T TO O W WR RI IT TI IN NG G J JO OB B D DE ES SC CR RI IP PT TI IO ON NS S - PDF Document

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  1. A Ap pr ri il l 2 20 00 08 8 E Em mp pl lo oy ye ee e R Re el la at ti io on ns s D De ep pa ar rt tm me en nt t A A G Gu ui id de e T TO O W WR RI IT TI IN NG G J JO OB B D DE ES SC CR RI IP PT TI IO ON NS S F Fo or r B Bo oa ar rd ds s o of f E Ed du uc ca at ti io on n

  2. The job description This guide was prepared by the Saskatchewan School Boards Association, Employee Relations Department to assist Boards of Education in the development of job descriptions that accurately describe the responsibilities of various non-teaching jobs within the education sector in the best way possible. If you have questions and/or require further assistance and support, please call your assigned Employee Relations Consultant at the Saskatchewan School Boards Association at 569-0750. provides the basis and support for many human resource activities. Page 2 A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  3. T Ta ab bl le e o of f C Co on nt te en nt ts s I In nt tr ro od du uc ct ti io on n 4 S SE EC CT TI IO ON N 1 1 W Wh ha at t I Is s A A J Jo ob b D De es sc cr ri ip pt ti io on n? ? 5 A. The Purpose of A Job Description 5 B. Features of A Well-Written Job Description 7 S SE EC CT TI IO ON N 2 2 W Wr ri it ti in ng g T Th he e J Jo ob b D De es sc cr ri ip pt ti io on n 9 A. Getting Started 9 B. Writing The Job Description 10 1. Job Identification 10 2. Job Scope, Summary or Purpose 10 3. Typical Duties and Responsibilities 11 4. Qualifications 12 S SE EC CT TI IO ON N 3 3 A Ad dd di it ti io on na al l R Re es so ou ur rc ce es s 15 Acknowledgements 15 Appendix A – Sample Position/Job Analysis Questionnaire Appendix B – Sample Job Descriptions Appendix C – Action Verbs For Use in Job Description Writing Appendix D – Knowledge, Skills and Abilities Page 3 A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  4. I IN NT TR RO OD DU UC CT TI IO ON N Well-written, up-to-date job descriptions are fundamental to effective human resource practices and processes. While writing a job description should be a joint and co- operative task between the direct supervisor and incumbent, it is the responsibility of the supervisor to ensure a job description is developed and maintained for each employee who reports to them. In the event of a dispute regarding the job description content, the supervisor and/or Administration has the responsibility to determine the job content. This guide is designed to make the task simpler by offering tips on how to get started, what to include in the descriptions, and what to avoid. Page 4 A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  5. 1 W Wh ha at t I Is s A A J Jo ob b D De es sc cr ri ip pt ti io on n A job description is a written record of work currently performed in a job. The description must accurately reflect all the duties and responsibilities assigned to the job as well as the qualifications that a person requires to perform these duties and responsibilities. It is NOT a description of the attributes of the person who currently holds the job. It consists of a number of short written statements that describe the content and requirements of the job. It is important that the description is written in fairly simple language, so the reader can easily understand what the job is required to do. A job description must reflect the job as it exists today, not what it was last year or how it may be at some point in the future. In the case of a newly created job, the description should reflect what is realistically expected to develop in the coming year. Remember: the job description should not mention staff performance. It is the job you are describing, NOT the incumbent. A A. . W Wh ha at t I Is s t th he e P Pu ur rp po os se e o of f A A J Jo ob b D De es sc cr ri ip pt ti io on n? ? While the primary purpose of the job description is to communicate information on what a job does and why it is done, it is important to understand that it is also a fundamental tool that provides the foundation and support for many other human resource activities. The diagram below identifies the major areas of Human Resource Management. The following list of Human Resource activities for which job descriptions are used are categorized within these major Human Resource areas: Page 5 A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  6. Ensure Effectiveness Of Organizational Structure: ensures job functions in a particular unit(s) are designed to ensure maximum effectiveness and are vital to the administrative effectiveness of the unit(s). Recruiting, Hiring and Placement: is the basis for creating the job advertisement, as well as determining the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities of applicants in order to facilitate effective and legally defensible hiring decisions. Orientation and Training New Employees: provides an overall view of the job and thus fosters a better understanding of what is expected. Performance Reviews: measures the employee's performance against the responsibilities and functions as they appear in the job description. Role Clarification: clarifies responsibilities, assignments and job relationships for the incumbent and for the team or work unit as a whole. Self-Understanding, Development, Career Pathing/Succession Planning: helps the incumbent assess his/her qualifications and abilities in relation to the job's responsibilities and allows the supervisor to identify a ladder of progression or direction for future development for those employees interested in improving their career. Assessment Of Training Needs: identifies training opportunities either individually or for a particular occupation group required to improve a unit's efficiency. Salary Comparison (Internal Equity): provides the basis to measure the relative ranking of jobs within the organization to avoid salary inequities and establish fair prices for jobs of similar scope and responsibility. Salary Surveys (External Equity): provides the necessary foundation for comparing compensation within the organization with compensation for similar jobs outside the organization; thereby permitting determination of a compensation strategy such as competitive pay ranges. Individual Salary Determination: reclassification of a job may have a direct impact on the incumbent's pay. Health & Safety: raise awareness of and recognize risks and hazards with a position’s responsibilities and helps to identify necessary safety training and precautions that need to be in place. Page 6 A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  7. B. F Fe ea at tu ur re es s O Of f A A W We el ll l- -W Wr ri it tt te en n J Jo ob b D De es sc