No End in Sight No End in Sight - PDF Document

Presentation Transcript

  1. 477-481US8P R U5C16S3 11/26/02 3:11 PM Page 477 Page 1 of 5 No End in Sight No End in Sight 3 3 TERMS & NAMES Ulysses S. Grant Battle of Shiloh cavalry Seven Days’ Battles Battle of Antietam MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW In the first two years of the war, neither side gained a decisive victory over the other. A long war can cause much death and destruction and leave a bitter legacy. ONE AMERICAN’S STORY In the summer of 1861, President Lincoln gave George McClellan command of the Union army in the East. The army had recently been defeated at Bull Run. McClellan faced the task of restoring the soldiers’ confidence while organizing and training an army that could defeat the Confederates. Within months, McClellan had accomplished the task and won the devotion of his troops. The entire nation expected great things. In November 1861, Lincoln made McClellan general in chief of the entire Union army. But while Lincoln kept urging him to attack Richmond, McClellan kept drilling his troops. A VOICE FROM THE PAST [S]oon as I feel that my army is well organized and well disciplined and strong enough, I will advance and force the Rebels to a battle on a field of my own selection. A long time must elapse before I can do that. General George McClellan, quoted in Civil War Journal: The Leaders President Lincoln (right) meets with General McClellan (left) on the Antietam battlefield in 1862. Lincoln said McClellan had “the slows.” While McClellan was stalling in the East, another general was winning victories in the West. Union Victories in the West That victorious Union general in the West was Ulysses S. Grant. In civilian life, he had failed at many things. But Grant had a simple strat- egy of war:“Find out where your enemy is, get at him as soon as you can, strike at him as hard as you can, and keep moving on.” In February 1862, Grant made a bold move to take Tennessee. Using ironclad gunboats, Grant’s forces captured two Confederate river forts. These were Fort Henry on the Tennessee and Fort Donelson on the nearby Cumberland. (See map on next page.) The seizure of Fort Henry opened up a river highway into the heart of the South. Union gunboats could now travel on the river as far as northern Alabama.When the peo- ple of Nashville, Tennessee, heard the forts were lost, they fled the city in panic. A week later, Union troops marched into Nashville. 477 The Civil War Begins

  2. 477-481US8P R U5C16S3 11/26/02 3:11 PM Page 478 Page 2 of 5 The Battle of Shiloh After Grant’s river victories, Albert S. Johnston, Confederate commander on the Western front,ordered a retreat to Corinth,Mississippi.Grant fol- lowed. By early April, Grant’s troops had reached Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee River. There he waited for more troops from Nashville. Johnston, however, decided to attack before Grant gained reinforcements. Marching his troops north from Corinth on April 6, 1862, Johnston sur- prised the Union forces near Shiloh Church. The Battle of Shiloh in Tennessee turned into the fiercest fighting the Civil War had yet seen. Commanders on each side rode into the thick of battle to rally their troops. One Union general, William Tecumseh Sherman, had three horses shot out from under him. General Johnston was killed, and the command passed to General Pierre Beauregard. By the end of the day, each side believed that dawn would bring victory. That night, there was a terrible thunderstorm. Lightning lit up the battlefield, where dead and dying soldiers lay in water and mud. During the night, Union boats ran upriver to ferry fresh troops to Grant’s camp. Grant then led an attack at dawn and forced the exhausted Southern troops to retreat. The cost of the Union victory was staggering. Union casualties at Shiloh numbered over 13,000,about one-fourth of those who had fought. The Confederates lost nearly 11,000 out of 41,000 soldiers. Describing A. Answer Grant was a bold and decisive leader while McClellan was slow and cau- tious. A. Contrasting How did Grant differ from McClellan as a military leader? The Civil War, 1861–1862 A. Battles of the West INDIANA Mississippi R. WISCONSIN ILLINOIS Mississippi R. 100 Miles 0 OhioR. KENTUCKY MICHIGAN MINNESOTA 0 200 Kilometers MISSOURI Grant Ft. Donelson Feb. 1862 IOWA O Pea Ridge March 1862 Ft. Henry Feb. 1862 INDIANA ILLINOIS O hio R. Shiloh TENNESSEE (Pittsburg Landing) April 1862 ARKANSAS KENTUCKY Ft. Donelson Feb. 1862 MISSOURI Corinth 35°N A. Johnston B. Fall of New Orleans A Ft. Henry Feb. 1862 MISSISSIPPI TENNESSEE 90°W Vicksburg ALABAMA 90°W ARKANSAS Corinth LOUISIANA MISSISSIPPI ALA. ALABAMA Farragut G Mississippi R. Vicksburg MISSISSIPPI New Orleans 30°N TEXAS B 50 Miles 0 Gulf of Mexico LOUISIANA 0 100 Kilometers 110°W 478 CHAPTER 16 120°W 115°W 85 W 95°W 90°W Gulf of Mexico

