Chapter 12 Byzantine Art Early- 500- 726 CE Visigoths sacked Rome in 410 and crippled the already dissolving Rome which split in two. Eastern Rome was ruled by an Emperor out of Milan and later Ravenna, and Western Rome was ruled by an Emperor out of Constantinople. The Western half was replaced by warring kingdoms that would later become the Western European nations. The Eastern half remained an intact Christian Empire for another 1000 years and was finally defeated in 1453 by the Ottoman Turks Historians call this Eastern Roman Empire “Byzantium” and anything associated with it as Byzantine (after Constantinople’s real name), even though the people actually referred to themselves as “Roman” and the Eastern Roman Empire as “New Rome” Justinian in 6th Century declared Christianity the only legal religion of “New Rome,” an act of intolerance that would bring much resistance by its diverse population The Eastern Emperor’s ruled supreme combining the functions of Pope and Caesar (Absolute power corrupts absolutely)-Western church would keep it separate Iconoclastic- 726- 843 A ban on any religious images depicting figures from either heaven or earth=seen as Idol worship Middle or High Byzantine- 843-1204 ban on icons was lifted and art flourished once again Late Byzantine- 1204-1453/ Beyond – Three events that changed Byzantium at this time: 1)Turks conquered most of Byzantine empire 2)Byzantine Church broke from the Church of Rome 3)Crusades brought the Latins (a generic term for people of the west) into Byzantine lands on their way to fight for the Cross against the Muslims who had conquered Israel (the Holy Land) The Crusaders envied the Byzantine wealth and luxury and turned on them at times, sacking Constantinople In 1453 The Ottoman Turks eventually took Constantinople and ended the Byzantine era. Art Concepts The Byzantine artist rejected the goal of the classical artist –which was to render the three dimensional world in convincing fashion and to have the people fully modeled and rooted to the ground. (Byzantine art= humans are non-realistic and non-natural) mosaics, Icon Painting, illuminated manuscripts 2 traditions- classical past/ coming Medieval art Invented pendentive/ squinch Blue sky gave way to gold backgrounds Reading: Pg. 331 Pendentives and Squinches Vocab Pendentive- Squinch- Icon- Pantocrator-
Codex- Psalter- Book of Psalms Triptych- Questions: The Hagia Sophia is know n for its large dome, but the Cathedral of San Marco consists of 5 smaller domes. W hat do you think is the advantage of each? Name tw o w ays in w hich the addition of transcepts to the basilica w ere very useful. Explain the differences in how the J ew ish religion sees icons differently than the Early Eastern Christian religion. W hat are 'galleries' in a Byzantine Church, and w hy w ere they created? Select any tw o churches or cathedrals in this section. Compare and Contrast the tw o. W hat happened in Constantinople in 1453, and how did this affect the Eastern Byzantine Empire?
N = name D = date (century) P/S = Period/ Style A = artist or architect Pa = Patron L = original location C = context N = notes of importance Chapter 12 N:Saint Michael the Archangel D:500 CE P/S:Early Byzantine A:unknown Pa:unknown L:Constantinople C: -says “_________________________________” on its inscription -shows Michael the Archangel holding out a cross-mounted___of______ -The angel is replacing the Greco-Roman goddess_______who claimed power in a similar manor, only she had a palm branch -artist was still working in_________manor (perfectly coiffed hair, ripples in drapery, delicate wings, and facial type) but seems to sort of_______ forward (feet on three steps at once, feet behind columns while upper body in front) 12-2 N: ivory N:Hagia Sophia D:530 CE P/S:Early Byzantine A:Anthemius and Isidorus Pa:Justinian L:Constantinople, Turkey C: -Byzantine’s__________building and one of supreme accomplishments of world architecture, dome is 108 feet in diameter, and its crown in 180 feet from the ground. -Windows in the dome’s base create a light beam halo and it makes it look like the dome is______on the light. Creates a mystical experience -Used Pendentives to accomplish the dome with windows (read pg. 331) compare to pg. 250-Roman dome design -They rested the dome on a__________base instead of a cylinder base. -The light was seen as the___________of God and God’s holy wisdom 12-3 N:San Vitale D:530 CE P/S:Early Byzantine A:Unknown Pa:Bishop Ecclesius L:Ravenna, Italy C: -Centrally planned, plain exterior, made up of two__________, the inner octagon rises above the other to provide the clerestory light -creates a design of great__________, arches looping over arches, wall and vault shapes seem to change as one moves around -the 12-6 N: -fgures and_______are very stif and angular, seem to foat -blue sky background replaced by_________inlay N:Mosaics from apse walls of San Vitale D:547 CEP/S:Early Byzantine A:Unknown Pa:Justinian and Theodora L:Ravenna, Italy C: -In the center Christ seen with halo and_______robe (Roman symbol of royalty) On either side is Justinian and Theodora each with halo and purple robe-This underscores the Eastern Church’s view that the _____________ has God-given role to lead the church and the state 12-9 12-10 12-11
