photography as a tool - PDF Document

Presentation Transcript

  1. History of photography (part 4): photography as a tool CS 178, Spring 2012 Marc Levoy Computer Science Department Stanford University

  2. Outline ! the technology improves ! popularization of photography ! documenting the growth of America ! gigantic undertakings (around the world) ! the industrial aesthetic ! scientific uses of photography ! documenting the social scene ! the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl ! profile: photographers of the Farm Security Administration ! still to come: photojournalism, modern art photography... !Marc Levoy 2

  3. The technology improves ! 1878!! dry-plate photography (Richard Maddox, Charles Bennett) • hardened gelatin-silver bromide • exposure time under one second • plates could be stored, separating shooting from processing ! 1885!! paper roll film (Arthur Melhuish, George Eastman) • gelatin coated onto paper (or film) • exposures under 1/10 second • multiple pictures without fiddling (wikipedia) ! 1880s! ! shutters (many people) • needed as films became more sensitive • focal plane (roller blind), leaf (diaphragm) !Marc Levoy 3

  4. The Kodak Camera (Newhall) George Eastman (1854-1932) (brightbytes.com) ! 1888!! Kodak camera No. 1 • fixed-focus, single shutter speed (1/100 sec?) • 100 shots per roll, then mail the camera back for reloading • “You press the button, we do the rest” • $25 for the camera, $10 per roll to process • contribution was not a single invention, but a system !Marc Levoy 4

  5. Related technologies (wikipedia) platinum print (you have to see one in person) first photograph printed using halftoning (Tim Page) ! 1870s!! German chemistry / dye / drug industries: ! ! ! new processes and compounds, purity, standardization ! 1880! ! flash photography (using flash powder) ! 1890! ! platinum paper printing (matte but with a deep black) ! 1873! ! screen-based halftone printing for mass publication !Marc Levoy 5

  6. Screen-based halftoning (simulated in Photoshop) screen (white squares are holes) ! since a printing press can only print black or white (no grays), goal is to convert tones into dots of varying size image focused on screen original inverted screened screen paper now largely replaced with digital halftoning blurred thresholded inverted !Marc Levoy 6

  7. Later technologies 5 7 1 3 1. 1850s!! telephoto lenses (Petzval Portrait Lens) 2. 1890s!! anastigmatic lenses - corrects for all aberrations 3. 1925! ! 35mm camera (Leica I) diffraction-limited 4. 1932! ! photoelectric meter 5. 1930s!! zoom lenses for cinema (Cooke Vario 40-120mm) 6. 1960s!! zoom lenses for still cameras 7. 1981! ! autofocus SLR (Pentax ME-F) !Marc Levoy 7

  8. Digital photography 640"480 1.5 Mpix ! 1994! ! mass-market digital camera (Apple QuickTake) ! 1992! ! digital SLR (Nikon-Kodak DCS 200) ! 1990! ! Photoshop 1.0 !Marc Levoy 8

  9. Popularization of photography ! before George Eastman, photographers were skilled, photographs were posed, and images were “crafted” ! the Kodak camera was cheap, portable, and easy to use ! photography became casual, spontaneous, and popular ! concentrated on documenting everyday life ! word “snapshot” invented by Herschel ! privacy became an issue (it still is) ! women started taking pictures - so subjects changed ! Walter Benjamin, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction (1935) !Marc Levoy 9

  10. Documenting the growth of America (Archives) view in 1906 10Dome of the U.S. capitol, photographer unknown, 1857 !Marc Levoy

  11. Documenting the growth of America (Archives) view in 1884 Washington Monument, photographer unknown, 1876 !Marc Levoy 11

  12. Documenting the growth of America (Frizot) Railroad viaduct, Ithaca, photographer unknown, 1873 !Marc Levoy 12

  13. The push west (Archives) Oklahoma, photographer unknown, 1893 !Marc Levoy 13

  14. (wikipedia) The end of the frontier (Archives) Opening the Cherokee Strip, W.A. Flower, 1893 !Marc Levoy 14

  15. Photography as proof of achievement First Flight, Kitty Hawk, 1903, photographed by John Daniels !Marc Levoy 15

  16. Industry and commerce (Archives) Waterfront at St. Louis, photographer unknown, 1909 !Marc Levoy 16

  17. Gigantic undertakings after completion (mid-1880s) Brooklyn Bridge, 1881 !Marc Levoy 17

  18. Gigantic undertakings fully assembled (in Paris) 18Statue of Liberty in Bartholdi’s Parisian workshop, 1882? !Marc Levoy

