, p. 30). The agreement also entailed providing a fixed price to sandalwood getters and royalties to each government, which were to be based on a sliding scale according to the selling price of the wood in China. In Western Australia provision was made for 50 percent of its quota (which was two-thirds of the total 34 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  40. lated stocks. Moreover, the oil company did not have to pay the royalty per ton imposed on the sandalwood company. No wood or oil was exported from Australia in 1944-45, and neither Queensland nor South Australia reentered the trade on the cessation of hostilities. In Western Australia, however, activity revived quickly to enter a new phase of increasing market dominance. overseas markets were averaging £200, the government was getting some £140 (Robertson 1958, p. 38) (£131 plus £9 royalty), so the share was apparently about two-thirds. As most sandalwood at that time was coming from Crown land and getters were responsible for transport to Fremantle, the Austra- lian Sandalwood Company could not really complain—espe- cially as exports of wood and oil reached record heights in 1947. With the hefty increase in prices for sandalwood per ton after the war (table 8), and the resultant increase in government rev- enue from this source, some questioned the feasibility of con- tinuing oil distillation—which had been fostered as an industry of some importance to that time. Royalties on wood delivered for distillation were far lower than that on logwood, as they were based on the yield of oil per ton of wood, and on the market price of sandalwood oil. As noted, the oil yield of Western Australian wood is low, and the price of oil differed according to whether the oil was sold locally or overseas—the domestic price being some 46 percent lower than that prevailing in China. From 1937 to 1941 the Western Australia Forests Department received from £2.16.0 to £7.11.0. a ton in royalty payments from distill- ers and from £8 to 9 a ton during 1942-1946. Even the increase in Royalty to £19 per ton for wood used to produce domestically sold oil and £41 per ton for wood used to produce oil sold overseas between 1946 and 1949 was far below the revenue that could have been obtained if that wood had been exported as such (Robertson 1958, p. 38). Consequently a review of the oil distillation industry was called for in 1949. As the Export Agreement was also due to expire in October 1949, all aspects of the sandalwood trade were to be closely examined. At the end of August 1949 the review committee recom- mended that sandalwood oil distillation should continue, but only as secondary to the log export industry, and that the trading agreement between the government and the Australian Sandal- wood Company and with the other State governments should be extended (Robertson 1958, p. 39). After various amendments and extensions the Export Agreement was finally reaffirmed in 1952, and the parties concerned decided that it would remain in 1945-1971 In anticipation of increased sandalwood activity after the War, the W.A. Government negotiated a new agreement with the Australian Sandalwood Company. On the sliding scale arrange- ment pertaining between 1938 and 1941, the royalty levied per ton had averaged £12-14 (Robertson 1958, p. 38), while prices paid to getters had averaged £15.10.0 per ton—just under the agreed £ 16 per ton because of the slightly lower prices paid for below-average quality wood (Forests Dept. Report 1930-34). Before World War II there had been no difficulty in filling orders, as alternative employment was still relatively hard to find and the price offered was considered reasonable. After the War, however, many old-timers were unwilling to reenter the industry. They would need to reequip and, in contrast to opportunities available elsewhere in the buoyant economy, the old price per ton offered to getters was not attractive. To overcome this lack of interest, the W.A. Government negotiated new terms. The royalty was to be dropped to a flat £ 9 per ton; the getters were to be paid an additional 30 shillings per ton (i.e., £17.10.0), and the Government was to receive a share in the profits of the trade, which would be collected by the Forests Department (Robertson 1958, p. 38; Forests Dept. W.A. file 779/49). The actual dimension of the Government's share in the Australian Sandalwood Company's profit was not stated in the 1946 agreement or in the Forests Department annual reports (Forests Dept. 1946-47, 1947-48); it is still not readily divulged today (Hughes, pers. comm.). Records show, how- ever, that between 1946 and 1949, when prices per ton in Table 10—Sandalwood exports, South Australia and Western Australia 1931-1945 W.A. Value S.A. Value Year Tons Avg. £/ton Tons Avg. £/ton 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1,606 1,386 3,068 2,508 2,223 1,593 2,513 747 1,106 1,058 1,167 400 43,790 40,546 88,846 75,424 66,474 44,916 75,670 22,884 34,571 41,596 47,613 17,481 27.2 29.2 28.9 30.07 29.9 28.2 30.1 30.6 31.2 39.3 40.7 43.7 40.0 — — 543 1,323 1,004 964 653 844 432 153 285 354 102 9,642 31,217 25,111 24,093 19,572 25,274 12,952 4,568 9,958 11,116 3,584 17.7 23.5 25.0 24.9 29.9 29.9 29.9 29.8 34.9 31.4 35.1 — — — — — — — — — — — — 2 80 — — — — Source: Forests Department Annual Reports 35 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  41. force indefinitely (Richmond 1983, p. 1; Forests Dept. 1951-2, p. 8). Despite problems in attracting getters, exports of sandalwood rose in the early 1950's (table 8). The local price to getters was increased to £26 per ton in 1951 but, even so, the Department reported difficulty in filling orders (Forests Dept. 1951-2, p. 8). In 1954 the trade was threatened by the communist take-over in China, as they banned the burning of joss sticks in religious ceremonies. The resulting increase in numbers of expatriate Chinese in Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Formosa, and Thailand meant that total demand remained high (Donovan 1975, p. 8). Also in 1954, cutters who were operating more than 100 miles from a railway siding were offered a £4 per ton sub- sidy from the government (Forests Dept. 1954-55, p. 13), which recognized that isolation and high transport costs were discour- aging getters from entering the industry. In 1955 there were only 13 registered sandalwooders in Western Australia, a huge drop from the 200 to 400 employed in the 1920's and 1930's (Donovan 1975, p. 8). To an extent the drop in numbers employed can be explained by changing technology. By the 1950's trucks had replaced the camels and oxen of the 1920's (fig. 3), and simple stripping machines took over the backbreaking job of adzing off the outer sapwood, which in the 1920's had been carried out either by a partner or by women (often lubras) (Ware 1975, p. 6-7; Talbot 1983, p. 25). Nevertheless, it was reported in 1955-56 that overseas demand continued to exceed supply and that more pullers were needed (Forests Dept. Report 1955-56, p. 12). Availability of stands was also becoming a problem in the 1950's, for lack of success with reforestation projects in the past meant that the wood had to be brought farther and farther distances to the port. Attention to reforestation had increased after the War, particularly in the mid 1950's, when pullers were encouraged to replace trees with sandalwood nuts (Forests Dept. Report 1955-56, p.12). Overall, however, "the results generally from experimental work have not warranted any attempt to grow his species on a large scale" (Forests Dept. Report 1954-55, p. 14). From the mid 1950's to the end of the 1960's, production and export of sandalwood and oil from Western Australia fluctuated considerably but remained highly profitable. Wood exported varied from a low of 486 tons up to 856 tons in 1961, when a maximum export of 13,637 imperial lbs of sandalwood oil was also reached (table 8). The distillers of oil throughout this period were absorbing some 10-20 percent of the total tonnage of wood pulled in Western Australia, which included S. lanceolatum from the north as it was found to blend well with oil from S. spicatum and improve its penetrating quality (Forests Dept. 1954-55, p. 14). The gap between the price distillers were prepared to pay for wood ($76) and the price the same wood could command on overseas markets ($731) continued to di- verge in 1968. To partly resolve the problem the manager of the Figure 3—After the war, transport of larger logs over greater distances was made possible by motor vehicles. Photo: Neil Mitchell, Battye Library, Western Australia. 