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  1. ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? The Effect of Confict Theory Based Decision-Making Skill Training Psycho-Educational Group Experience on Decision Making Styles of Adolescents* a Oğuzhan ÇOLAKKADIOĞLU ???????????????????????? S. Sonay GÜÇRAY ??????????????????? Abstract ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????? Key Words ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? In this increasingly developing and changing world, people face more frequently the kind of situations that demand decision-making processes. Deve- loping technology in particular has introduced a variety of options for people. An individual in a routine daily life can take very simple decisions but also social, economical, educational, political and professional decisions too that have the potential to change the course of their lives. If the individual is capable of making efect accelerates the satisfaction taken from life and sen- se of wellness; if the reverse situation is true then the individual feels entrapped in life (Çolakkadı- oğlu & Güçray, 2007). Decisions indeed shape and direct our lives in a certain sense. Researchers focusing on decision-making process have generally described decision-making as the process of selecting one specifi fi f c option amongst a list of potential alternatives (Beyt-Marom, Fisc- hof, Jacobs-Quadrel, & Furby, 1991; Furby & Beyt- f, Jacobs-Quadrel, & Furby, 1991; Furby & Beyt- f Marom, 1992; Miller & Byrnes, 2001; Nelson, 1984; Von Winterfeldt, & Edwards, 1986; Zunker, 1998) and they have noted that decision-making process is under the infuence of intuition, attachment, fa- mily, peer pressure, memory, prejudice, informati- on coding, feeling, motivation, stress, psychoactive substances, personality traits and problem-solving (Byrnes, 1998; Klaczynski, Byrnes, & Jacobs, 2001; Sinangil, 1993). Initially, decision-making had been described as an unteachable skill and considered to develop- just like language development, mental maturation and social communication- parallel to fect f ive decisions, this ability ??????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????? * Oğuzhan ÇOLAKKADIOĞLU, Ph.D., ????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????? a

  2. ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ?? ? ?? ? ? ? ? ??? ? ? ? ? ??? ?? ? ? ? ? ?? ? District. In the experimental group the researches have been executed by a researcher (the leader) and assistant leader, whereas in the control group no procedure has been implemented and during this process no decision-making lessons have been in- tegrated into course schedules. In experimental gro- up, there are collectively 18 participants, composed of 10 girls and 8 boys, and in the control group, there is a total of 18 participants consisting of 9 girls and 9 boys. Te average age of participants both in the experimental and the control groups is 15. rise in age (Baron & Brown, 1991). However recent studies have manifested that decision-making skill can be taught (Baron & Brown; Byrnes; Byrnes, Miller, & Reynolds, 1999; Fletcher & Wooddell, 1981; Fuligni & Eccles, 1993; Klaczynski et al. 2001; Lewis, 1983; Mann, Harmoni et al. 1989; Schvane- veldt & Adams, 1983; Simon, 1980; Strauss & Clark, 1992; Taal & De Carvalho, 1997). In that aspect cer- tain programs aiming to develop decision-making skills have been generated (Bal, 1998; Botvin, 1983; Ersever, 1996; Mann, Harmoni et al., 1989; Mann, Harmoni, Power, Beswick, & Ormond, 1988; Nic- kerson, Perkins, & Smith, 1985; Ross, 1981; Schin- ke & Gilchrist, 1984; Spitzhof, Ramirez, & Wills, 1982; Şeyhun, 2000; Taal & De Carvalho). A review of foreign literature presented that there are numerous educational programs focusing on developing decision-making skills of adolescents to support them in taking more logical and rati- onal decisions. Te researches conducted in our country are limited to two studies analyzing de- cision-making skills of university (Ersever, 1996) and primary education (Şeyhun, 2000) students. Nonetheless there is not a single research based on confict theory covering secondary education grade 9 students, testing the efects of psycho-educational group based group applications on decision-ma- king styles of students. Once this necessity is taken into consideration then it can be investigated whet- her decision-making skill training group applicati- ons are efective in students’ use of self-esteem and positive coping styles in decision-making situations and diminishing the use of negative coping styles. In present study it has been aimed to analyze the efect and persistency of decision-making skill trai- ning group applications based on confict theory on decision-making styles of students. Measures Personal Information Form: In this personalin- formation form prepared by researcher, the ques- tions aimed to find out if students’ parents were together or separated, whether they participated before in a similar skill program, if they had expe- rienced a traumatic incidence lately, whether they received or currently receiving any psychiatric tre- atment, their socio-economic levels etc. Tese qu- estions were believed to exhibit qualities that might be efective on the results of research. Interview Form: Within the scope of this research, participant students were presented, in