  19. Gigantic undertakings !Marc Levoy 19

  20. Gigantic undertakings !Marc Levoy 20

  21. Gigantic undertakings !Marc Levoy 21

  22. Gigantic undertakings !Marc Levoy 22

  23. Gigantic undertakings !Marc Levoy 23

  24. Gigantic undertakings Gustave Eiffel, The Eiffel Tower, 1889 !Marc Levoy 24

  25. Some projects were almost too gigantic (Archives) Panama Canal, Miraflores Locks, photographed by Ernest Hallen, 1913 !Marc Levoy 25

  26. The ship Lord Templeton traverses the Panama Canal’s Culebra Cut, 1915

  27. The bark Passat in heavy seas while rounding Cape Horn, photographed by Capt. H. Piening

  28. Port Blakeley Mill Company Dock, Puget Sound, photographed by Wilhelm Hester 1905

  29. Aerial photography ! from balloons ! from tall buildings ! from airplanes ! from space James Wallace Black, Boston from the Air, 1860 (Rosenblum) !Marc Levoy 29

  30. (Rosenblum) Berenice Abbott, New York at Night, 1933

  31. Tall buildings Chrysler Building, 1930 William van Alen, architect Margaret Bourke-White atop the Chrysler Building !Marc Levoy 31

  32. Tall buildings Chrysler Building, 1930 William van Alen, architect Burj Khalifa, Dubai, 2010 tallest structure in world (2717’) !Marc Levoy 32

  33. The industrial aesthetic in photography (Newhall) Charles Sheeler, Ford Plant, Detroit, 1927 !Marc Levoy 33

  34. The industrial aesthetic in photography (Gardner) Charles Sheeler, The Upper Deck, 1929 !Marc Levoy 34

  35. Lewis Hine, Powerhouse Mechanic, 1925

  36. Margaret Bourke-White, Fort Peck Dam, 1936

  37. Scientific uses of photography ! aerial photography (already shown) ! freezing motion ! the birth of cinematography !Marc Levoy 38

  38. Muybridge and Stanford Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904) Leland Stanford (1824-1893) (Stanford magazine) ! In a galloping horse, are all four hooves in the air at once? ! collaborative effort; Stanford suggested using trigger wires ! experiments spanned 1872-1878, in Palo Alto & Sacramento, with an interruption in 1874 when Muybridge was tried for the murder of his wife’s lover !Marc Levoy 39

  39. Public demonstration, June 19, 1878 (Library of Congress) !Marc Levoy 40

  40. Public demonstration, June 19, 1878 (Library of Congress) !Marc Levoy 41

  41. Thomas Eakins History of a Jump, 1884 The Agnew Clinic, 1889 !Marc Levoy 42

  42. Etienne Jules Marey Falling Cat, 1880s !Marc Levoy 43

  43. The birth of cinematography ! Muybridge’s images could be viewed using a Zoopraxiscope (invented by him) !Marc Levoy 44

  44. The birth of cinematography ! Muybridge’s images could be viewed using a Zoopraxiscope (invented by him) ! first practical unlimited-duration recording technology was Edison’s 1893 Kinetograph (with William Dickson) • perforated 35mm-wide strip of celluloid film • intermittent pull-down at 30 frames per second ! looped, backlit filmstrip displayed to individual viewers using Edison’s Kinetoscope Fred Ott’s sneeze (wikipedia) !Marc Levoy 45

  45. The birth of cinematography ! Muybridge’s images could be viewed using a Zoopraxiscope (invented by him) ! first practical unlimited-duration recording technology was Edison’s 1893 Kinetograph (with William Dickson) • perforated 35mm-wide strip of celluloid film • intermittent pull-down at 30 frames per second ! looped, backlit filmstrip displayed to individual viewers using Edison’s Kinetoscope ! concurrent work by Lumière brothers in France workers leaving the Lumière factory (wikipedia) !Marc Levoy 46

  46. Documentating the social scene ! photography recognized early as a force for social change ! social conscience initially awakened by seeing inequity in Europe’s colonial posessions: Egypt, Cuba, Africa, India, etc. ! government-funded projects undertaken to document ethnic groups and their living conditions, for lectures or pamphlets ! expanded to include the economic hardship in Europe and American brought about by industrialization ! given impetus by late 19th century moral reform movements, many of them religious in origin ! before paper film, photographs were carefully posed, so they seldom represented real living or working conditions ! ability to influence public opinion needed the power of the printing press, not individual prints hanging in an art gallery !Marc Levoy 47

  47. Recording non-European cultures (Rosenblum) Marie Cabannis, Syrian Bedouin Women, 1870 !Marc Levoy 48

  48. Showing the success of relief programs (Rosenblum) Raja Lala Deen Dayal, famine relief program in Aurangabad, 1899 !Marc Levoy 49

  49. Showing the success of relief programs (Rosenblum) Raja Lala Deen Dayal, famine relief program in Aurangabad, 1899 !Marc Levoy 50