36 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  42. Australian Sandalwood Company arranged in 1964-65 to im- port a higher oil-bearing sandalwood from Indonesia for the Plaimar Oil Company, as it was more profitable to do so than to lose local supplies for the overseas wood market (Hughes, oral evidence). In 1969 the distillery increased its buying price from $78 to $98 per tonne but to little avail, for all distillation of sandalwood oil ceased in 1971 as Plaimar rationalized its under- takings. Plaimar's major profit came from the manufacture of soft drinks, and up to this date the company had been exempt from sales tax because it complied with the 20 percent apple juice requirement which had been imposed to assist the apple industry. When this exemption was removed the company closed its Western Australia operations (oral evidence). There has been no attempt to reactivate this industry since then, perhaps understandably, because the average per tonne price of exported sandalwood increased quite remarkably after 1971 (table 9). As all wood pulled after 1971 was to be exported, there was a slight rise in the quota fixed for export in the years immediately following to ensure continuity of employment. This was felt necessary as the gold industry was in recession and the Export Committee was always sensitive to this industry in determining sandalwood quotas. It should perhaps be noted that Australia went metric in 1966, and sandalwood volumes changed from tons to tonnes (the tonne is .016 larger than the ton), a break which very slightly deflates the post 1966 figures. the question of control over the industry has become contentious as three domestic traders are presently involved, and the Queensland Government would prefer one. Plans are afoot to let a tender for a single export license, which would bring Queensland into line with Western Australia. With (1988-89) prices averaging $5757 per ton for green wood and $7573 per ton for roots and butts, sandalwood has truly become a million dollar tree (Hughes, pers. comm., Com- pany records). Prices paid to Western Australian pullers have increased in line with overseas prices, but by far smaller percent- ages. Pullers were getting an average of $540 per ton for green wood in 1985, which rose to $750 in 1987, and stands at $970 per ton today (Richmond 1983, p. 1; Hughes pers. comm.). A report written for the Western Australian Lands and Forestry Commis- sion in November 1985 stated that there were 28 licensed pullers in the state: 9 full-time, 14 part-time... (most of whom were also prospectors) and 5 pastoralist producers (Richmond 1985, p. 8). Today the number has fallen to 18 regular pullers who employ around 70 workers, most on a part time basis (Richmond 1985, p. 8; Hughes oral evidence; Department of Conservation and Land Management 1985-86). As already mentioned, the Export Committee can adjust quotas and licenses when circumstances change, and just as prospectors have been helped over hard times by a quota increase, so also have pastoralists. In times of drought, especially, pastoralists can and do obtain licenses to pull a maximum of 20 tonnes each in any one year (Richmond 1985, p. 7). The Export Committee considers this to be an appropriate action to help pastoralists in distress through no fault of their own, and to provide goodwill, as in normal times full- time pullers are licensed to take wood from pastoral leases and the cooperation of pastoralists is important. Today also the Board allows 10 percent of the quota from Crown lands to be taken in addition to the quota from private land. As several mining properties are coming onto the market in the Eastern Goldfields after years of inactivity, a lot of good quality wood is currently being cut from this source. As most of the wood is now brought very long distances from the Eastern Goldfields to Fremantle, the Australian Sandalwood Company has taken over arranging and paying for contract carriers to transport the wood by road to their factory in Spearwood just outside Fremantle, rail transport having being discontinued some time ago when full truck loads (minimum 16 tons) were made compulsory (Richmond 1985, p. 2). Most pullers sent in only 5-8 tons at a time! The Company itself employs three staff, eight workmen and a foreman, and their wages are linked to comparable positions in the Australian public service. In the factory, pallets of wood are sorted into logs, pieces, roots, and butts, etc. Logs are wrapped in hessian in 62.5 kg lots and sewn to prevent wharfside pilfering. The valuable roots and butts are separately hessian- bagged in 35.7 kg lots, while dead wood (which makes up an increasing proportion of wood exported) is packed in woven plastic bags of 35.7 kg. All small pieces and offcuts are ground into powder and bagged in plastic, again in 35.7 kg lots. Even the sawdust on the floor is periodically collected for sale at reduced prices (Richmond 1985, p. 3). In addition to royalties, which are set as a given percentage of 1971 to the Present During the decade 1970-1980, sandalwood production aver- aged about 1200 tonnes per year, varying some 300 tonnes either way, while prices rose from $636 per tonne to $1,377 per tonne—a 46 percent increase (table 9) and Richmond 1983, p. 1). Although the sharp inflation of the period accounts for much of this price rise, it was interesting because the decade saw a significant increase in the amount of dead wood included in the export figures—wood that previously had been discarded (Rich- mond 1983, p. 1). Called "pieces" in the trade, dead wood when powdered is only marginally less fragrant than average green wood, although considerably less so than the roots and butts of the green tree—where the greatest percentage of oil can be found. Also during the seventies the condition that sapwood had to be removed from sticks before delivery was lifted, and now wood is delivered "undressed"—but cleaned of bark. The very recent history of the industry has followed the trend set in the 1970's. Rising Chinese populations in nearby Asian markets have significantly increased demand for joss sticks and, as Australia is still the dominant supplier (94 percent of the joss stick sandalwood market in 1988), it is a sellers' market. Prices are negotiated each year by the company's representatives and have continued to escalate. The profitability of the trade has resulted in renewed export attempts from Queensland, following the repeal of their Sandal- wood Act in 