addition to measures, an interview form to detect their eli- gibility to participate in the group. Te interview form was based on the forms prepared by DeLu- cia-Waack (2006) and Morganett (2005). Placing the context of the prepared interview form into the center, a pre-interview was conducted to detect group members. In the interview form, there were psycho-educational groups and the context of se- lected decision-making skill training group appli- cations, the objectives, duration, average number of participants of group, and the rules to follow. Adolescent Decision-Making (ADMQ):Tis questionnaire on the whole deter- mines self-esteem in decision-making process and decision-making styles. It had been developed by Mann, Harmoni et al. (1989), and then was adapted into Turkish by Çolakkadıoğlu and Güçray (2007). It consists of 30 items and 5 sub-scales which are respectively self-esteem, vigilance, cop-out, panic, and complacency in decision-making. In several researches, it was detected that internal consistency coeficient of ADMQ’s sub-scales varied between .59 and .73, test re-test reliability coeficient betwe- en .59 and .65 (Harmoni, 1989; Tuinstra, Van Son- deren, Groothof, Vanden Hevvel, & Post, 2000). Turkish adaptation of questionnaire was executed in two consequent stages and two diferent samp- Questionnaire Method Research Design Te research is in experimental design and employs one of the types of experimental design known as “pretest-posttest control group true experimental model” (Karasar, 2004). Research Group Te research was conducted for a period of six we- eks with 36 ninth graders (including 18 in the ex- perimental and 18 in the control group) studying at two State AnatolianHigh Schools during 2008-2009 Academic Year Fall Semester in Adana City Seyhan 670

  3. ÇOLAKKADIOĞLU, GÜÇRAY????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? (1990) and Şahin, Şahin, and Heppner (1993); Self- Esteem Scale developed by Bogenç (1995), Locus of Control Scale developed by Nowicki-Strickland (1973) and adapted into Turkish by Öngen (2003); Parenting Style Inventory developed by Lamborn, Mounts, Steinberg, and Dornbusch (1991) and adapted into Turkish by Yılmaz (2000) have been employed. By means of these scales, it was detected whether there was a diferentiation between average scores of the experimental and the control groups. lings. In the explanatory factor analysis conducted via varimax rotation method ADMQ’s Cronbach’s alpha coeficient was alternately detected as .79, .78, .77, .65 and .73 for self-esteem, vigilance, pa- nic, cop-out and complacency sub scales; test-retest consistency figures were respectively set as .80, .81, .82, .80 and .86. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was conducted for five-factor model and it was deter- mined that consistency indicator data explained the model efectively (Çolakkadıoğlu & Güçray, 2007). Group-Related Measures Survey Form (GRMSF): Group-related Measures Survey Form (GRMSF) had been developed by DeLucia-Waack (2006) and was adapted into Turkish by the researcher. Te form was filled out by the group leader in measuring the behaviors of members in psycho-educational groups. In the first stage, the expressions available in the form were translated from English into Tur- kish by the researcher. In order to detect the reli- ability of form, kappa values were examined. First measurement inter-evaluator kappa values ranged between .70 and .82, final measurement kappa va- lues from.52 to .86, for the first evaluator kappa values ranged between .52 and .91, for the second evaluator kappa values changed between .50 and .94. Consistency levels of the items were found to be suficient (Şencan, 2005). Evaluation at the End of Group by Members (EEGM): Evaluation at the End of Group by Mem- bers Form (EEGM) had been developed by DeLu- cia-Waack (2006) and was adapted into Turkish by researcher. It was used to evaluate the acquisitions of members from psycho-educational groups and their feedbacks related to group process. In the first stage, the expressions available in the form were translated from English into Turkish by the researc- her. In order to prevent the potential problems re- levant of translation the expressions were analyzed elaborately by linguists closely familiar with both languages then reevaluated by Psychological Co- unseling and Guidance experts well-experienced in both languages. Te necessary changes were con- ducted subsequent to evaluating the problems de- termined by these experts. Following the changes, it was implemented on a group of 5 students and it was understood that the expressions were well- understood. Furthermore, it was conducted in the last session of 2nd pilot study and was detected that members had no dificulty in understanding the questions. Additionally, in the first stage of research, Problem- Solving Inventory developed by Heppner and Pe- tersen (1982) and adapted into Turkish by Taylan Te Context and Preparation of Decision-Ma- king Skill Training Developed on the Basis of Confict Teory Based Group Applications Te context of decision making skill training group applications conducted in current research was pre- pared on the basis of Confict Teory developed by Janis and Mann (1977). Additionally, GOFER cur- riculum prepared by Mann, Harmoni and Power (1988) in order to develop decision-making skills was used as the