cr ri ip pt ti io on n Detail Vs Generalization The objective of a job description is to give the readers the true sense or overview of the job by striking a balance between over-generalization and excessive detail (it is not appropriate to see a list of tasks or the exact procedures required). In addition, consistency of language (words, phrases, format, etc) is imperative in well- written job descriptions as this ensures the Administration’s actions and decisions with respect to human resource management activities are legally defensible. Organization of Major Responsibilities The activities performed by a job should be analyzed and then organized into major responsibilities. Again, because jobs differ, there is no "right" number of major responsibilities to be found in a good job description. Virtually all jobs can be broken down into between six and twelve key responsibilities. The order of these responsibilities should reflect their importance - from the most important to the least important. The order selected should be one that best expresses your job. Otherwise the description may be disjointed and splintered causing the reader confusion. Page 7 A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

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  9. 2 W Wr ri it ti in ng g T Th he e J Jo ob b D De es sc cr ri ip pt ti io on n A. Getting Started The most difficult part of writing a job description is getting started. Reviewing other job descriptions, and following a standardized format will assist you in getting started. Appendix B provides two sample job description formats for your reference. A useful tool in the development of a job description is a Position or Job Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ/JAQ). Job Analysis is a process used to collect, analyze and document the important facts about a particular job. A PAQ/JAQ is the tool used to facilitate this structured collection and analysis. Job Analysis seeks to know: WHAT AN EMPLOYEE DOES Duties Tasks HOW THE EMPLOYEE DOES IT Methods Tools Techniques WHY THE EMPLOYEE DOES IT Products Services EMPLOYEE QUALIFICATIONS Skills Knowledge Abilities Physical Demands Refer to A Ap pp pe en nd di ix x A A – – S Sa am mp pl le e P PA AQ Q/ /J JA AQ Q for further guidance to assist you in capturing the appropriate information for writing your job description. Page 9 A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  10. B. Writing The Job Description Each job description contains four main sections: 1. Job Identification 2. Job Scope, Summary or Purpose 3. Typical Duties and Responsibilities 4. Qualifications Let’s take a closer look at the type of information you should include in each section. 1. JOB IDENTIFICATION The first section of the description identifies the job. This section should include: Job Title Job Identifiers (Classification Code, Classification Number) Name of the Department, Section and/or Locations 2. JOB SCOPE, SUMMARY OR PURPOSE The job scope section (sometimes referred to as job summary or purpose) provides a “snap shot” of the job by clearly describing its purpose. It introduces the reader to what the job is supposed to accomplish. It contains the basic features that distinguish it from all other jobs. It provides the overview for all that follows and it must be complete enough to stand on its own as a clear, concise description of the job. When you are writing this section, ask yourself the following questions: What is the purpose of the job? What is it supposed to accomplish? What is the outstanding factor in the job that makes it different from all other jobs? The job scope section should end with the title of the person to whom the job reports and identify if the job directly or indirectly supervises others. Page 10 A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  11. 3. TYPICAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES Only the major duties and responsibilities of the job should be listed in this section. This includes daily as well as occasional duties. When writing this section, consider which words will most precisely explain the various duties and responsibilities to a person who knows nothing about the job. The language of job description writing is exacting. Choose your words carefully, particularly your verbs. Verbs are powerful words; each one conveys a specific mental image. Consult Appendix C for a list of action verbs that will help you select the “right” verb. Prepare a succinct, clear statement about each responsibility. This section of the description should expand upon the job scope, explaining each part of the job so logically that someone who knows nothing about the job can visualize the scope of responsibilities and understand the job. However, it is not so detailed that it is a listing of specific tasks. The Position/Job Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ/JAQ) as a tool is invaluable at this point. Use this tool to sort out statements that apply to each responsibility. Remember, most jobs have no more than eight main duties. Rethink how you have labelled some of the duties if you have more than eight listed. Several could possibly be combined under one. List the duties in order of importance so your reader does not become confused. Record only pertinent facts, not unnecessary details. Details clutter a description and can make it difficult for the reader to sort out the main functions of the job unless they are strictly relevant. For each duty attempt to describe what is done and how it is done. Once you have identified the typical duties performed, it is important to add as the last statement: “May perform other related duties as assigned.” This statement is not intended to be a ‘catch all’ for any and all additional duties the Administration may want to assign to the employee. Additional duties must reasonably be associated with the employee’s basic job assignment and this preserves the point that the job description is not a complete listing of tasks and is not intended to be comprehensive or restrictive with respect to assignment of work. Page 11 A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  12. 