1982. Although quantities exported are still small, interest is considerable from both the government and mining companies operating in Northern Queensland in cutting the wood and reforestation. Since the repeal of the Queensland Act 37 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  43. REFERENCES the free-on-board price negotiated for each shipload, and the profit share that the company has to pay to the W.A. Govern- ment, an annual amount is also paid to the W.A. Department of Conservation and Land Management to cover administration expenses. These expenses include field inspections, control by the Regional manager (who issues licenses) and secretarial assistance at head office (Richmond 1985, p.2). Taken together this has meant that in 1988-89, out of a gross income of $11.4 million in export earnings, the government received the follow- ing: $1,013,217 in royalties $76,830 as overheads $5,601,337 as profit-share Total $6,691,384 for the year This total was 90 percent of net profit! (figures from Hughes, pers. comm.) With such a valuable income source available, concern has mounted about the industry's potential life. It was estimated in 1985 that at the existing rate of pulling there were enough commercially viable green stands in Western Australia to last23 years (Richmond 1985). Estimates of the quantity of available commercially viable sandalwood are based on current prices, markets, transport costs, and pulling methods ... any of which can change. The 1985 estimate was based on 36,325 tons of commercially available wood, which "tends to be conserva- tive." It was also noted that a lot more wood could become commercial if conditions change (Richmond 1985, p. 4). Matu- ration of immature trees and continued collection of dead wood could extend the 1985 estimate by 30 to 40 more years. More- over, there has been considerable research and activity in experi- mental planting, financed in Western Australia partly by the government and partly by the Australian Sandalwood Company (Richmond 1983, p. 2), which is opening up the future of the industry. Experiments have shown that it takes up to 80 years for planted native species to reach maturity, and though suitable areas have been replanted, the long maturation period and the very high risks of failure through stock grazing, insect plagues, bad seasons, etc. have made it a costly exercise. Current research, however, has indicated that the Indian/Timor species, Santalum album, can grow in Western Australia and will take only 30 years to reach commercial size (West Australian 16.2.1987; Hughes and Richmond oral evidence). Suitable hosts have still to be determined, but nurseries of the seedlings are already being established and the future of the industry now seems bright. As demand for sandalwood incense shows no sign of dimin- ishing, with expanding Asian populations and the Western use of the powdered wood for mosquito coils, potpourri, etc., the Australian industry, if carefully managed, should continue to provide a small but significant contribution to future export earnings. Australian Forestry Journal. 1923. 15.1. Battye, J. 1924. History of Western Australia. Oxford: Statistical Appendix. Bloodwood, Bob. 1979. North Queensland Register 22.9.1979. Boland, D.J. and others. 1984. Forest Trees of Australia. 4th ed., Melbourne: Nelson; 622. Colbatch, H. 1929. Story of 100 Years. Perth, Australia: Government Printer. Colonial Secretaries Report. 1848. C.S.R. (Swan River) 313 Suppl Cowan, P., ed. 1977. A faithful picture: The letters of Eliza and Thomas Brown at York in the Swan River Colony 1841-1852. Fremantle Arts Centre Press; 71. de Bugh, W.A. 1981. The breakaway's. Perth: St. George's Books; 117. Department of Conservation and Land Management (old Forests Department). 1985-86. Annual Report. Western Australia. Donovan, R.J. 1975. A history of sandalwood cutting in Western Australia. Unpublished typescript of interview held by Battye Library, Perth. OH71. Erickson, R. 1973. Old Toodyay and Newcastle. University of Western Austra- lia Press; 70-71. Forests Department. 1920. File No. 290/20, Passed 5.3.1920. Western Austra- lia. Forests Department. 1920-24. Annual Reports. Western Australia. Forests Department 1926-28. Annual Reports. Western Australia. Forests Department 1930-34. Annual Reports. Western Australia. Forests Department. 1946-47, 1947-48. Annual Reports. Western Australia. Forests Department. 1951-52. Annual Report. Western Australia. Forests Department. 1954-55, 1955-56. Annual Reports. Western Australia. Hainsworth, D. R. 1964-65. In search of a staple: The Sydney sandalwood trade 1804-9. Business Archives and History Vol. V. Hainsworth, D. R. 1971. The Sydney traders. Cassell, Australia. Hughes, Gerald, Chairman of Directors, Western Australian Sandalwood Com- pany. Irwin, Colonel F.C. [Acting Governor]; Grey, Earl. 1847 British Parliamentary papers, Colonies General Vol. 4: 356. Lefroy, Gerald. 1848. Diary. 30.7.1848. Western Australian Archives. 648A. Maiden, J.H. 1889. The Useful Native Plants of Australia. Sydney. New South Wales Archives. 1822-26. Claims on Account of Cedar etc. 4/1099; 2. Poole, Lane. 1923. Report to the Forestry Department. Western Australia. Queensland Parliamentary Acts. 1934. The Sandalwood Act of 1934. 25 Geo 5, No. 8. Richmond, P. 1985. Report to the Lands and Forests Commission. File 630/84. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia; 1. Richmond, P.C. 1983. The sandalwood industry. Information Sheet 26. Forests Department. Western Australian. Robertson, J. R. 1958. The government regulation of the sandalwood industry of W.A.: A brief history. File 779/41. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. Sansom, Basil. 1980. The camp at Wallaby Cross. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies; 199-202. Schorer, A. 1974. The horses came first. Wandering Shire Council, Western Australia; 25. Shineberg, D. 1967. They came for sandalwood. Melbourne University Press. Statham, P. 1979. Swan River Colony 1829-50. In: Stannage, C.T., A New History of Western Australia. University of Western Australia Press; 203. Statham, P.1981 a. Why convicts? I. Studies in Western Australian History. Vol. IV, Dec.; 1-2. Statham, P. 1981b. Why convicts? II. Studies in Western Australian History. Vol. IV, Dec.; 15-16. Talbot, L.T. 1983. Forest Focus. No. 30. Underwood, John. 1954. A history of the sandalwood industry of W.A. File 741 2(02). Unpublished thesis. Department of Conservation and Land Manage- ment Library, Western Australia. Ware, H.G.J. 1975. The sandalwood industry of Western Australia. Typescript in Battye Library, Perth; 4. Western Australia Blue Books. 1844-1880. Western Australia Statistical Dept. Woods and Forests Department. 1897. Annual Report. Western Australia. Woods and Forests Department. 1909. Annual Report. Western Australia; 15. 