  3. 477-481US8P R U5C16S3 11/26/02 3:11 PM Page 479 Page 3 of 5 the piles of mangled bodies, General Sherman wrote home,“The scenes on this field would have cured any- body of war.” Congressmen criticized Grant for the high casualties and urged Lincoln to replace him. But Lincoln replied,“I can’t spare this man—he fights.” The Fall of New Orleans The spring of 1862 brought other bad news for the Confederacy. On April 25,a Union fleet led by David Farragut captured New Orleans,the largest city in the South. Rebel gunboats tried to ram the Union war- ships and succeeded in sinking one. Farragut’s ships had to run through cannon fire and then dodge burning rafts in order to reach the city. Residents stood on the docks and cursed the Yankee invaders, but they were powerless to stop them. The fall of New Orleans was a heavy blow to the South.Mary Chesnut of South Carolina, the wife of an aide to President Davis, wrote in her diary, “New Orleans gone—and with it the Confederacy. Are we not cut in two?” Indeed, after the victories of General Grant and Admiral Farragut,only a 150-mile stretch of the Mississippi remained in Southern hands.The Union was well on its way to achieving its goal of cutting the Confederacy in two. But guarding the remaining stretch of the river was the heavily armed Confederate fort at Vicksburg, Mississippi. “I can’t spare this man– he fights.” Abraham Lincoln, describing General Grant B. Answer It low- ered Southern morale. It helped the North cut the South in two. Skillbuilder Answers 1. Early Union victories took place in the West; early Confederate victories took place in the East. 2. because it was near Union and Confederate capitals B. Recognizing Effects Why was the fall of New Orleans significant? 60°W 45°N 65°W C. Battles of the East CANADA MAINE Area controlled by Union Area won by Union, 1861–1862 Area controlled by Confederacy Union troop movements Confederate troop movements Union victory Confederate victory Fort Capital VT. 40°N N.H. PENNSYLVANIA Antietam Sept. 1862 NEW YORK MASS. Lee MARYLAND CONN. N Potomac R. 40°N R.I. Sharpsburg Harpers Ferry McClellan Burnside N.J. PENNSYLVANIA S hena n d o ah Val ley Pope Bull Run: 1st, July 1861 2nd, Aug. 1862 Washington, D.C. MD. OHIO DEL. 70°W 300 Miles 0 C Washington, D.C. Manassas Jct. Richmond 0 600 Kilometers VIRGINIA Lee Rappahannock R. Seven Days’ June 1862 35°N Fredericksburg Dec. 1862 Y n Chesapeake Bay Lee 1862 NORTH CAROLINA GEOGRAPHY SKILLBUILDER 1. Location Where did most of the early Union victories take place? Where did early Confederate victories take place? 2. Region Why did much of the fighting take place in the Virginia- Maryland region? SOUTH CAROLINA McClellan Richmond Charleston Ft. Sumter James R. Union Blockade VIRGINIA A GEORGIA 30°N Monitor & Virginia March 1862 50 Miles 0 76°W A T L A N T I C 0 100 Kilometers O C E A N 75°W 80°W FLORIDA 25°N 479 The Civil War Begins 85°W o