4. QUALIFICATIONS The final portion of the description describes the Qualifications required to perform the duties and responsibilities at a satisfactory level. Remember that qualifications are interpreted by Arbitrators to be broad therefore a good job description will clearly identify the required qualifications under general categories: A. B. C. D. E. Education Experience Required Licenses, Certification and Regulations Knowledge, Skills and Abilities Other Critical Factors Remember that only the qualifications required for the job are identified, NOT those of a person(s) already filling the job. A. Education This section identifies the formal education required of someone who has the ability to get the job done. It may help if you consider the statements you would use if the job was vacant and you were advertising the vacancy. B. Experience should relate closely to the job although it need not be gained in the work environment. For example, if the required experience in the job description for a job dealing with a particular group of people or the general public states, “3 years experience dealing with the public”, this identifies the type of experience required versus how the person obtained the experience. C. Licenses, Certifications and Registrations Indicate whether a particular credential, license, trade certification, or professional designation is required by legislation. Specify here only those credentials requiredto fulfill the requirements of the job, not ones that may be desirable. Where there are no legal requirements for specific qualifications, it is recommended that you include a statement identifying that an equivalent combination of education and experience will be considered. Page 12 A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  13. D. Knowledge, Skills and Abilities (KSA) The knowledge, skills and abilities section describes the specific knowledge, skills and abilities required in order to fulfill the expectations as outlined in the Duties & Responsibilities section. A skill, knowledge or ability is something a worker knows or can do that enables the employee to successfully perform the duties of the job. Basic knowledge, skill and ability categories include but are not limited to the following: Knowledge of specific principles, practices and procedures Communication or Interpersonal Skills (Reading, Writing, Speaking) Mathematical Skills Decision Making and/or Reasoning Skills Self-Management Skills Human Relations Skills Vocational Skills Each KSA statement should indicate: what level of ability in what context, for what purpose. (Optional) Appendix D provides more detailed information to assist in establishing and phrasing appropriate knowledge, skills and abilities. Page 13 A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  14. E. Other Critical Factors There may be other critical factors unique to the job that are fundamentally considered necessary qualifications or abilities. Without these, the applicant applying for the job would not be able to perform the main duties and responsibilities. Most often these fall into two categories: i. ii. Physical, Mental and Visual Demands Working Conditions i. Physical, Mental and Visual Demands Indicate the physical, mental and visual demands of the job. Most jobs only require a normal level of physical, mental and visual exertion. Some, however, require a high concentration in one or more of these areas. For example, keyboarding and coding material onto a word processor requires a high level of visual and mental exertion. Jobs such as mailroom clerks, maintenance workers or custodial workers may also require physical skills beyond normal requirements such as lifting, bending, or stooping. ii. Working Conditions Where physical conditions under which the job duties must be performed are a departure from what may be considered a normal environment, the job description can contain a Working Conditions section. Ask yourself - Does the nature of the work indicate that the incumbent might be exposed to hazards that would be considered unusual or highly dangerous? (note: most working environments don’t pose such hazards). Page 14 A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  15. 3 A Ad dd di it ti io on na al l R Re es so ou ur rc ce es s If you have any questions or require support/assistance in developing, updating or assessing your job descriptions, feel free to contact the Saskatchewan School Boards Association, Employee Relations Department. Remember: the job description you prepare is critical as you may be called upon to justify the description that is approved in the event of a challenge to a hiring decision or termination of an employee and/or in the negotiation of rates of pay or various other human resource processes. By following the approach and tips given in this guide, you should be able to prepare descriptions that accurately reflect the duties and responsibilities of the jobs within your school division. Good luck and good writing! A AC CK KN NO OW WL LE ED DG GE EM ME EN NT TS S: : BC Public Service Agency City of Regina Lamar University Minnesota State Colleges & Agencies Nova Scotia Public Service Commission University of California University of Western Ontario Page 15 A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

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  17. A AP PP PE EN ND DI IX X A A S Sa am mp pl le e P PA AQ Q/ /J JA AQ Q i A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  18. Appendix A ii A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  19. Appendix A S Sa am mp pl le e P Po os si it ti io on n/ /J Jo ob b A An na al ly ys si is s Q Qu ue es st ti io on nn na ai ir re e PURPOSE This questionnaire is used to describe the specific duties and minimum requirements for this job and serves to assist in developing or updating the job description and/or establish an appropriate rate of pay for the position.The information should provide an accurate and complete representation of the job. INSTRUCTIONS Ideally, the employee will complete an initial draft questionnaire, as that person is the most familiar with the actual tasks performed, equipment operated, and methods utilized. In the event of a vacant position, the immediate supervisor should complete the PAQ. The employee and supervisor should review the completed questionnaire for accuracy, consistency, and legibility. The PAQ should then be sent to the next higher level(s) of management and/or Director of Education for their review, critique and approval. Upon approval of the Director of Education, the final completed PAQ is sent to the Human Resources Department where the questionnaire will be kept on file. 1. Review the entire questionnaire to make sure you understand the questions. 2. Consider and provide responses which accurately represent the way the job currently functions. Keep these points in mind: ? Consider the job’s usual responsibilities. Do not dwell on limited, short-term tasks or future responsibilities. Focus on those duties that are an essential and regular part of the job. ? Consider the job and its requirements, not on an individual’s personal background or how you would like to see the job performed or designed. 3. Answer all of the questions. Leave nothing blank. Please type, print or write legibly. 