The Cost of WWII - Quick Facts on Debt and Human Lives

The Cost of WWII - Quick Facts on Debt and Human Lives

This article provides quick facts on the cost of World War II, focusing on the economic and human costs. In section A, it highlights the significant increase in U.S

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Slide1Introduction toWWII

Slide22Quick Facts (write 2-3) A. War Costs 1. US Debt 1940 - $9 billion US Debt 1945 - $98 billion • The war cost $330 billion --  10 times the cost of WWI & as much as  all previous federal spending since 1776

Slide33Quick Facts (write 2-3) B. Human Costs 1. 50 million  people died (compared to 15 million in WWI) • 21.3 million Russians (7.7 million civilians) • 11 million died as a result of the HOLOCAUST (6 million Jews + 5 million others)

Slide44When? 1939 Sept.1  - Germany invades Poland (official start to the war ) Sept. 3  - Britain & France declare war on Germany Dec. 7  – Japan bombs Pearl Harbor; US enters the War 1941 May  - Germans Surrender Sept.  - Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Japanese Surrender 1945 • 1939-1945 • US involvement 1941-1945

Slide55Who? Allies Axis Great Britain France ( note:   France surrendered to Germany in 1940 (after 6 weeks of fighting) United States Russia Germany Italy Japan (major powers) (major powers)

Slide66Major Leaders Adolf Hitler Nazi Germany Benito Mussolini Italy

Slide77Major Leaders Hideki Tojo Japanese Prime Minister Winston Churchill British Prime Minister

Slide88Major Leaders Franklin Delano Roosevelt US President Joseph Stalin Russian Leader

Slide99Why?  (underlying causes of WWII) 1. Treaty of Versailles A. Germany lost land to surrounding nations B. War Reparations 1) Allies collect $ to pay back  war debts to U.S. 2) Germany must pay $57 trillion (modern equivalent) 3) Bankrupted the German economy & embarrassed Germans Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson during negotiations for the Treaty

Slide1010Why?  (underlying causes of WWII) 2. World-wide Depression A. The Depression made Germany’s debt even worse B. Desperate people turn to desperate leaders 1) Hitler seemed to provide solutions to Germany’s problems 1923  - Wallpapering with German Deutchmarks

Slide1111Why?  (underlying causes of WWII) 2. World-wide Depression 2) Hitler provided scapegoats  for Germany’s problems (foreigners, Jews, communists, Roma (Gypsies), mentally ill, homosexuals)  3)  Kristallnacht  – “The Night of Broken Glass” vandalism & destruction of Jewish property & synagogues

Slide1212Why? 4.  Isolationism of Major Powers A.  Why was the U.S. Isolationist?     1.  Great Depression (problems at home)     2.  Perceptions of WWI a.  WWI did not seem to solve much b.  People began to think that we’d got into WWI for the wrong reasons (greedy American businessmen!)

Slide1313Why? 4.  Isolationism of Major Powers 3.  Opposition to war (Pacifism)

Slide1414Why? 4.  Isolationism of Major Powers B.  This led to policies of “Appeasement” 1.  Appeasement :  give dictators what they want and hope that they won’t want anything else 2.  Begins with Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Italian invasion of Ethiopia, and continues with Hitler . . .

Slide1515So What Was Hitler Asking For? Return of German Speaking Lands - “ Lebensraum ” Originally conceived as “living space” during German unification in 1871, it meant enlarging Germany within Europe during the Hitler era. • Austria  - Peacefully Annexed in 1938 German Troops Parade in Streets of Czechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939

Slide1616So What Was Hitler Asking For? Return of German Speaking Lands - “ Lebensraum ” • Sudentenland  - (now part of Czech Republic) • Munich Conference  - Great Britain & France give Hitler authority to erase the borders of the Treaty of Versailles in return for peace • Hitler then invades the rest of Czechoslovakia German Troops Parade in Streets of Czechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939

Slide1717So What Was Hitler Asking For? Return of German Speaking Lands • Nonaggression Pact  Russia stays out of the war in return for 1/2 of Poland Hitler's triumphal entry into Danzig, Poland 1939 • Great Britain & France finally declare war on Germany

Slide1818How Did Hitler Make War? Blitzkrieg “Lightning War” In the next year, Hitler invades:   • Denmark • Norway •  The Netherlands, • France Hitler in Paris

Slide1919US Assistance Roosevelt provided aid to the Allies: Lend-Lease - 1939 • US “lent” war materials to cash-strapped Great Britain London Firefighter Tackles an Air Raid Blaze Atlantic Charter • US secretly meets with England to commit to defeating Germany

Slide2020Meanwhile … in the Pacific Pearl Harbor: “a date which will live in infamy” USS Arizona Sinking in Pearl Harbor What? • Surprise attack by the Japanese on American forces in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Effect? • US declares war on Japan & other Axis powers