Ancient Roman Civilization - PDF Document

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  1. Ancient Roman Civilization 753 BCE: legendary founding of Rome by Romulus 509 BCE: Republic of Rome founded 27 BCE: End of Republic, reign of Emperor Augustus 27 BCE-200 CE Early Imperial period

  2. Terrain  of  Rome  before  se.lement   Republican  Rome   Organic  city  

  3. Where is Pompeii? The Bay of Naples? Vesuvius erupts and buries Pompeii, 79 CE

  4. City  of  Pompeii     Occupied  in  the  7-­‐6th  centuries  BCE  by  the   Osci,  an  ancient  Italic  people   Taken  over  by  Etruscans  and  Greeks  (and   others).  Captured  by  the  Romans  in  80   BCE  ,  and  significantly  rebuilt  in  the   Augustan  period  (27  BCE-­‐14CE)  .   Infrastructure:  WATER  and  WASTE   Republican  Rome  

  5. Bay  of  Naples  from  Mt.  Vesuvius  

  6. View  of  Pompeii,  Mt.  Vesuvio  in  the  background  

  7. Famous  visitors  to  Pompeii  

  8.   Roman  (Campania).   Pompeii.  General  view   to  N.  showing  paved   street  with  pedestrian   crossing  blocks  (in   backgound,  Mount   Vessuvius).    

  9. Pompeii,  Street  view  with  shops   Inside  of  a  shop,  Pompeii  

  10. Interior  of  lunch  shop   Lunch  counter  with  marble  revetment  

  11. Aerial  view  of  the  forum  

  12. Forum  at  Pompeii.  What  kinds  of  things  happened  in  the  forum?  

  13. Pompeii,  view  of  forum  

  14. Garden  of  the  house  of  the  VeZi   House  of  the  VeZi,  Pompeii  

  15. Garden  of  the  house  of  the  VeZi   House  of  the  VeZi,  Pompeii   View  from  the  impluvium  to  the  garden  peristyle  

  16. Pain[ng  in  the  triclinium   House  of  the  VeZi  

  17. Pompeii,  House  of  the  VeZi   Fic[ve  architecture,  fic[ve  marble     PLINY  

  18. Excava[on  of  the  house  of  the  VeZi  in  the  late  1800s  

  19. 117  CE   129  BCE   753 BCE: legendary founding of Rome by Romulus 509 BCE: Republic of Rome founded 27 BCE: End of Republic, reign of Emperor Augustus 27 BCE-200 CE Early Imperial period Growth  of  empire  in  republican  period  and  into  the  imperial  period.  Empire  the   largest  at  117CE  during  the  reign  of  Trajan  

  20. Biggest  ques[on  from  your  reading  on  Rome:   How  did  Augustus  make  Rome  into  an  imperial   capitol?     Let’s  ask  more  specific  ques[ons.     •  What  kinds  of  monuments  did  Augustus  erect  in   Rome?   •  What  were  they  made  of?   •  What  were  the  central  messages  that  Augustus   wanted  to  communicate  to  the  city,  to  the  world,   through  his  new  monuments?  

  21. Now  we  will  look  at:     1.  Triumphal  arches  and  the  concept  of   Augustan  peace   2.  Augustus’  forum  and  the  Temple  to   Mars  Ultor   3.  The  Ara  Pacis  and  the  Campus  mar[us  

  22. Augustan  Rome,  regions  created  in  7  BCE   Republican  Rome  

  23. 200  BCE  (note  loca[on  of  Parthia)   Augustus  commemorates  peace  with  the  Parthians!   53  BCE  Parthians  defeat  Roman  army  and  take  prisoners   20-­‐19  BCE  Augustus  returns  to  Rome  with  prisoners  and  the  Roman  ba.le  standards      

  24. Loca[on  of  arch:  next  to  temple   of  the  divine  Julius  Caesar,   Augustus’  adop[ve  father   Augustus  in  a  chariot  with  Parthians  paying  tribute,   Dedicated  in  19  BCE    