4. Where applicable, ensure employee, supervisor and Director sign and date the questionnaire. If you have any questions concerning the completion of the questionnaire, please contact the Saskatchewan School Boards Association, Employee Relations Department at 569-0750 for assistance. iii A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  20. Appendix A PLEASE PRINT OR TYPE when completing the questionnaire. G GE EN NE ER RA AL L J JO OB B I ID DE EN NT TI IF FI IE ER R I IN NF FO OR RM MA AT TI IO ON N: : Date: Job Title: Incumbent’s Name: Division/School/Work Unit Name: Supervisor’s Job Title: Supervisor’s Name: 1. Is this a NEW job? 2. Is this a review/update of an existing job description? YES NO YES NO I certify that the information contained in this document is a true and accurate listing of the duties assigned to and performed by this job. Incumbent’s Signature: Date: Supervisor’s Signature: Date: Executive Director’s/Director of Education’s Signature: Date: MM MA AR RY Y O OR R P PU UR RP PO OS SE E J JO OB B S SC CO OP PE E, , S SU UM Please describe the primary purpose of this job. (Why does the job exist, what do you do?) iv A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  21. Appendix A K KE EY Y D DU UT TI IE ES S A AN ND D R RE ES SP PO ON NS SI IB BI IL LI IT TI IE ES S List your major work duties and responsibilities. Try to place them in approximate descending order of importance, and describe them so someone not familiar with your work would understand them. Avoid the phrase “responsible for.” Rather use action words such as “operates”, “schedules”, “types”, “prepares”, “calculates”, “reviews”, “conducts”, etc. See Appendix C of the Employer’s Guide To Writing Job Descriptions for a list of action verbs. After you have listed your major duties, estimate the portion of your time spent on each. The total percentage must be 100%. MAJOR DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITIES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. APPROXIMATE % OF TIME (Total =100%) v A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  22. Appendix A The Qualifications Section Must Be Completed By The Immediate Supervisor Q QU UA AL LI IF FI IC CA AT TI IO ON NS S A. FORMAL EDUCATION This section assesses the minimum job requirements in terms of formal education which are required of the job in order for it to be performed at least satisfactorily. Remember: This is the education level required for the job, not necessarily the incumbent’s level of education. Describe the lowest levelof education and/or training usually required to understand and perform the work. Include specific degree, technical training, or post-high school course work and the field of study, if any required to qualify for this job. Describe the licenses or certification, if any, that are required to qualify for the job. Describe any equipment/machines etc; that are required to operate in this job.. vi A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  23. Appendix A B. This factor identifies the least amount (i.e. in months or years) and type of work experience required, if any, in order for the duties of the job to be performed at least satisfactorily. EXPERIENCE Describe the specific amount and type of experience required in the job. Include any equipment/machines etc; the employee is required to operate in this job. vii A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  24. Appendix A K KN NO OW This section describes the knowledge, skills and abilities required of the job in order for it to be performed at least satisfactorily. Knowledge, skills and abilities can be described in many different ways. This section provides a number of structured categories with common descriptive levels to assist in the collection of data. In employing this structured approach, the language applied in your job descriptions will be consistent. Refer to Appendix D for further assistance in writing your knowledge, skills and abilities. The categories are as follows: A. Problem Solving (i.e. Reasoning Skills) B. Decision Making (i.e. Self-Management Skills) C. Interpersonal Skills (i.e. Communication Skills) D. Written Communications (i.e. Communication Skills) E. Working Conditions, Physical/Mental Effort, Working Environment (i.e. Vocational Skills) F. Supervision (i.e. Human Relation Skills) WL LE ED DG GE E, , S SK KI IL LL LS S A AN ND D A AB BI IL LI IT TI IE ES S viii A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  25. Appendix A A. The following describe typical levels of problem solving: 1. Work tasks are well-defined with clearly stated directions and guidelines. The work steps tend to be the same from day to day and usually cannot be modified. Problems are solved by reporting them to a supervisor. 2. Work tasks follow the same order and require little interpretation. Problems can be solved by choosing between a few clear choices which are clearly spelled-out through talking with a supervisor. 3. Problems generally involve the selection of standard procedures, organizing work, and checking results. Answers are usually found by selecting from specific choices defined in standard work policies or procedures. 4. Problems are not easy to identify, but are similar to those seen before. Solving them requires judgment such as setting priorities, evaluating results, or coordinating with others. Solution can often be found by using methods chosen before in similar situations. 5. Problem solving involves identification and analysis of diverse problems; answers are usually found by reviewing standard technical manuals and administrative procedures and modifying them for unusual situations. Guidance is usually provided on the specific sources to review and solutions are reviewed before approval/implementation. 6. Problems are complex, varied and only mildly related to those seen before. Simply determining what the problem is requires major individual effort and/or consultation with others within the department or university. A high degree of analytical ability and inductive thinking may be required to solve highly intricate, technically complex problems. Must be able to develop new and nonstandard approaches. PROBLEM SOLVING (i.e. Reasoning Skills) Describe the problem solving required in the job and provide one or two examples. This does not mean the most difficult problems faced, but the typical level encountered over an extensive period of time. ix A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  26. Appendix A B. Decision making is measured in terms of: the opportunity for independent action and the level of direction and supervision received. The following describes typical levels of decision making: 1. Standardized: Little, if any, independent judgment or decision-making is required. The incumbent follows standard procedures in a predefined order for each assignment. 