A Comparative Review of Spanish, English, and French Settlement Patterns in America
This article reviews the similarities and differences in the settlement patterns, motivations, and relations between Spain, England, and France with the Native Americans during the period of 1607-1754. It examines the Spanish efforts to establish tight control over colonization while accommodating to some extent with American Indian culture, compared to the English colonies that forbade cross-race relationships and created a rigid social hierarchy based on racial gradations.
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1. Unit 2 1607-1754 Review
2. Similarities and Difference in Settlement by Spain, England and France Settlement Patterns Motivations Relations with the Native Americans
4. Spain sought to establish tight control over the process of colonization and to convert and/or exploit the native populations Intermarriage and cross-race relationships were more accepted than in the English colonies Social hierarchy still existed (but was based on racial gradations)- Casta system The Spanish colonizing efforts saw some accommodation with American Indian culture
5. Depiction of Racial Mixtures by Miguel Cabrera One of the few extant depictions of a mixed-race family in eighteenth-century North America, by the Mexican artist Miguel Cabrera, 1763. The Spanish father and Indian mother have produced a mestiza daughter. Families such as this would have been frequently seen in New Mexico as well. (Private Collection ) Depiction of Racial Mixtures by Miguel Cabrera Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
7. San Esteban Rey, coma Pueblo, New Mexico San Esteban Rey, a Catholic church built at Pueblo de coma in about 1642, stands as a monument to the mixing of cultures in colonial New Mexico. The building's adobe construction, rising towers, and curving corners reflect traditional Pueblo architecture, while the crosses on the top identify its European purpose. Churches like this provided an anchor for the multicultural society that emerged in the region. (Lee Marmon) San Esteban Rey, coma Pueblo, New Mexico Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
8. France French and Dutch colonization involved relatively few Europeans and used trade alliances and intermarriage with American Indians Acquired fur and other products for export to Europe
9. View of Quebec, 1699, showing Canadian Indians New France's security was built on its rising commercial economy and its close ties to Canada's Indians. (National Archives of Canada) View of Quebec, 1699, showing Canadian Indians Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
10. England The English sought to establish colonies based on agriculture Relatively large numbers of men and women migrated to the colonies to establish settlements Led to relatively hostile relationships with American Indians
11. New England Founded primarily by Puritans seeking to establish a community of like-minded believers Developed close-knit, relatively homogeneous society Economy was a mixture of agriculture and commerce
12. Middle Colonies Demographically, religiously, and ethnically diverse Export economy based on cereal crops
13. Southern Colonies Chesapeake and North Carolina Production of tobacco using white indentured servants and, increasing, African slaves Deep South and British West Indies Rice in the Carolinas Sugar in Barbados
14. Native Americans Contact with Europeans increased the flow of trade goods and diseases into and out of native communities The result was cultural and demographic changes
15. King Philips War 1675-1676 Initially settlers trades with the Indians As they more settlers arrived and they became more self-sufficient, they pushed further west Metacom (King Philip)- son of Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoag Bloodiest war between Indians and settlers in New England The defeat of King Philip and the Indians opened the way for further colonial settlement
16. King Philip No portrait of Metacomet, or King Philip, was painted during his lifetime. In this nineteenth century painting, Metacomet wears traditional New England Indian clothing, yet he is armed with a European musket. This provides a stark reminder that even the bitterest enemies borrowed from one another's culture. (Library of Congress) King Philip Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
17. New England The Puritan system of congregational church government logically led to greater democracy in political government
18. Interior of the Old Ship Meeting House in Hingham, Massachusetts The meetinghouse, or church, stood at the center of every Puritan community in colonial New England. Built in 1681, the Old Ship Meeting House of Hingham, Massachusetts, was designed to resemble the hull of an upside down ship. Although the Hingham church is simple and unadorned, the placement of the pews and their assignment to local families based on their wealth, background, and social standing, makes clear that the Puritans were not radical egalitarians like the Quakers. (Peter Vanderwarker ) Interior of the Old Ship Meeting House in Hingham, Massachusetts Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
19. The Quaker Meeting by Egbert Van Heemskerk This sketch of a Quaker meeting highlights one of the most radical of Quaker practices: allowing women to speak in church. Most Protestant denominations, because of their reading of Saint Paul, enforced the rule of silence on women. But Quakers struck a blow at seventeenth-century gender notions by granting women an active ministerial role, a voice in church policy, and decision-making responsibilities on issues relating to the church and the family. (The Quaker Collection, Haverford College Library) The Quaker Meeting by Egbert Van Heemskerk Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
20. By the late 17th century, social and religious tensions developed in New England as the Salem witch hysteria dramatically illustrates. Puritan belief remained, but religious zeal was weakening Half-Way Covenant- unconverted children of members could be baptized but not admitted to full communion Weakened distinction between elect and others
