Chapter 10 - Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase 1 (2011)

Chapter 10 - Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase 1 (2011)

This chapter discusses the early development of Greek society, including the Minoan society on the island of Crete. The major city of Knossos

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Slide1Chapter 10Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase 1 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide2Classical Greece, 800-350 B.C.E.©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2

Slide3Early Development of Greek Society Minoan society  Island of Crete  Major city: Knossos  Ca. 2200 B.C.E., center of maritime trade  Scholars unable to decipher Linear A script 3 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide4Decline of Minoan Society Series of natural disasters after 1700 B.C.E.  Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tidal waves  Foreign invasions  Crete falls under foreign domination 4 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide5Mycenaean Society Indo-European invaders descend through Balkans into Peloponnesus, ca. 2200 B.C.E.  Influenced by Minoan culture  Major settlement: Mycenae  Military expansion throughout region 5 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide6Chaos in the Eastern Mediterranean Trojan war, ca. 1200 B.C.E.  Homer’s  Iliad  Sequel:  Odyssey  Political turmoil, chaos from 1100 to 800 B.C.E.  Mycenaean civilization disappears 6 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide7The Polis  City-state  Urban center, dominating surrounding rural areas  Highly independent character  Monarchies  “Tyrannies,” not necessarily oppressive  Early democracies 7 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide8Sparta Highly militarized society  Subjugated peoples:  helots  Serfs, tied to land  Outnumbered Spartans 10:1 by sixth century B.C.E.  Military society developed to control threat of rebellion 8 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide9Spartan Society Austerity the norm  Boys removed from families at age seven  Received military training in barracks  Active military service follows  Marriage, but no home life until age 30  Some relaxation of discipline by fourth century C.E. 9 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide10Athens Development of early democracy  Free adult males only  Women, slaves excluded  Yet contrast Athenian style of government with Spartan militarism 10 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide11Athenian Society Maritime trade brings increasing prosperity beginning seventh century B.C.E.  Aristocrats dominate smaller landholders  Increasing socio-economic tensions  Class conflict 11 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide12Solon and Athenian Democracy Aristocrat Solon mediates crisis  Aristocrats to keep large landholdings  But forgive debts, ban debt slavery  Removed family restrictions against participating in public life  Instituted paid civil service 12 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide13Pericles Ruled 461-429 B.C.E.  High point of Athenian democracy  Aristocratic but popular  Massive public works  Encouraged cultural development 13 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide14Greek Colonization Population expansion drives colonization  Coastal Mediterranean, Black Sea  Sicily (Naples: “ Neapolis ,” new city)  Southern France (Massalia: Marseilles)  Anatolia  Southern Ukraine 14 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide15Classical Greece and the MediterraneanBasin, 800-500 B.C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15

Slide16Effects of Greek Colonization Trade throughout region  Communication of ideas  Language, culture  Political and social effects 16 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide17Persian Wars (500-479 B.C.E.) Revolt against Persian empire, 500 B.C.E., in Ionia  Athens supports with ships  Yet Greek rebellion crushed by Darius 493 B.C.E.; Athenians rout Persian army in 490 B.C.E.  Successor Xerxes burns Athens, but driven out as well 17 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide18The Delian League Poleis create Delian League to forestall more Persian attacks  Led by Athens  Massive payments to Athens fuels Periclean expansion  Resented by other poleis 18 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide19The Peloponnesian War Civil war in Greece, 431-404 B.C.E.  Poleis allied with either Athens or Sparta  Athens forced to surrender  But conflict continued between Sparta and other poleis 19 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide20Kingdom of Macedon Frontier region to north of Peloponnesus  King Philip II (r. 359-336 B.C.E.) builds massive military  350 B.C.E., encroaches on Greek poleis to the south; controls region by 338 B.C.E. 20 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide21Alexander of Macedon “Alexander the Great,” son of Philip II  Rapid expansion throughout Mediterranean basin  Invasion of Persia successful  Turned back in India when exhausted troops mutinied 21 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide22Alexander’s Empire, ca. 323 B.C.E.©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22

Slide23The Hellenistic Empires After Alexander’s death, competition for empire  Divided by generals  Antigonus: Greece and Macedon  Ptolemy: Egypt  Seleucus: Persian Achaemenid empire  Economic integration, intellectual cross- fertilization ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23

Slide24The Antigonid Empire Smallest of Hellenistic empires  Local dissent  Issue of land distribution  Heavy colonizing activity 24 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide25The Ptolemaic Empire Wealthiest of the Hellenistic empires  Established state monopolies  Textiles  Salt  Beer  Capital: Alexandria  Important port city  Major museum, library 25 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide26The Seleucid Empire Massive colonization of Greeks  Export of Greek culture, values as far east as India  Bactria  Ashoka legislates in Greek and Aramaic 26 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide27Trade and Integration of theMediterranean Basin  Greece: little grain, but rich in olives and grapes  Colonies further trade  Commerce rather than agriculture as basis of much of economy 27 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide28Panhellenic Festivals Useful for integrating far-flung colonies  Olympic Games begin 776 B.C.E.  Sense of collective identity 28 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide29Patriarchal Society Women as goddesses, wives, prostitutes  Limited exposure in public sphere  Sparta partial exception  Sappho  Role of infanticide in Greek society and culture 29 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide30Slavery Scythians (Ukraine)  Nubians (Africa)  Chattel  Sometimes used in business  Opportunity to buy freedom 30 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide31The Greek Language Borrowed Phoenician alphabet  Added vowels  Complex language 31 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide32Science and Mathematics Use of observable evidence, rational thought  Thales predicts eclipse, 28 May 585 B.C.E.  Democritus, atoms  Pythagoras, systematic approach to mathematics  Hippocrates, human anatomy and physiology 32 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide33Socrates (470-399 B.C.E.) The Socratic method  Student: Plato  Public gadfly, condemned on charges of immorality  Forced to drink hemlock 33 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide34Plato (430-347 B.C.E.) Systematized Socratic thought  Republic  Philosopher kings  Theory of Forms or Ideas 34 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide35Aristotle (389-322 B.C.E.) Student of Plato  Broke with theory of Forms or Ideas  Emphasis on empirical findings, reason  Massive impact on western thought 35 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide36Greek Theology Polytheism  Zeus principal god  Religious cults  Eleusinian mysteries  The Bacchae  Rituals eventually domesticated 36 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide37Tragic Drama Evolution from public presentations of cultic rituals  Major playwrights (fifth century B.C.E.)  Aeschylus  Sophocles  Euripides  Comedy: Aristophanes 37 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide38Hellenistic Philosophies Epicureans  Pleasure, distinct from Hedonists  Skeptics  Doubted possibility of certainty in anything  Stoics  Duty, virtue  Emphasis on inner peace 38 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.