Caring for an Infant: Essential Practices for Physical and Emotional Well-being
Caring for an infant involves a multitude of tasks such as handling, holding, changing, feeding, bathing, dressing, cuddling, and hugging.
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Slide1Caring for an infant7.2
Slide2Handling a baby• Holding the baby – Changed, fed, bathed, dressed, cuddled and hugged. – Safety and physical care and emotional bonding – Be careful with newborns as their neck muscles are not strong (by 4 mo they can hold their head) • Bedtime routines – Essential for growth, development and for the brain to work properly – When chemicals are released the aid in growth – Cells working to repair themselves – Some sleep more than others – Keep in mind safety: remove pillows, fluffy blankets, puffy bumper pads and stuffed toys to prevent suffocation; place them face up to help prevent SIDS – Relaxed and pleasant – keep a consistent routine: warm bath, reading a story, rocking them gently, put them in crib, kiss goodnight and leave the room; ignore cries then will fall asleep within a few minutes(what works for you and check if cry for more than 15 minutes)
Slide3Handling a baby continued…• Sleep Patterns – Decreases during first year – Newborn may sleep 12 to 20 hours • Responding to Cries – It is important to respond to their cries (only let them cry when putting to sleep) – Do they have a wet diaper, are they cold, are they hungry, are they in pain or sick, are they startled by a loud noise – Comfortable, fed, and dry • Shaken Baby Syndrome – A condition that occurs when someone severely shakes a baby, usually in an effort to make her stop crying – Can lead to brain damage, mental retardation, cerebral palsy, blindness, breaks bones, injures neck or spine, causes death
Slide4When you feel you are going to losecontrol…. • Put the baby down in a safe place, go into another room, take some deep breaths or look out the window and calm down • Ask a friend or relative to care for the baby for a few hours • Call someone and talk about the problem • Call a parenting hotline or take the baby to a crisis nursery if available in your area. Both can give immediate help and teach you how to handle stress in the future. A BABY CANNOT PURPOSELY AGGRAVEATE (ANGER) A PARENT
Slide5Handling a Newborn Safely• Lifting a newborn – Slide one hand under the baby’s bottom and the other under the shoulders and head. Use your forearm to support the neck and head as you raise your hands together to lift the newborn • Holding a newborn in your arms – Hold the baby upright, cradled in the curve of your arm. Your arm supports the baby’s head and neck. You can easily maintain eye contact with the baby. • Holding a newborn against your chest – Hold the baby against your chest, so that the baby faces or peeks over your shoulder. Use your hand to support the baby’s neck and head. • Putting a newborn down – Continue to support the neck, head, and body. Bend over and rest the child on a surface that can support the baby’s body. Then remove your arms.
Slide6How much do babies sleepAge Hours of sleep description Newborn 16 Takes four or five naps a day, each about 3 to 4 hours. Between each nap is a period of wakefulness that may last a few hours. 3 months 14 to 15 Total amount of sleep decreases but takes longer naps – about 4 to 5 hours long. Longer sleeping periods at night. 4 months 12 to 14 Takes naps midmorning and late afternoon. Sleeps at night. 6 months 12 to 14 Sleeps about six hours a night. Takes two long naps in the day. 1 year 12 hours Sleeps about 9 to 10 hours at night. May take one or two naps in the day.
Slide7Parenting Skills – What is Sudden Infant DeathSyndrome • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexpected death of an infant with no obvious cause. The baby dies during sleep, with no crying and no evidence of struggle. The vast majority of children who die of SIDS are between two and four months old. However, SIDS can affect infants up to twelve months old. SIDS happens to about 2,500 infants each year in the United States • The cause of SIDS is unknown, but researchers have identified some groups who are more at risk. Among those groups, the most likely victims are male babies who had a low birth weight. Premature babies, babies who live with a person who smokes, and babies who sleep on their stomachs also have a greater risks of SIDS. – To reduce the risk of SIDS: • Put babies to sleep on their backs • Avoid smoking both during pregnancy and after the baby is born • Avoid exposing the baby to smoke from others • Take charge. Research to find out more about the back to sleep campaign sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Create a flyer to explain the 10 ways you can help prevent SIDS.