  25. Augustus  or   Primaporta:   Bronze  original   probably  set  up  in  a   public  place  ca.  19  BCE     Return  of  the  Parthian  standards  

  26. Arch  of  Titus  

  27. The  Forum  of  Augustus  

  28. Via  dei  Fori  Imperiali  

  29. Temple  of  Mars  Ultor  

  30. Program  of  the  forum:    Links  August  to  Julius   Caesar  and  to  his  divine  ancestors.     The  halls  were  lined  with  sculptures  of  his   ancestors.     Vowed  to  build  this  temple  in  the  heat  of   ba.le  in  42  BCE,  when  he  defeated  those   who  murdered  his  father.  Temple  dedicated   in  2  BCE  

  31. Reconstruc[on  of  the  Forum  of  Augustus  and  the  Temple  of  Mars  Ultor,  ca.  20  BCE  

  32. Fragment  of  a  gilded  bronze   statue  of  Venus  from  the  Temple   of  Mars  Ultor  

  33. Augustan  temple:  remember  that   Favro  considers  Augustus’   architecture  fairly  conserva[ve.   Temple of Portunus, Cattle Market, Rome, late 2nd c BCE (from the Republican period)

  34. Temple  to  Mars  Ultor     Luna  (Carrara)  marble,  a   source  for  white  marble   found  during  Augustus’  reign.        

  35. Carrara  (Luna)  marble  quarries   Pliny  ch.  4  of  book  36:  “All  these   ar[sts,  however,  used  nothing  but  the   white  marble  of  the  Isle  of  Paros,  a   stone  which  was  known  as  "lychnites"   at  first,  because,  according  to  Varro,  it   was  cut  in  the  quarries  by  lamplight.   Since  their  [me,  many  other  whiter   marbles  have  been  discovered,  and   very  recently  that  of  the  quarries  of   Luna.  ”    

  36. 2.  Yellow  marble  from  Numidia   3.  Green  marble  from  Thessaly  (Greece)   4.  Cipollino  marble  from  Greece   5.  Green  serpen[ne  marble  from  Greece     10.  Pavonazze.o  marble  from  Turkey   11.  Alabaster  from  Egypt   12.  Ancient  red  porphyry  from  Egypt       The  global  marble  market!  

  37. Cipollino   green  marble   from  Greece   Pavonazze.o  (peacock!)   marble  from    Phrygia  (today   Turkey)   Alabaster  from   Egypt   Egyp[an  porphyry   Numidian  yellow  from  North  Africa  

  38. Various  pieces  of  different  colored  marbles  on  the  lunch  counter  in  Pompeii  

  39. Pantheon,  Rome.   Built  in    ca.  126  by  the  emperor   Hadrian  

  40. Interior  of  the  Pantheon,  Rome   Showing  some  original  Roman  marble   revetment       The  columns  are  made  of  Pavonazze.o   (peacock!)  marble  from    Turkey       What  did  Pliny  think  about   the  use  of  imported   marbles?  

  41. Augustan  Rome,  regions  created  in  7  BCE   Republican  Rome  

  42. Pliny  (ch.  15)   men[ons  the   obelisk  used  as  a   sundial.   Obelisk  of  red  granite  from  Egypt   Ara  Pacis  in  the  Campus  Mar[us.    Part  of  a   complex  including  Augustus’  sundial  and   his  mausoleum   Loca[on  of  the  Campus  Mar[us:  click  here.  

  43. Ara  Pacis  Augustae,   consecrated  in  January  in  9   BCE;  commemorates  Augustus’     triumphant  return  from  Gaul   and  Spain  in  13  BCE.  Luna   marble  (from  Carrara)  

  44. Tellus  (Mother  Earth).  “The  two  children  on  her  lap  have  been  interpreted  as  the  nephews   and  heirs  to  Augustus,  Gaius  and  Lucius  Caesar.” h.p://www.bluoon.edu/~sullivanm/italy/rome/arapacis/arapacis.html  

  45. Figure  to  the  leq  of  Tellus   What’s  the  central  idea  here?!            Closeup  of  Tellus   FECUNDITY!