38 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  44. Contrary to popular belief, sandalwood is not the most expen- sive wood in the world. To my knowledge, it is the second most valuable species, first is the aloes, as also mentioned in the Holy Scriptures. Other common names for aloeswood are garu and kabuka. The genus is Aquilaria. The resin from this genus is said to be more valuable than gold, ounce for ounce. The price of the high quality wood is based on the gold standard as determined by the London Stock Exchange. Various references to Santalum can be traced through a chro- nological annotated bibliography on sandalwood and its uses (Ross 1985). Much has been written about sandalwood since the 17th century, but still very little is known about its silviculture and the properties of its products. But rather than present information drawn from others, I will relate to you my personal involvement, observations, and information on sandalwood with an emphasis on utilization, markets, and exploitation. My interest in hardwoods was aroused the first time I ever polished wood, which happens to be a monkey pod slab on my kitchen counter. The beauty of the grain coupled with a feeling of accomplishment ignited a new passion within me. I was well on my way to becoming an xylophile and a lay dendrologist. I had delved into the Hawaiian history and had read enough to know that sandalwood was the first commercial wood species from Hawaii, and had read enough to believe the "myth" about sandalwood. Naturally, I questioned any xylophiles I encountered about their knowledge regarding sandalwood. No knowledge was forthcoming, even from the hardiest of forestry leaders. After 10 years I had received information that a certain individual named George had sandalwood under his house. After contacting him, I learned that he valued his stock at $30,000 and was not willing to part with a sample—he would sell all or nothing! Well I did not even have 10 percent of the purchase price so I rationalized that the wood probably was naio (Myoporum sandwicensis), commonly called false or bastard sandalwood. About 2 years later another xylophile from whom I had purchased a small amount of Santalum paniculatum told me that he had heard about George and was going to investigate. I was informed that a deal could be made and to come over from Maui right away. I was shown a stash of about 45 metric tons that was stored in an old airplane hangar and an old ranch house. Every room was full of logs and branches. This was my first exposure to this type of sandalwood! A deal was struck; 1/2 down, 90 days to remove the wood, and 120 days to pay the balance. I decided to take the risk and borrow the down payment and jump into it. Now what to do next? Since I was already an exotic wood dealer I called other dealers across the United States. The general response was, "Do you make sandals from this wood?" Much effort convinced me that there was no demand or market in the United States, Canada, or Europe for sandalwood. Having previously taken a trip around the world looking at the wood market, I had made some contacts in the Orient. I focused on these contacts and made a price list based on 2-inch incre- ments of log diameter. Sandalwood—the Myth and the Reality1 Joseph Felgelson2 Abstract: Santalum paniculatum trade after more than a century was revived by the author in 1988. Revival of the trade has called attention to this resource, and the focus is now on management of this resource. A discussion about recent sandalwood logging and marketing activities in Hawai‘i is presented. The author also points out various anomalies that may be related to habitat and land use variations. The obligatory parasitic nature of this species is questioned and the coppicing tendency is confirmed. Criteria are suggested concerning the harvesting and sales that minimize fragmentation of forest areas. The concept of establishing a sandalwood research center and the cultivation of sandalwood in Hawaii is presented. I am beginning by quoting "The Holy Scriptures (Masoretic text)" 1 Kings 10:11, 12. This is the part where the Queen of Sheba visits Solomon: "11 And the Navy also of Hiram, that brought gold from Ophir great plenty of Sandal-wood and precious stones. 12 And the King made of the Sandal-wood pillars for the house of the Lord, and for the King's house, harps also and psalteries for the singers; there came no such sandal- wood, nor was seen, unto this day." Later it is mentioned in 2 Chron. 9:10, 11, "10 And the servants also of Hiram, and the servants of Solomon that brought gold from Ophir, brought sandal-wood and precious stones. 11 And the King made of the sandal-wood paths for the house of the Lord, and for the King's house and harps and psalteries for the singers; and there were none such seen before in the land of Judah." The trained sailors of Solomon's friend King Hiram of Tyre, joined with Solomon's fleet in profitable voyages to Ophir, the exact location is vague. However, we do know that it was easily accessible by sea, on or near the coast; and that the trip to Ophir and back to Ezion-geber, Solomon's harbor at the head of the Gulf of Akabah, took 3 years (1 Kings 9:2,6,10,11,22; 2 Chron. 8:18, 9:10 and that gold, silver, ivory, wood, precious stones, apes and peacocks were found there. Its location is said to be in Africa on the eastern coast and as far north as the Red Sea. This name is often cited as the origin of the name Africa. It was a land famed for the quality of its gold (Isa. 13:12, Ps. 45:10; Job 22:24, 28:16, 1 Chron. 29:4). The next chronological reference to my knowledge of sandal- wood occurs with Marco Polo in 1292 and his remarks on sandalwood in his travels: "...payment for the hire of ships, that is freight, is reckoned at the rate of ... 40 percent on aloes and sandalwood and all bulky wares." (237) ... all of the forests of this island (Nicobar) are of noble trees of great worth: these are red sandal ... and many other good trees." (258) "The island (Zanzibar) produces scarlet sandal-wood trees as big as the trees in our country. These trees fetch a high price anywhere else; but here they have whole woods of them, as we have other trees." (299) (Latham 1958). 1Presented at the Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific, April 9-11, 1990, Honolulu, Hawai‘i. 2President, Exotic Maui Woods, Inc. 39 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  45. I had a good bite from Taiwan requesting a2-ton sample order. A letter of credit was established that enabled me to move the wood to Maui. A further sample order from Japan requesting 6- to 8-inch diameter logs enabled me to build a shed on my land to store all these logs, roots, and branches. I was informed that the origin of this wood was the Honomalino area of Hawai‘i, which was cleared for the planting of macadamia nuts 38 years ago. George told me that was all he could salvage, but that it was really sad how much sandalwood was bulldozed and burned. At the end of 1987 a Taiwanese buyer came over and offered close to $200,000 for my acquisition. We celebrated New Year's Eve together, and I was close to ecstatic at my apparent new-found fortune. All I had to do after signing purchase agreements was to wait for the letter of credit, which did not arrive. Chinese New Year was the excuse! Amazingly, on the first working day of 1988 I received a call from Hong Kong inquiring about the sandalwood. I informed them that a deal was already struck, but that if things did not work out I would get back to them. By this time I had reports back from Taiwan and Japan that there was too much sap on the logs, that the price was too high, and that the quality was not good enough. When the Hong Kong buyer arrived he carefully measured the heartwood diameters and log diameters. He explained to me that the only usable part of the wood is the fragrant heartwood and that that was all he wanted. Everywhere else in the world that is how the product is bought. Since all of the other sandalwood-producing countries have cheaper labor than Hawai‘i, it did not appear to make sense to desap the wood in Hawai‘i. Other places would desap in the field. Therefore, his offer to me was less than half of the previous offer. The Hong Kong