main resource. In addition to main resources, the contexts of programs prepared to serve similar goals were employed (Baron, Laskey, & Brown, 1989; Brown, Campbell, & Laskey, 1990 as cited in Baron & Brown, 1991; Ersever, 1996; Fischhof, Crowell, & Kipke, 1999; Graumlich & Baron, 1991; Schinke & Gilchrist, 1984;Shanteau, Grier, Johnson, & Berner, 1991; Şeyhun, 2000). In the selection, planning, and application stages of the experimental exercises practiced in sessions, support was received from literature. Subsequent to acquiring the relevant information on the objective, timing, place and manner of each single exercise, a planning was scheduled related to the practice of exercises appropriate to the context of each session (DeLucia-Waack, 2006; Güçray, Çolakkadıoğlu, & Çekici, 2009). Decision-making skill training group applications based on confict theory was designed as collecti- vely 10 sessions and two pilot studies were conduc- ted. Te overall objective of program was to attract attention on the decision-making skills of the ado- lescents between ages 13-15 related to the decisions that might be efective over life-changing resoluti- ons; by assisting them in gaining attitudes and skills to employ positive decision-making styles, to some- how prevent the negative efects of the lack of rele- vant skill on academic success, educational guidan- ce and social relations. Te program also aims to emphasize the importance of decision-making sta- ges,the significance of widening one’s own perspec- tive and selection alternatives as a decision-maker, samples illustrating weak decisions of adolescents 671

  4. ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ?? ? ?? ? ? ? ? ??? ? ? ? ? ??? ?? ? ? ? ? ?? ? p>.05], [F(1-29)=107.790, p<.001]. In order to detect if there was a meaningful dif- ferentiation between the monitoring test scores groups received from Adolescents Decision-Ma- king Questionnaire subscales, covariance analysis was conducted. Te analysis results demonstrated that when groups’ final test scores of Self- Esteem Scale, Vigilance Scale, Complacency Scale, Panic Scale and Cop-Out Scale respectively were brought under control, there was a meaningful diferen- tiation in all sub-scales between corrected moni- toring test average scores [F(1-29)=10.304, p<.005], [F(1-29)=25.002, p<.001], [F(1-29)=7.214, p<.05], [F(1- 29)=20.834, p<.001], [F(1-29)=10.487, p<.005]. It was found out that total average scores partici- pants received during each session from Group- Related Measures Survey Form were 20 and above. Tis finding indicated that participants benefited from group process. Furthermore, it was witnessed that total average score of each session was 32 and above. Tis finding might be interpreted that sessi- ons reached the objective. As the answers given by participants to close-en- ded questions in Evaluation at the end of Group by Members Form were analyzed, it emerged that the participants grasped decision-making stages and felt satisfied in general by the operation of group. In addition to all above, their suggestions on limi- ting the assignments and forms, presenting a wider range of activities and wider participation into the process attracted attention. in making choices, restrictions and limitations; to encourage adolescents in conducting research du- ring decision-making process and to assist them in the acquisition of decision-making steps. Psycho-Educational Group Te group type of decision-making skill training group applications conducted in the current rese- arch was psycho-educational group. If the objective is to gain new data to members in decision-making, problem solving, communication skills etc., the fa- vored groups are psycho-educational ones (Brown, 2004; DeLucia-Waack, 2006). Psycho-educational groups have educational context and are described as a type of group aiming to develop skills and co- vering the objectives to achieve (Brown, 1998, 2004; DeLucia-Waack; Jacobs, Masson, & Harvill, 2006; Madrid & Swanson, 1995). Data Solution Pretest, final test and persistency data gathered from the experimental and the control groups through Adolescents Decision-Making Questionnaire have been analyzed by ANCOVA corresponding to the research hypothesis with SPSS 11.5 program. In pretest-final test control grouped experimental de- signs, given that the emphasisis placed on whether the experimental procedure is efective, the most commonly applicable and selected statistical analy- sis method is covariance analysis (ANCOVA) where pretest is controlled as the covariance (Balcı, 2007; Büyüköztürk, 2002). Furthermore, in the qualitati- ve dimension of research, Group-Related Measures Survey Form completed by leader and assistant le- ader; Evaluation at the End of Group by Members Form presented to experimental group members have been examined to conclude analysis process. Discussion At the end of the research it was explored that, pa- rallel to the similar studies focusing on developing decision-making skill in general, decision-making skill training was assistant in gaining the adoles- cents positive decision-making skills (Baron et al. 1989; Ersever, 1996; Hansen, 1992; Mann, Beswick, Allouche, & Ivey, 1989; Mann, Harmoni, & Power, 1988; Ross, 1981; Shanteau et al. 1991; Şeyhun, 2000; Taal & De Carvalho, 1997). Results In order to detect if there was a meaningful dife- rentiation between the