2. Routine: Work may occasionally involve non-standard assignments; however, the methodology is normally prescribed in detail by the immediate supervisor. There is limited opportunity for independent judgment. 3. Basic: Ongoing supervision is provided on an “as needed” basis. Some independent judgment is necessaryto select and apply the most appropriate of available procedures. 4. Varied: Supervision is present to establish general objectives relative to a specific project, to outline the desired end product and to identify potential resources for assistance. Independent judgment is requiredto identify, select, and apply the most appropriate of available guidelines and procedures, interpret precedents, and adopt standard methods or practices to meet variations in facts and/or conditions. 5. Analytic: Supervision is present to establish and review broad objectives relative to basic job duties or departmental responsibilities. Independent judgment is required to study previously established, often partially relevant guidelines; plan various interrelated activities; and coordinate such activities within a work unit or while completing a project. 6. Highly Complex: Supervision is present to review established departmental and/or school/centre objectives.Independent judgment is required to recommend departmental or school/centre objectives, evaluate new approaches to problem solving, and assess changing facts or conditions. DECISION MAKING (i.e. Self-Management Skills) Describe the decision making required in the job and provide one or two examples. x A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  27. Appendix A C. Interpersonal skills are assessed in terms of: the nature, frequency and level of contact required of the job in carrying out duties of the job. The following describe typical levels of contacts: 1. Requires very little contact with others outside own work area. 2. Requires some contact within or outside the university to give or obtain information. 3. Requires frequent contact with students, faculty, staff and general public. Advises others of options, interprets procedures, and resolves problems. 4. Requires daily contact with internal staff and external stakeholders to represent the organization. 5. Requires a high level of contact with high-level administrators and/or government officials to negotiate or persuade outcomes of considerable consequence. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS (i.e. Communications Skills) Describe the nature, frequency and level of contact required in the job and provide one or two examples. xi A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  28. Appendix A D. Written Communications are measured in terms of: the frequency and nature of written materials required of the job in carrying out duties of the job. The following describe typical levels of written communications: 1. Incumbent is not required to compose written materials (Excludes personal time keeping forms) WRITTEN COMMUNICATIONS (i.e. Communications Skills) 2. Incumbent completes standard forms; prepares short notes, memos, routine letters or instructions which require writing simple sentences or paragraphs. Information conveyed is basic/routine in nature and well within the framework of established procedures. 3. Incumbent writes non-routine correspondence which may concern complex or sensitive issues; operational or technical based manuals; or short articles or other descriptive narrative. Formulation of a search strategy and research utilizing a variety of sources is required. 4. Employee writes complex and abstract materials, consultant reports, grant proposals or lengthy narrative for publication. Extensive analysis research, and/or editing are required. Describe the frequency and nature of contact required in the job and provide one or two examples. xii A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  29. Appendix A E. WORKING CONDITIONS, PHYSICAL/MENTAL EFFORT, WORKING ENVIRONMENT (i.e. Vocational Skills) Describe the physical environment in which the duties must be performed; physical/psychological demands of the job; and/or the degree to which the job requires intense mental concentration and /or visual strain. Provide an example for each unusual condition identified. To assist you, the following list identifies examples: General office environment, Outdoor work, Confined spaces/high places, Toxins or fumes, Equipment/machinery, Traffic, Electricity, Explosive materials, Radiation, Biohazards, Loud noises, High level of emotional stress, Risk of personal injury xiii A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  30. Appendix A F. List the job titles of the employees who report directly to you, and not through a subordinate supervisor. TITLE SUPERVISION (i.e. Human Relations Skills) (To be completed only by individuals who supervise other employees) No. of Employees List the job titles of the employees who report indirectly to you, through a subordinate supervisor. TITLE No. of Employees Briefly describe the nature and extent of responsibility for supervising other employees. Indicate the scope of authority as well as the frequency. Does the job supervise highly technical areas? If yes, Describe xiv A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  31. Appendix A Is the job responsible for developing, controlling, or implementing a budget? NO YES AMOUNT $ If yes, describe the nature of budget control/responsibility including any approval limits. E EM MP PL LO OY YE EE E C CO OM MM ME EN NT T S SE EC CT TI IO ON N Because no single questionnaire can cover every part of a job, can you think of any other information which would be important in understanding your job? If so, please give us your comments below. Employee Signature Date xv A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  32. Appendix A I IM MM ME ED DI IA AT TE E S SU UP PE ER RV VI IS SO OR R C CO OM This portion of the questionnaire is to be completed by the employee’s immediate supervisor. As a supervisor, it is important that you review this questionnaire and note any comments you may have considering the job (not the person). The space provided below is for general remarks you may have. Immediate Supervisor’s Signature D DI IR RE EC CT TO OR R G GE EN NE ER RA AL L C CO OM MM ME EN NT TS S This portion of the questionnaire is reserved for comments by the Director. As a higher level of management over this job, it is important that you review this questionnaire and note any comments you may have considering the job (not the person). The space provided is for general remarks you may have. Director’s Signature MM ME EN NT T S SE EC CT TI IO ON N Date Date xvi A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  33. A AP PP PE EN ND DI