buyer suggested that buying sandalwood was a highly specialized business. The reason that the previous offer by the Taiwanese buyer was not forthcoming was because it was speculative, opportunistic, not founded on reality, and because he obviously did not know what he was doing. After some calculations the new buyer determined that the quality was about 50 percent heartwood and 20 percent grade A 10-inch heartwood diameter and up. My final argument to try to up the price was that I could not believe that 50 percent of the volume in dead sapwood could weigh as much as 50 percent volume in heartwood. Well I was surprised! I selected a 36-inch log to clean. Needless to say I picked one with sap that looked more deteriorated than the average. The log was measured and determined mathematically to be 52 percent heartwood (using the formula pi R2 x L of the log minus pi R2 x L of the heartwood and divided by the volume of the log x 100 to give percentage of sapwood or, alternatively, heartwood volume divided by log volume x 100 to give heart- wood percentage). A quick way to determine the percentage of heartwood would be to eliminate the length and pi factor since they are common to both sides of the equation and to use the simple formula of heartwood diameter2 divided by log diameter2 x 100 equals the heartwood percentage. The same causal relationship exists between R2 x D2. It was a new game: guesstimating the heartwood! After weighing and working for an hour cleaning the afore- mentioned log, I then reweighed it. To my surprise the log was now 46 percent clean heartwood of original weight, thereby satisfying my impulse that sap should weigh less than heart- wood. Well, I accepted his offer and got to thinking that during the harvest of the sandalwood by the Hawaiians, before 1845, they did not have good shoes, four-wheel drives, roads, and helicop- ters; and that to eliminate a species of any kind is a formidable task. Maybe it was time to investigate this pandora's box. By exploring the Honomalino area of Hawai‘i, I was able to identify the specie due to my new familiarity with the trunk and bark. I then realized that this species was abundant on the leeward coast of the Island of Hawai‘i. To encourage me to seek out more sandalwood the Hong Kong buyer provided me with a contract to procure more sandalwood. The price was based on a 50/50 heartwood/sap ratio, and the contract stated that I provide 20 percent grade A wood. I proposed a contract with one of the ranches on the leeward coast based on this contract with the Hong Kong buyer. The ranch elected not to sign but verbally agreed to go along. Well, at the end of our 2-week venture we were responsible for the deficit of not supplying the 20 percent grade A. Almost every tree that we cut on the ranch, which were not many, had rot in them (fig. 1). The largest tree we cut had a 34-inch log diameter on the butt, but it was rotten throughout. At this time a second ranch was willing to negotiate a contract. The Hong Kong buyer and I sat down to brainstorm a set of specifications for different price categories. We made a major mistake. Based on the knowledge of our previous dealing, we both assumed that sandalwood in Hawai‘i is naturally 50/50 ratio of sapwood to heartwood. We had written the specifications based on this faulty premise. By the time this contract came to maturity, naturally all that was recalled was the written word. The buyer was supposed to be present to help us get going because this was our first venture into cutting live sandalwood. During the course of this contract, the media became involved and articles appeared in the newspaper. The melodramatic ramblings of one of the writers was rather quaint, "...a convoy of trucks coming down the mountain under the shroud of darkness with their precious cargo laden for the Orient." At this point the deliveries were reaching their destination. There were problems: too much sapwood, and a new phenom- enon—wood quality that was not sap and not heartwood. We called this pre-heart or false-heartwood. It was fiber that had not yet become heartwood, and it had no fragrance. The buyers asked us to stop cutting. At the same time the ranch told us to stop cutting. They had received a better offer for the sandalwood due to the media exposure. It was time to regroup—the buyers and sellers were unhappy and so were some constituents. The legislators called public hearings and the myth was exploded. Most people had been content to believe that sandalwood was virtually extinct. But they had no basis for being upset when we explained that it was plentiful, of commercial value, and that quantities were suffi- cient to export. It became a non-issue, as the logging was done on private land, and it stopped soon thereafter. Before the hearings the idea had been to protect the sandal- 40 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  46. wood; thereafter the emphasis was to manage it. At that stage the buyers had lost a substantial amount of money due to excessive sapwood. We were liable to return the amount of money overpaid due to their overpayment against the grade A, which was not present. Due to our limited knowledge at the time, our approach was not streamlined to meet the demands of the buyer. Our approach was to take everything we considered commercially viable rather than to be selective. We had not considered methods of testing the trees and had no knowledge of horizontal increment borers. Anyway it would be more than a year until our next contract. We had collected seeds from our previous harvest, and we distributed these to various green thumbs. The germination rate was zero, but this I can attribute to improper handling and storage of the seeds. A fungus had grown all over them. Our next contract started on October 15, 1989, with one of the larger land holders on the leeward side of the island of Hawai‘i. This contract is valid for 1 year. At this time the principals are involved in legal disputes so I cannot comment any more in that regard. However, this area presents some interesting possibili- ties. The ecosystem has more or less been divided into two by a large a‘a flow. Along the northern flank there has been no evidence of cattle intrusion. Moreover the southern area has been cattle-free for at least 6 years. West of this property is sandal habitat still in cattle. Furthermore the property is also crossed by other a‘a and pahoehoe flows, thus creating various pockets referred to as kipukas. These kipukas vary in regard to the age of the trees in them. For example, in a kipuka that probably never had cattle, the habitat has a variety of tree ages, and these trees appear to have less rot and death prior to maturity. All of these areas have the invasive kikuya grass, banana poka, and lantana. Areas less grazed are definitely better sandalwood habitat. In the habitats that are currently grazed, there is no evidence of regrowth. In the areas that were grazed in the past, there is evidence to suggest high rot occurrence and premature deaths, and regrowth is no older than the time that the cattle have been out of the area. Approximately 2 years ago there was an unauthorized harvest in some of this area, and today there is clear evidence of reproduction by coppicing. Also on the adjoining southern property it has been reported by March Winkler at a Hawaii Forest Industries Association meeting held on February 23, 1990, of coppicing regrowth rates of 3 1/2 feet and the production of seeds after one half a year. A good way to distinguish different areas in the habitat is by using the U.S. Soil Survey maps. According to the soil type it is my observation that rMWD soil type (extremely stony a‘a muck with 6-20 percent slopes) is the preferred type, although it occurs in other types except the pahoehoe flows. I also feel that it is necessary to provide empiric verification of the supposed parasitic nature of the tree. There is possibly more evidence to suggest that the tree may not be parasitic at all, or possibly the tree is parasitic or maybe symbiotic only at certain times. I have noticed that older trees have roots that spread out on the soil surface. Many of these roots lead into live or dead mamani, but they then also seem to leave the mamani. After having dug Figure 1—Heartrot, which is a common problem, can greatly reduce the value of sandalwood. 