final-test scores that gro- ups received from Adolescents Decision-Making Questionnaire subscales, covariance analysis was conducted. Te analysis results demonstrated that when groups’ pretest scores of Self- Esteem Scale, Vigilance Scale, Complacency Scale, Panic Scale and Cop-Out Scale respectively were brought un- der control, there was a meaningful diferentiation in all subscales between corrected final test avera- ge scores[F(1-29)=297.673, p<.001], [F(1-29)=158.293, p<.001], [F(1-29)=73.251, p<.001], [F(1-28)=2.495, Self-Esteem in Decision Making In decision-making, self-esteem is an individual’s self-evaluation of his/her own decision-making perception in a situation necessitating decision ma- king. Te adolescents are likely to feel anxious such: “I wonder if there was a point I missed” when they face a decision-making related situation which ma- kes the adolescents feel doubtful about their decisi- 672

  5. ÇOLAKKADIOĞLU, GÜÇRAY????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Vigilance in Decision-Making Vigilance is defined as the attitude an individual bears while analyzing elaborately positive and ne- gative aspects of a set of alternatives when faced with a decision-making situation. A person acting vigilantly in a decision making situation is the one who possesses knowledge regarding which way to follow that might also be positively efective over self-esteem level as well (Josephs et al. 1992). It was considered that the rise witnessed in experimental group students’ scores related to positive coping in decision making was connected to the context of decision making skill training group applications. In decision making skill training group applica- tions, decision making steps were, in each single session, analyzed individually and practiced with participants. Additionally, subsequent to practicing each step, the samples illustrating the application of these steps in decision making situations were examined and by rendering the participants self- instruction training they were given help in solving decision related problems and at the end of pro- cess, each participant was able to solve a decision related problem in line with decision making steps. As relevant literature is analyzed, in studies where the efect of decision making skills development programs is tested it has been determined that ado- lescents have started to employ positive decision making styles (Baron & Brown, 1991; Byrnes, 1998; Byrnes et al. 1999; Fletcher & Wooddell, 1981; Fu- ligni & Eccles, 1993; Klaczynski et al. 2001; Lewis, 1983; Mann, Harmoni et al. 1989; Simon, 1980; Schvaneveldt & Adam, 1983; Strauss & Clark, 1992; Taal & De Carvalho, 1997). In the current research, too, decision making skill training group applica- tions was efective in rising the scores of positive coping style. on (Mann, Harmoni, & Power, 1988; Ross, 1981). Consequently, in the group applications decision- making confict theory was analyzed in five basic steps and in each step the participants were told the procedures to follow. It was determined that to- wards the last sessions,participantscould be able to express decision making steps as a whole and suc- cessfully implemented in decision- relevant sample situations. Josephs, Larrick, Steele, & Nisbett (1992) argued that in a decision making situation if the individual was aware of the things to do and acts accordingly this might be a pushing force in the rise of self esteem. As relevant literature is analyzed, it is detected that in decision making, there is a po- sitive meaningful relationship between self-esteem and general self-esteem (Çolakkadıoğlu & Güçray, 2007; Güçray, 1998; Josephs et al. 1992; Tunholm, 2004). In that case the rise in self-esteem is positi- vely efective over self-esteem in decision making (Çolakkadıoğlu & Güçray; Güçray). During adolescence period self-judgment exhibits an increase. An adolescent entering the process of identity acquisition starts to question himself/ herself and his/her life. Such questioning may ad- versely afect self-esteem of adolescents focusing on negative traits. Particularly in situations when they fail to fulfill their responsibilities this situation afects the development of self-esteem negatively (Simmons, 1987; Harter, 1993). Hence rendering support to adolescents in fulfilling their responsi- bilities, building warm and collaborative relations are positively efective over the development of self-esteem. Harter reports that during adolescen- ce period an adolescent’s interactions with people who means a lot for him/her have afirmative efect over his/her self-esteem. Friends are amongst the leading people who mean a lot for an adolescent. Positive feedbacks received from friends can also afect their self-esteem afirmatively (Whitehead & Corbin, 1997). Adolescents in particular need pe- er-support during this period to achieve a positive self-esteem development (Koon, 1997). In this re- gard, during decision making skill training group applications too, support was rendered to the parti- cipants to identify their decision relevant problems and deal the problems according to the steps; in order to assist them in solving decision problems successfully they were encouraged by leaders and participants and positive feedbacks were provided. Educational value of peer group was taken into consideration. Tis situation might also have a po- sitive efect on self-esteem levels of participants in decision making. Cop-Out, Panic, Complacency Cop-out, panic and complacency styles in decisi- on making are classified as negative coping styles and analyzed as a unity. Mann, Harmoni, and Po- wer (1988) state that when individuals are taught vigilant decision making steps in decision making, their self-esteem in decision making shall rise whe- reas the use of negative coping styles shall go down. During decision-making skill training group appli- cations, sample cases were provided to students to exemplify how toapply decision making steps into decision situations and in the afermath of this pro- cess students were able to solve decision problems in line with decision-making steps. In the end, it was observed that the scores of participants in ado- 673