IX X B B mp pl le e J Jo ob b D De es sc cr ri ip pt ti io on ns s S Sa am i A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  34. Appendix B ii A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  35. Appendix B Sample Job Description #1 J JO OB B D DE ES SC CR RI IP PT TI IO ON N Employer LOGO JOB TITLE: JOB TITLE LAST UPDATED: Date Job Description Last Updated (MMM/YYYY) PURPOSE: This section should be a brief, one paragraph general summary and is intended to give anyone reading the job description an overall grasp of the job and what it entails. The last sentence describes the organizational reporting relationships via references to the job title of the direct supervisor. EXAMPLE: This position performs a variety of custodial duties and general facility maintenance. Working closely and in cooperation with the Principal, this position oversees the day- to-day operation of the assigned facility ensuring a safe, clean environment for students, staff and the public. This position reports directly to the Facilities Manager and does not supervise staff. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: This section should contain information concerning the primary duties, functions, and responsibilities of the job in a list format (generally 6 to 12 items). Duties should be listed in rank order, according to highest importance and/or frequency of action. Action verbs should be used to describe the general nature of the duties and responsibilities. The list is not to be an exhaustive itemization of tasks thus only the primary functions are described. Always include as the following last list item: “Performs other related duties as required.” EXAMPLE: Communicates with Principal or Head Caretaker to ensure a safe, secure and clean environment is maintained in all buildings and outside grounds. Performs caretaking responsibilities on a regular daily basis that are associated with the cleanliness and upkeep of all buildings and outside grounds. Ensures building is secure and locked. iii A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  36. Appendix B Provides guidance and/or training to casual caretaking and summer staff. Ensures that permit holders adhere to regulations related to the use of facilities. Investigates unauthorized activities in or on grounds of school and reports subsequent problems to supervisor and proper authorities, including vandalism, break-ins and fire alarms. Assists permit holders with set up and proper use of equipment and associate overtime as required for supervision or cleaning. Prepares work orders in cooperation with Principal or Head Caretaker, where applicable, for repairs and maintenance as required. Requisitions and maintains an inventory of caretaking supplies. Responsible to operate all machinery associated to duties, ensuring equipment is properly utilized and maintained. Performs minor ground maintenance, including snow removal from entrances, walkways, roof, etc., salting/sanding, removal of garbage from grounds and attending to flowers/shrubbery. May perform other duties as assigned. QUALIFICATIONS: This section should contain all of the bona-fide occupational requirements necessary to satisfactorily perform the duties and functions of this job. The qualifications section is separated into distinct sections to clearly identify requirements for the reader. Education, Training and Experience: Educational requirements should also include the option of equivalency of experience or combination thereof through the use of the following introduction: “Typically the required knowledge, skills and abilities are obtained through…..” Where Educational requirements are absolutely necessary (e.g. duties assigned require Journeyperson status by law), eliminate the word ‘typically’. (“The required knowledge, skills and attributes are obtained through successful completion of…”). EXAMPLE: Typically the required knowledge, skills and abilities are obtained through successful completion of Grade (10) ten coupled with Caretaker Technician Certificate or equivalent caretaking experience. iv A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  37. Appendix B Required Licenses, Certifications and Registrations: Identify requirements for additional licenses, certifications, or other registrations such as driver’s licence, Fireman’s certification, WHMIS, equipment operator certifications, etc.) EXAMPLE: A Valid Fireman’s Certificate may be required where The Boiler and Pressure Act and Regulations prescribes. Knowledge, Skills And Abilities (KSA): The following section identifies the specific knowledge, skills and abilities required in order to fulfill the expectations as outlined in the Duties & Responsibilities section (i.e. Knowledge of specific principles, practices and procedures; Communication Skills; Mathematical Skills; Decision Making Skills; Self-Management Skills, Human Relations Skills, Vocational Skills, Physical/Mental Requirements, etc.). EXAMPLE: Demonstrated knowledge and skill in the use of standard cleaning practices and procedures, equipment and products including safe handling and storage techniques for various chemical-based cleaning agents. Demonstrated knowledge and skill in the use of building maintenance and basic repair practices and procedures, equipment and tools. Knowledge of and ability to follow Board policies and procedures. Knowledge of and ability to operate basic HVAC systems and apply current energy management practices. Ability to understand and carry out oral and written instructions. Ability to work independently with minimal on-site supervision demonstrating sound judgement and decision making skills to ensure quality of work meets expected standards. Ability to establish and maintain effective working relationships with staff, students and the public demonstrating tact and diplomacy. Ability to conduct oneself in a manner appropriate to an educational institution that provides services to children including demonstrating strict attention to confidentiality of school operations and student information. v A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  38. Appendix B Ability to perform standard caretaking and maintenance duties including standing, walking, carrying, bending, stooping, climbing and lifting (exerting up to 50 lbs. of force occasionally, and/or up to 20 lbs. of force frequently, and/or up to 10 lbs. of force constantly to move objects). Ability to maintain current knowledge of safe practices and techniques by engaging in lifelong learning with regard to training, inservice and courses of study. The following statement can be included at the end of the job description document and serves the following purpose: ? Clearly explains the general nature of the job description so as to avoid any