41 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  47. up the mamani and sandalwood interface it was impossible for me to determine its nature without supportive scientific investi- gation. Much of the regrowth of the sandalwood regenerates from these roots, especially if some kind of shock such as cutting occurs. Where one finds singular sandalwood trees without other tree species, only the tree and kikuya grass, or areas where the only tree type is the sandal, one would then ask if the tree is parasitic unto itself or the kikuya grass. Many trees have the kikuya grass growing up the center rot. Maybe the grass parasitizes the tree— at least it appears that way. Much of the sandalwood habitat was previously logged for the big koa, which in essence means the the understory of sandal- wood is now exposed and furthermore that most of the habitat has been subjected to grazing at one time or another. I believe there could be a beneficial relationship between the koa and the sandalwood—certainly the trees would attain straighter and taller trunks—and the possibility for their compatibility as an agro-forestry crop needs to be investigated. Sandalwood seeds have a very hard shell. Possibly nature meant the seeds to be dispersed by birds, with the acid in their stomachs aiding in germination. In the latter-mentioned ranch area, there is some planting of eucalyptus, and—amazingly— there are young sandalwoods growing under the eucalyptus. I have theorized that turkeys have been feeding on seeds and then roosting in the trees at night, where they drop the seeds. We should pen some turkeys, feed them seeds, and then germinate the seeds. This may be more effective than scarifica- tion or other conventional seed treatments. In general I would say that the sandal wood tree prefers a variety of species for neighbors, the most common being koa (Acacia koa), mamani (Sophora chrysophylla), ohio (Metrosideros collina var. polymorpha), kopiko (Straussia kaduana), ahakea (Bobea Mannii), naio (Myoporum sandwicensis), lantana, and kikuya grass. Ultimately criteria will have to be laid forth concerning harvesting and sales that minimize fragmentation of forest areas, and a sustained-yield concept must be adopted. Separate owner parcels could treat the area as a total ecosystem, adopt sustained yield and sound management principles, and provide access for scientific study. In January 1989, I made a proposal outlining the concept of establishing a sandalwood research institute, and a proposal regarding the cultivation of sandalwood in Hawai‘i. Here are some excerpts: "Sandalwood has been of historical significance and of eco- nomic importance since it was first exported in 1778. As a result of both agricultural development and commercial harvesting, natural stands have become depleted. Interest has therefore developed in replenishing stocks of Sandalwood for marketing, focusing on attempts at re-establishing the species in natural environments. I have personally been pursuing knowledge about Sandal- wood, which I would be willing to share with the State of Hawaii and Resource Management. I have contacted research centers in various countries, including India, Australia and Fiji. Much information concerning studies of the Sandalwood species has come my way, including an invitation to visit various Sandal- wood research centers and plantations. Also, an offer from a professor in India with 30 years experience in growing Sandal- wood, for us to sponsor a visit to Hawaii where he would like to see our Sandalwood and he would be willing to share his knowledge with us. Since the rediscovery of Sandalwood in 1988, more than $1,000,000 has come into the State of Hawaii from this export. This would make Sandalwood the largest foreign export com- modity for 1988 for the State of Hawaii. Since this genus is cultivated in other countries, it warrants the further studies necessary to determine the best methods and feasibility of cultivating Sandalwood as an agro-forestry crop within the State of Hawaii. Objective To establish a Sandalwood Research Institute that would: A) Determine the geographical areas of Hawaii that have Sandalwood occurrence. B) Determine the volume of inventory of Sandalwood in these areas. C) Undertake the study of the germination and establishment of Sandalwood for planting. D) Sandalwood Research Institute would after studying all published literature concerning all aspects involved for the propagation of Sandalwood undertake recommendations, field experiments establishing the viability of cultivating Sandal- wood species. Reports would be published and methods for the successful propagation would be achieved. After the adoption of field tested propagation and planting techniques, Sandalwood can then be grown in large quantities and can be planted on State, Hawaiian Homelands and private lands. The overall research aims are: A) To determine the areas that naturally have Sandalwood and to access the inventory. B) To obtain scientific research of Sandalwood harvesting impacts and to develop a Sandalwood management plan. C) To establish research plots to determine the best method of germination by seed or coppice to ensure sustainability of the resource." The technology of satellite mapping can provide 90 percent accuracy for species identification and distribution. This can be a great help to focus more expensive timber cruising and aerial photographic work on smaller targeted areas. The flexibility of digital imagery is proving to be multipurpose, and can be used to assess forest fire danger, and to plan controlled burning strategies based on forest and land cover diversity. With the help of all my distinguished colleagues attending the Sandalwood Symposium and the Department of Land and Natural Resources, a joint effort to establish a sandalwood research organization would inevitably enhance the ecosystem. REFERENCES Latham, R.E., transl. 1958. Marco Polo: The Travels. Penguin Classics. Ross, M. S. 1985. An annotated bibliography of sandalwood and its uses. University of Oxford. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Foundation for Dutch Forestry Development Co-operation. 