  4. 477-481US8P R U5C16S3 11/26/02 3:12 PM Page 480 Page 4 of 5 Lee Claims Victories in the East Meanwhile,also in the spring of 1862,McClellan finally made his move to try to capture Richmond. He planned to attack the Confederate capital by way of a stretch of land between the York and James rivers.McClellan suc- ceeded in bringing his troops within a few miles of Richmond. But in June 1862,Robert E.Lee took charge of the Army of Northern Virginia and proceeded to turn the situation around. Lee sent Jeb Stuart and his cavalry—soldiers on horseback—to spy on McClellan. With about 1,000 men,Stuart rode around the whole Union army in a few days and reported its size back to Lee. Lee then attacked McClellan’s army. The two sides clashed for a week, from June 25 to July 1, 1862, in what became known as the Seven Days’ Battles. The Army of Northern Virginia suffered heavier losses, but it forced McClellan’s army to retreat. In late August, the Confederates won a second victory at Bull Run, and Union troops withdrew back to Washington. Within just a few months, Lee had ended the Union threat in Virginia. Lee Invades the North Riding a wave of victories, General Lee decided to invade the Union.He wrote to tell President Davis of his plan. Lee thought it was a crucial time, with the North at a low point.Without waiting for Davis’s response,Lee crossed the Potomac with his army and invaded Maryland in early September 1862. Lee had several reasons for taking the war to the North. He hoped a victory in the North might force Lincoln to talk peace.The invasion would give Virginia farmers a rest from war during the harvest season. The Confederates could plunder Northern farms for food. Lee hoped the invasion would show that the Confederacy could indeed win the war,which might con- vince Europe to side with the South. By this time, both Britain and France were leaning toward recognizing the Confederacy as a separate nation.They were impressed by Lee’s military successes, and their textile industry was now hurting from the lack of Southern cotton. Bloody Antietam Soon after invading Maryland,Lee drew up a plan for his campaign in the North. A Confederate officer acciden- tally left a copy of Lee’s battle plans wrapped around three cigars at a campsite. When Union troops stopped to rest at the abandoned campsite, a Union soldier stumbled on the plans.The captured plans gave McClellan a chance to stop Lee and his army. C. Making Inferences How was Lee’s appoint- ment fortunate for the South? C. Answer It came at a time when the South appeared to be losing; Lee turned the situation around. D. Reading a Map Use the map on page 479 to fol- low Lee’s move- ments into the North. JEFFERSON DAVIS 1808–1889 Jefferson Davis expected to be given a military command when the Confederacy was formed in 1861. But Davis was chosen President of the Confederacy instead, which stunned and saddened him. Because of his strong sense of duty and loyalty to the South, Davis accepted the unwelcome post. He had to immediately form a national government and pre- pare for war at the same time. Davis found it hard to compro- mise or accept disagreement with his opinions. How do the qualities required in a military leader differ from those required in a political leader? 480 CHAPTER 16

  5. 477-481US8P R U5C16S3 11/26/02 3:12 PM Page 481 Page 5 of 5 McClellan went on the attack, though he moved slowly as always. On September 17, 1862, at Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland, McClellan’s army clashed with Lee’s.The resulting Battle of Antietamwas the bloodiest day in all of American history. A Confederate officer later described the battle. Confederate artillery soldiers lie dead after the Battle of Antietam. A VOICE FROM THE PAST Again and again . . . by charges and counter-charges, this portion of the field was lost and recovered, until the green corn that grew upon it looked as if it had been struck by a storm of bloody hail. . . . From sheer exhaustion, both sides, like battered and bleeding athletes, seemed willing to rest. John B. Gordon, quoted in Voices of the Civil War After fighting all day, neither side had gained any ground by nightfall. The only difference was that about 25,000 men were dead or wounded. Lee, who lost as much as one-third of his fighting force, withdrew to Virginia.The cautious McClellan did not follow,missing a chance to fin- ish off the crippled Southern army. Lincoln was so fed up that he fired McClellan in November, 1862. In the next chapter, you will learn about the historic action Lincoln took after the Battle of Antietam. 3 Section Assessment 1.Terms & Names Explain the significance of: • Ulysses S. Grant • Battle of Shiloh • cavalry • Seven Days’ Battles • Battle of Antietam 2.Taking Notes Review the section and find five key events to place on a time line as shown. 3. Main Ideas a. Why were Union victories in the West and the fall of New Orleans significant to the Union cause? b. Why did Lee go on the offensive against the North? c. How did the South’s for- tunes change after Lee took command of the Army of Northern Virginia? 4. Critical Thinking Making Inferences What does Lee’s invasion of the North suggest about his qualities as a general and a leader? event event 1860 1863 THINK ABOUT • Lee’s military skills and style • the North’s resources event event event Which of these events do you think was most important? ACTIVITY OPTIONS GEOGRAPHY ART Develop a new military strategy for either the North or the South. Show your strategy on a map or in a diagram of troop movements. 481 The Civil War Begins