inclination to compile an exhaustive list ? Clarifies that the job description is not intended to be the employment contract ? Clearly identifies that changes are within management’s rights to make as necessitated by operational requirements. The duties listed above are intended only as illustrations of the various types of work that may be performed. The omission of specific statements of duties does not exclude them from the job if the work is similar, related or a logical assignment to the job. The job description does not constitute an employment agreement between the Board of Education and the employee and is subject to change by the Board of Education as the needs of the Employer and requirements of the job change. vi A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  39. Appendix B Sample Job Description #1 - TEMPLATE J JO OB B D DE ES SC CR RI IP PT TI IO ON N Employer LOGO JOB TITLE: JOB TITLE LAST UPDATED: Date Job Description Last Updated (MMM/YYYY) PURPOSE: DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: QUALIFICATIONS: Education, Training and Experience: Required Licenses, Certifications and Registrations: Knowledge, Skills And Abilities (KSA): The duties listed above are intended only as illustrations of the various types of work that may be performed. The omission of specific statements of duties does not exclude them from the job if the work is similar, related or a logical assignment to the job. The job description does not constitute an employment agreement between the Board of Education and the employee and is subject to change by the Board of Education as the needs of the Employer and requirements of the job change. vii A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  40. Appendix B viii A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  41. Appendix B Sample Job Description #2 J JO OB B D DE ES SC CR RI IP PT TI IO ON N JOB TITLE: JOB TITLE LAST UPDATED: PURPOSE: This section should be a brief, one paragraph general summary and is intended to give anyone reading the job description an overall grasp of the job and what it entails. The last sentence describes the organizational reporting relationships via references to the job title of the direct supervisor. EXAMPLE: This position performs a variety of custodial duties and general facility maintenance. Working closely and in cooperation with the Principal, this position oversees the day-to-day operation of the assigned facility ensuring a safe, clean environment for students, staff and the public. This position reports directly to the Facilities Manager and does not supervise staff. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: This section should contain information concerning the primary duties, functions, and responsibilities of the job in a list format (generally 6 to 12 items). Duties should be listed in rank order, according to importance and/or frequency of action. Action verbs should be used to describe the general nature of the duties and responsibilities. The list is not to be an exhaustive itemization of tasks thus only the primary functions are described. Always include as the following last list item: “Performs other related duties as required.” EXAMPLE: Communicates with Principal or Head Caretaker to ensure a safe, secure and clean environment is maintained in all buildings and outside grounds. Date Job Description Last Updated (MMM/YYYY) Performs caretaking responsibilities on a regular daily basis that are associated with the cleanliness and upkeep of all buildings and outside grounds. Ensures building is secure and locked. Provides guidance and/or training to casual caretaking and summer staff. That permit holders adhere to regulations related to the use of facilities. Investigate unauthorized activities in or on grounds of school and reports subsequent problems to ix A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  42. Appendix B supervisor and proper authorities, including vandalism, break-ins and fire alarms. Assist permit holders with set up and proper use of equipment and associate overtime as required for supervision or cleaning. Prepares work orders in cooperation with Principal or Head Caretaker, where applicable, for repairs and maintenance as required. Requisitions and maintains an inventory of caretaking supplies. Responsible to operate all machinery associated to duties, ensuring equipment is properly utilized and maintained. Performs minor ground maintenance, including snow removal from entrances, walkways, roof, etc., salting/sanding, removal of garbage from grounds and attending to flowers/shrubbery. May perform other duties as assigned. QUALIFICATIONS: This section should contain all of the bona-fide occupational qualifications necessary to satisfactorily perform the duties and functions of this job. The qualifications section is separated into distinct sections to clearly identify requirements for the reader. Education, Training and Experience: Educational requirements should also include the option of equivalency of experience or combination thereof through the use of the following introduction: “Typically the required knowledge, skills and abilities are obtained through…..” Where Educational requirements are absolutely necessary (e.g. duties assigned require Journeyperson status by law), eliminate the word ‘typically’. (“The required knowledge, skills and attributes are obtained through successful completion of…”). EXAMPLE: Typically the required knowledge, skills and abilities are obtained through successful completion of Grade (10) ten coupled with Caretaker Technician Certificate or equivalent caretaking experience. Required Licenses, Certifications and Registrations: Identify requirements for additional licenses, certifications, or other registrations such as driver’s licence, Fireman’s certification, WHMIS, equipment operator certifications, etc.) EXAMPLE: A Valid Fireman’s Certificate may be required where The Boiler and Pressure Act and Regulations prescribes. x A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  43. Appendix B Knowledge, Skills And Abilities: The following section identifies the specific knowledge, skills and abilities required in order to fulfill the expectations as outlined in the Duties & Responsibilities section (i.e. Knowledge of specific principles, practices and procedures; Communication Skills; Mathematical Skills; Decision Making Skills; Self-Management Skills, Human Relations Skills, Vocational Skills, Physical/Mental Requirements, etc.). EXAMPLE: Demonstrated knowledge and skill in the use of standard cleaning practices and procedures, equipment and products including safe handling and storage techniques for various chemical-based cleaning agents. Demonstrated knowledge and skill in the use of building