42 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  48. The first attempt to cultivate native sandalwood is recorded by Hillebrand (1888) who states that "bur trees are probably para- sites as is the Indian S. album; at least all attempts to cultivate them in my garden have resulted in failure." Rock (1974) also remarked "that any attempt to germinate seeds of the Hawaiian sandalwoods resulted in failure." Encouraged by Rock's (1916) statement showing that sandal- wood was not always dependent on host trees for nutrients, and the fact that he (Judd) also noted a flourishing tree of Santalum freycinetianum growing without any apparent host plants within 299 feet of it, Judd (1933) planted seeds of native Santalum species. This is the first recorded sowing of native Hawaiian Santalum species. A few years later, Judd (1935,1936) reported that the Forest Service of the Territory of Hawaii was having difficulty grow- ing native sandalwood seedlings because, "the young seedlings ceased to grow after one year, and died in the nurseries after reaching six inches in height." They were, however, successful in developing a system for growing Santalum seedlings. It consisted of planting 5-7 month old seedlings in a container with a few seeds of Casuarina equisetifolia (ironwood) to act as host plants and subsequently transplanting them together into the field when the sandalwood was about a year old. Using this method, 100 percent survival was reported. It is unclear whether this success was with the native as well as with the introduced species, Santalum album; for, Judd (1936) also states that ex- periments were first started with seeds of native species but later with S. album when they could not germinate the native species. Seeds of S. album germinated well and seedlings survived with their new system of propagation and planting. The use of ironwood seedlings is briefly mentioned by Ed- wards (1951) as being used by Foresters at Volcano National Park, Hawaii. Le Barron (1970) also states, "When the Division of Forestry propagated sandalwood seedlings, a Casuarina or koa seedling was placed in a pot together with each sandalwood to serve as a host." The only other reported unsuccessful attempt at germination of native sandalwood seed is by Obata (1967). Since studies on the propagation of native sandalwood are lacking these studies (on germination and propagation) were initiated at the Lyon Arboretum. Preliminary results are being reported since substantial success has been obtained in seed germination and seedling growth. Furthermore, this report might stimulate others. Propagation of Santalum, Sandalwood Tree1 Robert T. Hirano2 Abstract: The history of the genus Santalum (sandalwood) in Hawaii is re- viewed, along with all the early reference regarding its botany and horticulture. This paper gives some seed germination and viability information on Santalum haleakalae Hbd. and S. paniculatum H. & A. both native to Hawaii and Santalum album L. native to Indonesia. Germination was shown to be highly variable: as early as 26 days after sowing for S. album, 75 days for S. paniculatum, and 155 days for S. haleakalae. Seed viability varied from 324 days in S. album, 387 days in S. haleakalae and 824 days in S. paniculatum. Germination percentages ranged from 38 percent to 77 percent. This study also showed that supplemental chelated iron is essential in the propagation of all the species tested. The genus Santalum (sandalwood) includes several species which are highly prized for their fragrant heartwood and aro- matic oils which has been in great demand throughout history especially in the orient. Edwards (1951) dates it as far back as the fifth century B.C. It is also mentioned in passages of the Bible (Modenke and Noldenke 1952). Its value in the orient was well known by the early sea captains and when it was found that sandalwood existed in Hawai‘i, it was soon exploited. Records are inconclusive as to who exported the first shipment of sandalwood from Hawai‘i; however, this product formed the basis for Hawai‘i's first profitable major export which according to Smith (1956) lasted for 52 years, from 1784 to 1836, "when all Hawaii woke to the fact that every tree had been cut." This statement, like those of Mesick (1934) and Kuykendall and Gregory (1926) greatly exaggerated the rarity of this genus and was corrected by St. John (1947) who documented their relative abundance. It is apparent that many of the sandalwood trees were destroyed during the height of this trade and Rock (1974) estimated that over 90 percent of the trees were destroyed. The genus Santalum belongs to the family Santalaceae which includes 29 genera with approximately 400 species, many of which being completely or partially parasitic. St. John (1947) records 19 species of this genus, extending from Java to Juan Fernandez, Hawai‘i and the Bonin Islands. The genus is de- scribed by Rock (1916) as being hemiparasitic, obtaining part of its nutrients from roots of other plants by means of a haustoria or suck organ. He also found Santalum cuneatum growing all alone with not [sic] trees or other plants within a radius of 1 mile, indicating that this species is not always dependant [sic] on host trees for nutrients. SEED GERMINATION Seeds of three species, Santalum haleakalae Hbd. and S. paniculatum H. & A. native to Hawai‘i and S. album L. native to Indonesia, were used in these studies. Sources are included in table 1. After the fruit pulp was removed, the seeds were treated with Dithane M-45 (2 tablespoons per gallon of water) for five minutes and sown in seed flats containing horticultural vermicu- lite (grade 3). The flats were placed on open benches in the greenhouse with a mean temperature of 78 degrees. Germina- tion dates were recorded. 1Presented at the Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific, April 9-11,1990, Honolulu, Hawai‘i. Reprinted with permission from Plant Propagator 23(2):11- 14, 1977. 2Assistant Researcher, Lyon Arboretum, University of Hawai‘i. 43 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  49. Table 1—Germination data on three species of Santalum Species Source No. of Seeds No. Percent germination No. of days required for first seed to germinate Total no. of days between first and last seedling germinated Santalum album L. Taiwan Forestry Research Inst., Botanical Garden, Taipei, Taiwan 33 20 67 26 324 Haleakala, Maui Hawaii 32 12 38 155 387 S. haleakalae Hbd. 136 105 77 75 824 S. paniculatum H. & A. Kohala, Hawai’i Germination was highly variable (table 1). Seeds of S. album began germinating 26 days after sowing while those of S. paniculatum and S. haleakalae required 75 and 155 days respectively. The total number of days (germination period) required for all viable seeds of each species to germinate varied from 324 in S. album to 387 in S. haleakalae and 824 days in S. paniculatum seed lots. Seedlings appeared normal and growth was normal until cotyledons shriveled and dropped off. The seedlings then began to decline in producing smaller leaves with each new flush of growth; with extremely chlorotic leaves, by reduction in inter- node length and die-back of short tips. Death occurred shortly thereafter. Table 2—Growth response of Santalum paniculatum to chelated iron and am- monium sulfate at a rate of 1/8 teaspoon each per 3 inch pot HEIGHT (CM) Treatment Plant Initial 18 months Net Increase Average (Control) Ammonium sulfate 1 2 3 4 5.7 4.9 6.3 6.5 17.4 17.3 23.0 27.0 11.7 12.4 16.7 20.5 15.3 Ammonium Sulfate Plus Chelated Iron 1 2 3 4 5.3 5.1 6.1 6.3 36.8 42.3 48.7 50.9 31.5 37.2 42.6 44.6 39.0 SEEDLING GROWTH treated with 0.125 teaspoon ammonium sulfate per 3 inch pot while another four were treated with 0.125 teaspoon chelated iron plus 0.125 teaspoon ammonium sulfate. Seedling height was measured before and 18 months after treatment (table 2). Chlorotic seedlings of S. haleakalae were treated with 0.125 teaspoon chelated iron plus 0.25 teaspoon osmocote (18-6-12) per 4-0.75 inch pot. After 3 months these plants were divided into two lots of four plants each. One lot was treated with 0.25 teaspoon osmocote and the second lot with 0.25 teaspoon osmocote plus 0. 