N = name D = date (century) P/S = Period/Style A = artist or architect Pa = Patron L = original location C = context N = notes of importance Chapter 12 N:Christ as Pantokrator D:1100 CE P/S:Middle Byzantine A:Unknown Pa:Unknown L:Church of Dormition, Daphni, Greece C:-In the dome of the church is a mosaic of a _______________ Christ -In Greek means “_________________,” refers to his role as last judge of humankind-this was a popular theme throughout Byzantine empire -serves to connect the ____________ worshipper below with heaven through Christ above 12-21 N: N:Interior of St. Mark’s Cathedral D:1063 CE P/S:Middle Byzantine A:Unknown Pa:Unknown L:Venice, Italy C: -light enters through the windows at the bases of all ___domes -_______ cover all the walls, domes, vaults, and arches, creating a rich, and vibrant display -the mosaics depict narratives of Christ ascending to heaven, crucifixion and resurrection, as well as other biblical events -The inscriptions on the walls are in both______and _______as Venice served as the link between eastern and western Christendom in the middle ages -like all Byzantine, the figures all appear ____________, have the flat ______________background, no light and shade, no perspective of space, just reveal mysteries of the Christian faith 12-23 N:Harbaville Triptych D:950 P/S:MIddle Byzantine A:Unknown Pa:Unknown L: Various locations throughout Byzantium C: -Triptych “__________” made out of ivory, and was a portable shrine for personal prayer -these were very popular among those who could afford them -Jesus seated on the______, Theotokos (_________) and St. John the baptist, below are five apostles -the figures have a softer look to them and their heads are turned 3/4, clothes are more________ and less stiff, a slight return to the classics, these are all charcteristics of Middle Byzantine period 12-26 N: N:David Composing the Psalms D:950 P/S:Middle Byzantine A:Unknown Pa:Unknown L:Byzantium C: -A page from an illustrated book called the Paris Psalter, it is a tempra painting on Vellum. (Vellum=__________ Parchment=____________) -it was a careful study back to the ______________ classical style and naturalism -the scene depicts _____ playing his harp and it is very similar to greek scenes where Orpheus the Greek hero could charm all kinds of things with his music, also the others in the picture are Greek figures as well. -Pictures like these kept the classical style alive in the _____________ 12-28
N = name D = date (century) P/S = Period/Style A = artist or architect Pa = Patron L = original location C = context N = notes of importance Chapter 12 N:Vladimir Virgin D:1100 P/S:Middle Ages of Byzantine A:unknown Pa:unknown L:Vladimir, Russia C: -has suffered from centuries of working and reworking, used in church above ________________ which left buildup of soot -Virgin’s long, straight ____, small mouth, golden rays in infant’s drapery unbroken contour that encloses both individuals, flat ________ against the golden background, -seen as Virgin of ____________, pressing cheek against the baby, and can see on her expression as she is thinking about her son’s later sacrifice (the back of the icon bears images of the instruments of his death) -this is seen as a historical symbol of Byzantium’s mission to the Slavic world. (_______________) 12-29 N:Three Angels D:1410 P/S:Late Byzantine A:Andrei Rublyev Pa:Unknown L:Moscow, Russia C: -three angels with halos, all ________ except for their clothes, sweeping wings, -Byzantine art was carried into ______ and continued to grow there long after the defeat of the Byzantines 12-34 N: N:Christ as Savior of Souls D:1300 P/S:Late Byzantine A:Unknown Pa:Unknown L:Ohrid, Macedonia C: -finely etched ______ foil surrounds the tempra painted image of Christ -very typical of Byzantine _______, he holds a bejeweled bible and with other hand blesses the people -notice the classical style of the painted head and neck, but the style of the clothes are very Byzantine in appearance, the folds are very linear and ________, they don’t seem to envelop the figure but instead look like they are just placed in front of his body -eclectic in __________ 12-32 N: N:__________________________ D:_____________P/S:_____________ A:__________________Pa:____________________L:________________ C: N: 1-7