maintenance and basic repair practices and procedures, equipment and tools. Knowledge of and ability to follow Board policies and procedures. Knowledge of and ability to operate basic HVAC systems and apply current energy management practices. Ability to understand and carry out oral and written instructions. Ability to work independently with minimal on-site supervision demonstrating sound judgement and decision making skills to ensure quality of work meets expected standards. Ability to establish and maintain effective working relationships with staff, students and the public demonstrating tact and diplomacy. Ability to conduct oneself in a manner appropriate to an educational institution that provides services to children including demonstrating strict attention to confidentiality of school operations and student information. Ability to perform standard caretaking and maintenance duties including standing, walking, carrying, bending, stooping, climbing and lifting (exerting up to 50 lbs. of force occasionally, and/or up to 20 lbs. of force frequently, and/or up to 10 lbs. of force constantly to move objects). Ability to maintain current knowledge of safe practices and techniques by engaging in lifelong learning with regard to training, in-service and courses of study. xi A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  44. Appendix B (Optional) APPROVALS: This section confirms appropriate approval processes have been followed. Supervisor DATE The following statement is to be included at the end of the job description document and serves the following purpose: ? Clearly explains the general nature of the job description so as to avoid any inclination to compile an exhaustive list ? Clarifies that the job description is not intended to be the employment contract ? Clearly identifies that changes are within management’s rights to make as necessitated by operational requirements. The duties listed above are intended only as illustrations of the various types of work that may be performed. The omission of specific statements of duties does not exclude them from the job if the work is similar, related or a logical assignment to the job. Director DATE The job description does not constitute an employment agreement between the employer and employee and is subject to change by the employer as the needs of the Employer and requirements of the job change. xii A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  45. Appendix B Sample Job Description #2 - TEMPLATE J JO OB B D DE ES SC CR RI IP PT TI IO ON N JOB TITLE: JOB TITLE LAST UPDATED: PURPOSE: Date Job Description Last Updated (MMM/YYYY) DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: QUALIFICATIONS: Education, Training and Experience: Required Licenses, Certifications and Registrations: Knowledge, Skills And Abilities: (Optional) APPROVALS: Supervisor DATE The duties listed above are intended only as illustrations of the various types of work that may be performed. The omission of specific statements of duties does not exclude them from the job if the work is similar, related or a logical assignment to the job. Director DATE The job description does not constitute an employment agreement between the employer and employee and is subject to change by the employer as the needs of the Employer and requirements of the job change. xiii A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  46. Appendix B xiv A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  47. A AP PP PE EN ND DI IX X C C A Ac ct ti io on n V Ve er rb bs s F Fo or r U Us se e I In n J Jo ob b D De es sc cr ri ip pt ti io on n W Wr ri it ti in ng g i A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  48. Appendix C ii A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  49. Appendix C Action Verbs For Use In Job Description Writing This is not intended to be an exhaustive list of verbs. Further tools that would be beneficial include thesaurus and/or dictionary. - -A A- - Accepts – to receive as true; to regard as proper, normal, inevitable Accounts for – gives a reason or explanation, tells the cause Accomplishes – brings to fulfillment Acknowledges – to recognize as true or pertinent; to admit obligation; to report receipt of (a letter, cheque, etc.) Acts – performs in lieu of or in substitute capacity for, operates for another as in assuming responsibility and authority of a superior Adjusts – settles differences or discrepancies, fits to meet regulations or requirements, adapts in accordance with situation Administers – manages or directs execution, conduct or application of, performs offices of an administrator Adapts – to suit or fit by modification Adjusts – to bring to a more satisfactory state; to bring the parts of something to a true or more effective position Adopts – takes up and practice on one's own Advises – consults with, gives advice to, counsels, gives information or notice to, recommends course of action (particularly applicable to staff and technical fields) Allocates – plans an apportionment or allocation of funds, materials or equipment Alters – to make different without changing into something else Amends – to change or modify for the better Analyzes – studies parts, elements, or factors of a situation or problem in detail to determine course of action, solution, or outcome; examines critically for understanding the organization or nature of something Answers – to speak or write in reply iii A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions

  50. Appendix C Anticipates – to foreseeand deal with in advance Applies – places in contact with, puts to use, employs Appraises – estimates, judges Approves – to sanction officially; to accept as satisfactory; to exercise final authority with regard to commitment of resources Arranges - to make preparations for an event; put in proper order Assembles – to collect or gather together in a predetermined order from various sources Assesses – determines the importance, size Assigns – appoints, prescribes a course of action, specifies, selects or designates Assists – aids, helps or supports as a regular part of duties, as requested, required or initiated Assumes (duties) – takes over the authority and responsibility of another, usually as a temporary substitute in the absence of the other person Assures – ensures, confirms, makes certain Attends – to be present Audits – assures adherence to standard practices such as checking the accuracy of accounting records Authorizes – permits, empowers, establishes by authority of job - -B B- - Balances – to compute the difference between the debits and credits of an account; to reconcile accounts Batches – to assemble into a group for one operation Budgets – to plan expenditures Builds – to construct iv A Guide To Writing Job Descriptions