Classification of Living Things

Classification of Living Things

Scientists estimate that there are between 3 million and 100 million species of organisms on Earth. Taxonomists, biologists who specialize in identifying and classifying life on our planet, have named approximately

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Slide1Classification of  Living  Things Classification  of  Living  Things Scientists estimate that there are between   3 million and   100 million   species of organisms on Earth. Taxonomists Taxonomists --biologists who specialize in identifying and classifying life on our planet--have named approximately   1.7 million   species so far. 13,000 Each year, about   13,000   new species   are added to the list of known organisms. So, how do scientists  classify  (organize) all these millions of species?

Slide23  Domains and 4 Kingdoms PROKARYOTES no organisms with   no nuclear membrane with organisms   with   a nuclear membrane 2 Types of Cells EUKARYOTES

Slide3   The  Big     The  Big     Picture     Picture

Slide4The History  of  Life  on  Earth The  History  of  Life  on  Earth Life began on Earth 3.6 billion years ago as a prokaryotic cell (single-celled organism with  no nuclear membrane). For 2.6 billion years, life was  unicellular. Multicellular   eukaryotes ( with   nuclear membrane) evolved about 1 billion years ago. The Earth formed 4.5 billion years ago.

Slide5NucleolusNuclear membrane similarities differences Eukaryotes Prokaryotes List the similarities and differences between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes .

Slide6Life’s History  and  Diversity Life’s  History  and  Diversity plants fungi animals Note the close spacing of the groups  plants   ( maize ),   fungi   ( yeast ) and  animals   ( humans ). Line length reflects evolutionary distance. We’ve got a lot more in common with bacteria and plants than we think!

Slide7Animals diversified inthe ocean about   600 million years ago . Plants colonized land about   440 million years ago   and were followed shortly by animals. Humans of any sort are a very recent evolutionary development (~   7 million years ago ). Life’s  History Life’s  History in the ocean

Slide83 Domains and 6 Kingdoms

Slide9The  Archaea   are one of two groups of   prokaryotic organisms , organisms with  no nuclear membrane . (Bacteria are the other group.) Archaea are best known for   living in extremely hostile environments (very hot, very acid, or very salty), but they can also be found in less extreme conditions . Archaea are believed to be the earliest form of life on Earth. Although both archaea and bacteria are simple life-forms, archaea are very different from bacteria. Archaea   do not require sunlight   for photosynthesis, as plants do, and they   do not need oxygen .  Archaea  absorb CO 2 , N 2 , or H 2 S and  give off methane gas as a waste product. Archaea Archaea ARCHAEA ARCHAEA

Slide10Archaean Extremophiles A Deep Sea  Hydrothermal Vent  – Prime Habitat for Archaean  Extremophiles video of black smoker

Slide11Archaean Extremophiles Hot springs in Yellowstone Park–“Hot” Spots for Archaean  Extremophiles Archaea   in Yellowstone Searching for Archaea in Yellowstone’s Obsidian Pool Prismatic Pool, Yellowstone Park

Slide12BacteriaBacteria   – the Most Abundant Organisms There are more  bacteria  in your mouth than there have been people living since the dawn of humans. Bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus ; yellow spheres) adhering to nasal cilia. E. Coli bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

Slide13What Good  Are  Bacteria? What  Good  Are  Bacteria? Newsflash!!! Bacteria discovered that can do photosynthesis! primary recyclers  of materials  in  the environment nitrogen . Bacteria are the primary recyclers  of materials  in  the environment , particularly nitrogen .

Slide14What Good Are Bacteria?Bacteria are also essential for many processes we depend on –  sewage treatment ,  cheese production , antibiotic production , and biotechnological processes like gene cloning  and  protein production .

Slide15insulinBacteria are used to produce  insulin  and other drugs that people need.

Slide16EukaryaThe Domain  Eukarya  is divided into 4 Kingdoms: Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Classifying Critters activity

Slide17PROTISTSPROTISTS • Protists  are  eukaryotes   because they all have a  nucleus . •  Most have  mitochondria . •  Many have  chloroplasts   with which they carry on photosynthesis. •  Many are  unicellular  and all groups (with one exception) contain some unicellular members. "Eukaryotes  that  are  neither Animals,  Fungi,  nor  Plants" . A better name for Protists would be  "Eukaryotes  that  are  neither Animals,  Fungi,  nor  Plants" . Protists Protists Visit Protist Park

Slide18FUNGIFUNGI FUNGI FUNGI Fungi sometimes look like plants, but they’re not! Fungi   can’t do photosynthesis , because they don’t have chloroplasts; they  get their nutrients from the organic material they live in.    Decomposers , like  mushrooms ,  feed on  dead  organic material.    Some fungi   feed on  living  organisms , such as plants, animals and even other fungi. This causes diseases and infections in these organisms (like  athlete’s foot  and  ringworm  in humans).    Some fungi live as   symbiotic partners with algae .  The result: lichen   (pronounced “like-n”). more lichen Other differences from plants: •  fungi don’t have roots, they have a  mycelium . •  fungi’s cell walls are made of  chitin , not cellulose.

Slide19PLANTSPLANTS No vascular system Vascular system Mosses, Liverworts, Hornworts Mosses, Liverworts, Hornworts Seedless Plants (reproduce by spores) Ferns, Horsetails, Club  Mosses Ferns, Horsetails, Club  Mosses Seed Plants (reproduce by seeds) Gymnosperms (“naked seeds”) Angiosperms (flowers, seeds enclosed in fruit) Conifers Cycads Gingkoes Conifers Cycads Gingkoes Flowering  Plants Flowering  Plants

Slide20ANIMALSANIMALS Invertebrates (no backbone) Vertebrates (backbone)

Slide21Animal Classification Animal  Classification

Slide22mammalsvertebrates,  or  chordates vertebrates invertebrates As you can see, we  mammals  (4000 species) are far outnumbered by the other  vertebrates,  or  chordates  (38,300). And  vertebrates  (42,300) are definitely outnumbered by invertebrates  (989,700 species). The biggest categories of invertebrates:  INSECTS!

Slide243 members of the genus “Felis” (cat).Taxonomy , or classification, enables scientists to assign a very specific name to every species, so that scientists all over the world know exactly what species is being referred to.

Slide25Kingdom P hylum C lass O rder F amily G enus S pecies Remember:   K ids  P refer  C andy  O ver  F resh  G reen  S alad Class

Slide26Kingdom: Animalia Phylum:   Chordata Class:     Mammalia Order:    Carnivora Suborder:   Aeluroidae Family:   Felidae Subfamily:   Panthernae Genus:  Panthera Species:     Tigris   Species:                  Tigris                         Subspecies                  Panthera tigris altaica   Siberian or Amur Tiger, Southeast Russia/China  Panthera tigris tigris   India   Panthera tigris amoyensis   Southern China   Panthera tigris corbetti   Indochina Panthera tigris sumatrae   Sumatran Tiger, Sumatra                 

Slide27PrimatesMammalia Primates   – Our Order within the Class Mammalia Humans: Humans: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum:   Chordata Class:      Mammalia Order:      Primates Family:    Hominidae Genus:    Homo Species:  H. Sapiens

Slide28This is approximately where the last60 million years of primate evolution has occurred.