  6. ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ?? ? ?? ? ? ? ? ??? ? ? ? ? ??? ?? ? ? ? ? ?? ? nably be argued that this situation was efective in improving self-trust of students in their capability, the rise in the scores of their positive coping style which in turn brought a rise in theirself-esteem le- vels and fall in their negative coping style scores. In monitoring test, the rise of students’ scores in self- esteem and vigilance in decision making and fall in cop-out, panic and complacency scores could also be taken as an indicator that students managed to solve the decision related problems in line with de- cision making steps which in turn enabled a rise in self-esteem levels in decision making. Tis finding may be accepted as an indicator that implemented skill training group applications were longtime. To sum up, it was determined in the current study thatgenerally speaking, confict theory based de- cision making skill training group applications increased students’ self-esteem and positive coping style scores in decision making whereas there was a decrease of their scores in negative coping style and the same was valid for monitoring test as well. One restriction of current research was that the efects of decision making skill training group applications were analyzed only with respect to Anatolian High School grade 9 students. In future studies, the same group applications can be conducted over students from diferent categories and grades of primary edu- cation, secondary education and higher education. lescents decision-making questionnaire vigilance sub-scale performed an increase. It could be argu- ed that the rise in scores of vigilance which was a positive decision-making style in decision-making situations of participants decreased their scores in negative decision making styles. If the individual manages to efectively implement decision making in situations necessitating decisi- on-making, then s/he can eficiently solve the de- cision related problems which in turn enables a fall in the use of cop-out, panic and complacency styles in decision making. As regards students in expe- rimental group, there was a decrease in cop-out, panic and complacency sub-scales of adolescent decision making questionnaire. Te fall witnessed in the scores of sub-scales was attributed to the con- text of implemented decision making skill training group applications. Confict-based decision ma- king skill training group applications covered de- cision-making stages,the significance of widening one’s own perspective and selection alternatives as a decision-maker, samples illustrating weak decisi- ons of adolescents in making choices, restrictions, and limitations. Decision-making skill training group applications were been structured in a way to encourage adolescents to conduct research during decision making process as well as gaining decision making steps. Besides, it was planned in a way to enable participants live a decision making expe- rience, gain consistent union of knowledge with respect to the principles of decision making, un- derstand the reasons of wrong decisions and make better and safer decisions, how to control their de- cisions better, widen their alternatives and at the end of process, it was witnessed that participants reached these objectives. Likewise Mann, Harmoni, and Power (1988), Mann, Beswick et al. (1989) and Şeyhun (2000) at the end of their decision making skill training programs detected that there was a fall in the negative coping styles of participants. Confict-based decision making skill training group applications’ efect on the rise of self-esteem levels and positive coping styles of students during deci- sion making and decrease in the scores of negative coping style was equally permanent in monitoring test. Tis finding was attributed to the context of implemented decision making skill training group applications. Mann, Beswick et al. (1989) also arri- ved at similar results. In the afermath of this psycho-educational experi- ence, it was observed that all students were able to handle the decision problems they faced in line with decision making steps. In that case, it could reaso- References/Kaynakça ????? ??? ??? ???????? 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ÇOLAKKADIOĞLU, GÜÇRAY????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????Rehberlik ve psikolojik danışmada kullanılan olcme aracları ve programlar dizisi: 1 içinde (s.?????????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Group co- unseling strategies skills.????????????? ?????????????????????????????????Decision making: A psychological analysis of confict, choice and commitment.?????