125 teaspoon chelated iron. The plants were re- treated after 6 months. Plant height was recorded before and at 6 month intervals up to a year after treatment (table 3). The trial using seedlings of S. haleakalae again showed re- sponse to chelated iron. The total net increase in height was Seedlings were potted into media consisting of: 2 parts vermiculite, 2 parts perlite, and 1 part peat plus osmocote (18-6- 12) at the rate of 0.25 cup per 5 gallons of mixture. Some seedlings were planted with native Hawaiian host plants, others treated with foliar fertilizer (Nutrileaf 60 20-20-20) and others with chelated iron (Sequestrene 138 Fe). The first three seedlings of S. haleakalae were planted with native Dodonea sp. and Tetraplasandra sp. seedlings as hosts. These genera were selected since they have been associated with sandalwood populations in native forests. These three plants expired within a year without showing any signs of growth. Subsequently, seedling of S. paniculatum, S. haleakalae and S. album did not respond to applications of foliar fertilizer (20- 20-20). When 0.125 teaspoon chelated iron per 3 inch pot was applied to severely chlorotic seedlings of S. album, within 2-5 weeks, most of the chlorotic leaves became green and growth resumed. Likewise, 2 weeks after application of chelated iron on eight chlorotic seedlings of S. paniculatum, all the new growth was normal green while those treated with ammonium sulfate only showed no response. Three months after treatment, the remaining chlorotic foliage turned green in those plants treated with iron while those treated only with ammonium sulfate remained chlorotic. The average increase in height over a period of 18 months for the treated plants was 39.0 cm while those untreated averaged only 15.3 cm (table 2). In the experiment using seedlings of S. paniculatum, four were Table 3—Growth response of Santalum haleakalae to chelated iron at a rate of 1/8 teaspoon per 4-3/4 inch pot HEIGHT (CM) Treatment Plant No. Initial 6 months 12 months Increase Average Increase Net Control (No Chelated 2 Iron) 1 23.9 34.5 24.5 26.0 35.5 47.7 38.3 39.5 44.5 58.6 50.8 57.6 20.6 24.1 26.3 31.6 3 4 25.7 Plus Chelated Iron 1 2 3 16.5 34.0 15.0 20.5 27.5 55.1 45.2 14.1 39.4 72.7 66.3 63.1 23.9 38.7 42.3 47.1 4 38.0 44 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990

  50. Table 4—Germination of three seedlots of Santalum paniculatum Santalum paniculatum seed lots No. of seeds No. of days from collection to sowing No. of days (from sowing) required for first seed to germinate No. of days from collection to emergence of last seedling No. of days between germination for first and last seedling Percent germination 1. L-71 .377 27 69.0 866 1759 824 70 2. L-75.148 17 0.5 207 369.5 162 94 3. L-75.186 92 8.0 174 76 greater in those plants treated with iron, averaging 38 cm.; while those untreated, increased in height only 25.7 cm after 12 months. The increase in height of treated vs. untreated was not as great when compared with the S. paniculatum trial. It should be noted that all of the plants involved in this trial were treated with chelated iron before the trials began. severely chlorotic, turning a yellowish-white. With each subse- quent leaf flush, the leaves became smaller and smaller until the growing tip died. Death followed shortly. With the addition of chelated iron foliage color was restored and growth resumed. Ammonium sulfate applications showed no response and was discontinued after the first trial. It is evident that supplemental chelated iron is essential in the propagation of S. album, S. haleakalae and S. paniculatum since all of these species re- sponded to the addition of chelated iron as indicated by the data. These studies show that these species can be grown without any host plants. Although the number of plants used in these trials was small, the results are encouraging and further studies are being conducted with larger numbers for statistical analysis. DISCUSSION The germination data seem to indicate some type of dormancy mechanism(s) controlling germination of the Santalum ssp. in- cluded in these studies. The extreme variation in the number of days 75, 207, and 866, to initial germination for different seed lots of S. paniculatum, seems to reflect this (table 4). Further evidence is indicated by seed lot number L-71.377 which was not sown until 69 days after collection. This lot required 866 days to germination of first seedling followed by a germination period of over 2 years with 70 percent germination. The data also show the longevity of the seeds which germi- nated in a range from a low of 174 days in the case of L-75.186 S. paniculatum to a high of 1, 759 days in L-71.377 S. panicu- latum: indicating seed viability of nearly 5 years (table 4) in the latter case. Seeds of this were allowed to dry out for 69 days before being sown and this factor may have contributed to its longevity. Germination percentages ranged from 38 percent to 77 per- cent. The data do not show that older seeds tend to be less viable than fresher ones. However, it does show that seeds of S. haleakalae have a lower germination percentage when com- pared with both S. album and S. paniculatum seed lots. It was shown in the case of L-71.377 where the seeds were held for 69 days before sowing that over 2 years were required before the first germination occurred. It appears that seeds of those species should not be allowed to dessicate in order to hasten germina- tion. Previous fertilizer practices using both osmocote and foliar fertilizer in scheduled application proved ineffective in promot- ing growth of the Santalum spp. included in this study. The plants gradually declined and their leaves gradually became REFERENCES Edwards, Webley. 1951. The fragrant wood of Hawaii. Illus. by Jerry Chong. Advertiser Weekly. Honolulu, Sept. 4. Hillebrand, William. 1888. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands. London: Williams & Norgate; New York: B. Westermann & Co.; Heidelburg: Carl Winter, University-Bookseller, 673 p. Judd, C.S. 1933. The parasite habit of the sandalwood tree. Thrum, Hawaiian Annual, Honolulu: The Printshop Co. Ltd. 59th Issue; 81-88. Judd, C.S. 1935. Reviving the sandalwood industry. Paradise of the Pacific. April; 19. Judd, C.S. 1936. Growing sandalwood in the Territory of Hawaii. Journal of Forestry, Vol. XXXIV (1), reprint. Kuykendall, Ralph S ; Gregory, H.E. 1926. A History of Hawaii. Illus. New York: Macmillian. 375 p. Le Barron, Russell K. 1970. Hawaii's sandalwood. Aloha Aina. Department of Land and Natural Resources, State of Hawaii; 6-7. Mesick, Lillian S. 1934. The Kingdom of Hawaii. Honolulu: Porter, 400 p. Modenke, Harold N.; Noldenke, A.L. 1952. Plants of the Bible. Waltham, MA: Botanica Company; 328 p. Obata. John. 1967. Seed germination in native Hawaiian plants. Newsletter of the Hawaiian Botanical Society. Vol. VI (3): 14. Rock, Joseph F. 1916. The sandalwoods of Hawaii. Botanical Bulletin No. 3. Territory of Hawaii, Board of Ag. and Forestry; 9-43. Rock, Joseph F. 1974. The indigenous trees of the Hawaiian Islands. Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc. of Rutland, Vermont and Tokyo, Japan. (Reprint); 548 p. Smith, Jared G. 1956. Sandalwood and whales. Honolulu Advertiser, May 13, p. A4. St. John, Harold. 1947. The history, present distribution, and abundance of sandalwood on Oahu, Hawaiian Islands: Hawaiian plant studies 14. Pacific Science Vol. I (1): 5-20. 45 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-122. 1990