21. Salem Witch Trials One cause was the unsettled changing social and religious conditions evolving in Massachusetts.
22. Salem Witch Trials 1692- Twenty accused witches were killed Most of the accused came from families associated with Salems growing market economy; the accusers from subsistence farming families Widening social stratification was one cause Other causes?
23. Map: The Geography of Witchcraft: Salem Village, 1692 The Geography of Witchcraft: Salem Village, 1692 Geographic patterns of witchcraft testimony mirrored tensions within Salem Village. Accused witches and their defenders lived mostly in the village's eastern division or in Salem town, whereas their accusers overwhelmingly resided in the village's western sector. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
24. Social Developments Increasing social stratification Increasing social tensions Causes?
25. Attempts at British Control Late 17 th century Mercantalist economic aims (to build economic strength, a nation must export more than it imports) Navigation Acts (first in 1651) -Attempt by England to control colonial trade -Many were ignored or disobeyed (smuggling)
26. The Dominion of New England 1686 Connecticut and Rhode Island were merged with Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth New York and New Jersey were then added Control given to Edmund Andros After the Glorious Revolution in England, Andros is overthrown
27. The uprisings of 1688-1689 restored colonial self-government and began a period of salutary political neglect How will this contribute the American Revolution?
28. Nathaniel Bacon Nathaniel Bacon came to Virginia as a gentleman in the 1670s, but his resentment of the economic and political domination of the colony by a small group of planters transformed him into a backwoods rebel. In 1676, Bacon led an army of discontented farmers, servants, and slaves against the powerful coastal planters--and almost won. In this stained glass window, discovered and restored in the twentieth century, Bacon's social class and his commanding presence are both evident. (The Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities at Bacon's Castle, Library of Virginia) Nathaniel Bacon Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
29. Slavery Reasons for expansion of Atlantic slave trade Abundance of land (need for labor to work it) Shortage of indentured servants Lack of ability to enslave native peoples Growing demand for colonial goods
30. Tobacco plantation While a planter smokes a pipe and confers with his overseer, slaves on this Chesapeake plantation perform all of the tasks related to planting, cultivating, harvesting, sorting, packaging, and delivering the profitable tobacco. Slaves also fashioned the tools for coopering and made barrels for transporting hogsheads of "the weed." Ships in the background navigate right up to the edge of the plantation lands. (Library of Congress) Tobacco plantation Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
31. British system evolved into a race-based form of chattel slavery Led to racial stereotyping and the development of strict racial categories This system undermined African gender and kinship relationships in the colonies Africans developed both overt and covert means to resist the dehumanizing aspects of slavery Rebellion, sabotage, escape, Development of a new African-American culture
32. Developments in Europe and their impact on the colonies Conflicts in Europe spread to North America Beaver Wars (1600s)- Iroquois League, supported by the English and Dutch, fought the Huron and Algonquin tribes who were backed by the French Fought over control of the fur trade
33. The Glorious Revolution 1688 William and Mary (Protestants) replace Catholic King James England becomes a constitutional monarchy Sparks rebellions by Protestant colonists in Massachusetts, Maryland, and NY Puritan leaders seize Governor Andros and send him back to England Protestant uprising against Catholic proprietors in Maryland Jacob Leisler rebellion in NY
34. 18 th Century As regional distinctiveness among the British colonies diminished over time, they developed generally similar patterns of culture, laws, institutions, and governance within the context of the British system
35. Anglicization in the British Colonies Factors Growth of autonomous political communities based on English models Development of commercial ties Emergence of a trans-Atlantic print culture Protestant evangelism Religious toleration Spread of European Enlightenment ideas
36. The Atlantic World Growth of an Atlantic economy throughout the 18 th century Development of a shared labor market Wide exchange of New World and European goods