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Preven- ting adolescent drug Abuse: Intervention strategies ?????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????? ??? ???? ????????? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Jour- nal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62???????????? ????????????????????Bilimsel araştırma yöntemi???????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????Psychoeducational groups?????????????? ???????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 22?????????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? 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Journal of Community Health Nursing, 12????????????? ???????????????????????Karar stratejileriile ana-baba tutumları arasındakiilişki.???????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ???? ???????????? ??? ???????????????? ?????????????????????? Journal of Counseling and Development, 67?????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????Adolescent decision making.???????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????Basic principles of decision making??????????????????????????????????????????? ????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????? Journal of Tought, 16???????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Deve- lopmental Psychology, 29,????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????? Journal of Ado- lescence,12?????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????Developmental Review, 12??????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 1,?????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Te- aching decision making to adolescents??????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Applied Developmental Psychology, 22??????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi,2??????????? ?????????????????????????Yaşam Becerileri. Ergenler için grupla psikolojik danışma uygulamaları????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????? ????????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????????????18?????????????? ??????????????????????Assessment of health decision making skills of adolescents???????????????????????????????????????. ??????????????????????????????????????????????Te teaching of thinking????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Health Education Research, 7, ???????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 40?????????????? ???????????????????????Risk taking in adolescent health decision ma- king????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 9 ?????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Self- esteem: Te puzzle of low self-regard????????????????????????? ????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????Social cognition: Te Ontario symposium on personality and social psychology??????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29???????????? 675

  8. ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ?? ? ?? ? ? ? ? ??? ? ? ? ? ??? ?? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????? Journal of Primary Prevention, 5???????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????Teory Into Practice,22????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????Teaching decision making to adolescents?????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????Self and identity: Perspectives across the lifespan???????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????Problem solving and education: Issues in teaching and research ????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????VII. Ulusal Psikoloji Kongresi Bilimsel Çalışmaları içinde ?????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????Te decision skills curriculum: A program for primary prevention of substance abuse??????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 24,??????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????Cognitive TerapyResearch, 17?????? ???????? ???????????????????Sosyal ve davranışsal ölçümlerde güvenilirlik ve geçerlili???????????????????????????? ???????????????????Karar verme becerileri eğitim programının ilköğretim son sınıf öğrencilerinin karar verme becerilerine etkisi. ????????????????????????????????,??????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????Journal of Adolescence,20?????????? ???????? ??? ???????? Heppner’in Problem Çözme Envanterinin uyarlama güvenirlik ve geçerlikçalışmaları?? ?????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????Personality & Individual Diferences, 36?????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????Personality and Indivi- dual Diferences,28?????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????Decision analy- sis and behavioral research????????????????????????????????? ?????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????Te physical self: From motivation to well-being ????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????Eşler arasındaki uyum ve çocuğun algıladığı anne-baba tutumu ile çocukların, ergenlerin, gençlerin akademik başarıları ve benlik algıları arasındakiilişkiler.??????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????? ??????????????????????Career counseling: Applied concepts of life planning ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????. 676