Slide8Feeding an infant• Nutritional needs – Breast milk • Contains all the nutrients they need • It contains antibodies – a substance produced by the body to fight off germs • Colostrum (first breast milk) is especially rich in nutrients and antibodies • Is germ-free and easy to digest • Get fewer ear infections, respiratory infections and allergies and less likely to develop asthma • Does lack vitamin D but our skins makes this when exposed to sun • World Health Organization encourages mothers to breast feed for at least 1 year of best possible nutrition and start in life – Baby formula • Especially made to meet babies’ nutritional needs • Cows milk has been modified to eliminated digestive problems • Soy based is available • 3 forms: ready to use, concentrated liquid mixed with water and powder mixed with water • Feeding Schedules – Unpredictable at first – feed them as much as often as they want to eat – Small stomachs so eat frequently – Breast fed babies eat 8-12 times a day – Formula fed babies eat every 3-4 hours – After they weight 12 pounds they generally don’t need a late night feeding
Slide9Feeding an infant continued…• Feeding Methods – Breast feeding • Natural but doesn’t always come naturally – it takes practice – Bottle feeding • Bottle washed in dishwasher or liner • Can be stored up to 24 hrs in refrigerator • Babies prefer at room temperature or warm – do so in a pan of warm water or using bottle warmer (NEVER IN MICROWAVE) • Don’t put to bed with as the milk can cause tooth decay and increases risk ear infections • Throw out what they do not eat as bacteria can grow and cause infection – Burping the baby • Swallow air as drink that needs to be expelled • Twice during feeding • Find comfortable position (lay across knees or over chest or sitting in lap) • Pat on back gently • Protect clothing • Ok if don’t actually burp
Slide10Feeding an infant continued…• Introducing Solid Foods 4-6 months – Weaning – is changing from drinking from the bottle or breast to a cup • No set time but typically between 9 and 12 months • The gradual approach is best – Self feeding • When they can sit up steadily in a high chair, they can start to eat with their fingers and reach for a spoon • Around 8 or 10 months • Important milestones as it signals increased independence • Finger foods they can pick up • Avoid foods that could get stuck in their throat: raw vegetables, hot dogs, nuts, peanut butter, whole grapes, candy, chips, pretzels and popcorn (hard, round food) • Good: food that breaks easily: dry toast, cereal pieces, small pieces of chicken, small pieces cooked pasta, chunks of banana • By 18 months they have mastered the spoon – Nutritional concerns • Balance of grains, fruits, vegetables and protein • Eat when hungry not on schedule • Eat enough calories to provide for activity and rapid growth • Eat foods that provide key nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals • Adequate amounts of liquid • Some infants don’t get the right types of food others have medical problems that prevent them from absorbing nutrients • Malnutrition – inadequate nutrition – linked to poor brain development thus learning difficulties and lasting physical problems
Slide11Feeding an infant continued…• Allergies – oversensitivity to a particular common substance that is harmless to most people – Body immune system attacks the substance – Eat, breath in, injected or touch – Mild (puffy, itchy eyes) or severe (anaphylactic shock that makes breathing difficult) – Runs in families – Signs: excessive crying, vomiting after feeding, eight or more watery stools – Don’t eat eggs, citrus fruits, honey, peanut butter, corn or shellfish during first year of life – May outgrow (eggs, milk and soy) – Best treatment is to avoid the food
Slide12Safe Child Healthy Child – Food Poisoning• Watching children enjoy new foods for the first time can be a wonderful experience. But there are some important things, such as food poisoning, to keep in mind as new foods are introduced. Botulism is a deadly form of food poisoning. Food poisoning can make children very sick. Some of the milder symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, stomachache, headache, weakness, and fever. Food poisoning is caused by eating foods that have not been handled properly, or by bacteria in the foods. • Be prepared. Research to find other common types of food poisoning parents and caregivers should be aware of. Write a brief report about one type of food poisoning. Explain what it is, how it might affect a baby, and how to avoid it.
Slide13Dressing a baby• Layers: they lose heat more and overheat more • Durable when begin to crawl • Choosing clothing – Size and weight – Comfortable and stretches so they can move around – Not too large they get tangled – Easy to dress (example snaps in legs) – Cuffs or hems that can be let down or extra buttons on straps or waistband that allow for growth • How to dress a baby – takes practice – Pullover garments: stretchy neck opening put head through before arms – Open front shirt: lay them down put their arms in and then button – One piece garment with feet: zipper or snaps that go all they way from next to toes are easiest – put in legs then arms then button
Slide14Expert Advice“When you comfort your baby, you are letting her know the world is a safe place and that someone cares about her feelings.” -Claire Lerner, LCAW; Amy Dombro, MS; and Karen Levine, coauthors, The Magic of Everyday Moments: 0-4 months
Slide15Reading Check• Explain. Why is it important to respond to a baby’s cries? • Explain. What can result from malnutrition in babies?
Slide16Questions• Handling a Newborn safely. Newborns must be handled with extreme care. Why is it important to support a newborn’s neck and head when lifting and holding him? • Bed time safety. While a crib may seem like a safe place for infants to sleep, there are safety hazards to be aware of. What are some safety precautions when putting a baby to sleep in a crib? • How much do babies sleep. Babies up to a year old sleep more than half the time. Why do babies need so much sleep? • Bonding through feeding. Bottle feeding, whether with breast milk or formula, gives the father a chance to participate in the closeness of feeding an infant. What do babies gain at mealtime besides nutrients? • Eating solid food. By six months old, a baby can eat solid foods. What is the first type of solid food a baby can eat? • Learning to self feed. Older babies can begin to eat solid food. What are some appropriate solid foods for babies? • Dressing a baby. As you dress or undress a baby, it is important to work as quickly and smoothly as possible. Why might a baby not like being dressed and undressed?
Slide17 After you read 7.2• 1. Describe a possible routine to use when putting a baby to bed at night. • 2. Identify signs that a baby has a food allergy. • 3. List three factors you should consider when choosing a clothing gift for a newborn. • 4. (ELA) Many new parents do not recognize when a young baby is not getting the proper nutrition. Do research to learn the warning signs of malnutrition in a baby. Use the information you learn to create a poster titled Signs of Malnutrition in Babies
Slide18After you read 7.2 continued…• 5. (social studies) Research organizations in your community that help meet the nutritional needs and clothing needs of young children. Combine your findings with those of your classmates and create a directory to provide to parents of young children.