The Construct of Consciousness: Understanding the Subconscious
Consciousness, the awareness of one's surroundings and internal state, is a fundamental concept in psychology. However, it is not a tangible object or process that can be
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About The Construct of Consciousness: Understanding the Subconscious
PowerPoint presentation about 'The Construct of Consciousness: Understanding the Subconscious'. This presentation describes the topic on Consciousness, the awareness of one's surroundings and internal state, is a fundamental concept in psychology. However, it is not a tangible object or process that can be. The key topics included in this slideshow are . Download this presentation absolutely free.
Slide2Consciousness is the awareness of or the possibility of knowing what is happening inside or outside the organism. Consciousness is a Construct – a concept that requires a belief in something
Slide3It is believed to come from our making a map ofwhere we are in space and then seeing ourselves in the map
Slide4We are not always conscious of everythingthat we do. Sometimes our brain circuits will start doing something before we are actually aware that we are doing it. At this level we are said to be at our subconscious level . Subconscious is the level of consciousness just below our present awareness. Subconscious Subconscious Subconscious Subconscious Subconscious Subconscious Subconscious Subconscious Subconscious Subconscious Subconscious
Slide5Unconscious contains thoughts, information, or desires that we have no direct knowledge of. Subconscious
Slide6all creatures are controlled by forces that none ofus can see, or feel. This is called Chronobiology which is the study of forces that control the body at different times of the day, month, or year. The most obvious of these is the day/night cycle There also appears to be a monthly cycle in both men and women.
Slide7there also appears to be a yearly cycle where peopletend to slow down and lose energy toward summer. Ex. Migration of birds
Slide8Circadian rhythm is a sequence of behavioral changes that occur about every 24 hours. Ex. plants that open up and close during a day
Slide9Within our cycle we have a high point anda low point. For most people the lowest point (low blood pressure, low temperature, etc.) is between 3:00 and 5:00 AM. That is why you wake up on a hot summer’s night, you will still feel cold.
Slide10internal control of these circadian rhythm’s reside inbiological clocks , or internal chemical units that control parts of the body all by themselves and are programmed and are regulated by nature
Slide11Your body temperature, kidneys, etc. all run onclocks that ignore the outside world. These types of clocks are called free-running. Free-running cycles are cycles that run under their own control. FREE +
Slide12Some clock systems can be changed. Anexample of this would be the sleep-wake cycle. Humans are free-running at birth, but after a few weeks will be trained to follow their parents sleep cycle. This process of training a cycle is called entrainment.
Slide13Entrainment is the process of altering the free- running cycle to fit a different rhythm.
Slide14Sleep: there are different stages of sleep that we go through. Each are represented by the amount of brain waves that are occurring at that particular time. Only the first hour of sleep is considered a time of peacefulness and relaxation. After that many things occur.
Slide16when we first lie down our brain’s electrical activitybegins to slow. This is called the twilight state . During this time images and thoughts drift in front of us and we can totally relax and let our mind wander. sleep helps to restore the body. The making of new cells is at its maximum Chemicals used up by the brain are restored Functions of sleep
Slide17REM sleep, which stands for rapid eye movement is one type of sleep. During this time our eyes move very rapidly in all directions inside the eye sockets. This is the time when we will dream. This occurs every 90 minutes or so. This will occur from the time that you fall asleep until you wake up. Your body is literally paralyzed. There are two (2) major types of sleep
Slide18Very vivid dreams can occur.The actual dream will last as long as it seems to take. Each REM will last longer than the previous one, and each period will increase in length as the night progresses. Dreams that you remember are those that occurred closest to the morning because they are the longest and come at a time when you are almost awake.
Slide19Dreams that occur early in the sleep cycle tend toreflect those events of the preceding day. Later dreams are usually more surreal.
Slide20NREM sleep. This stands for non-rapid eye movement and is the other type of sleep. During this time the brain is still active, providing partial thoughts, images or stories. Do not have the organization of stories during REM. The brain seems to go into idle. Decreases in length as nights’ sleep progresses. Incubus attacks which are night terrors occur Sleepwalking and talking occur.
Slide21NREMNREM NREM NREM
Slide22What happens if humans decide to giveup sleep? People will begin to hallucinate It is not the lack of rest that will bring this out of people, but rather the lack of dreaming. Dreaming is an integral part of all animals.
Slide23There are 3 major hypotheses about why wedream. Dreams are used to get the brain reorganized. Brain chemicals are used up during the day, while the brain replenishes these chemicals, dreams organize the past day or week or more. Dreams keep the brain busy while it is being replenished because the brain cannot be inactive.
Slide24Dreams are designed to help work out unsolvedproblems left over from the day. Sometimes when we have a problem that we can’t seem to solve, when we wakeup the next day the problem seems to be solved. It is also proven that when we are depressed or under stress, we will sleep longer and that the amount of time we spend in REM is longer.
Slide25While we sleep the brain will get rid of theinformation that we don’t need from our day. The brain is trying to make sense of the bits and pieces of information that are appearing wile we are cleaning out the material, so it makes up a story to fit them.
Slide26Insert the following definitions in theappropriate box on the Consciousness Independent Practice Worksheet
Slide27• Internal chemical units that control parts of the body and are regulated by nature • Consciousness just below our present awareness • sequences of behavioral changes that occur every 24 hours • Awareness of, or the possibility of knowing, what is happening inside or outside the organism • The process of altering the free-running cycles to fit a different rhythm • Thoughts or desires about which we can have no direct knowledge
Slide28Insert the following examples in theappropriate box on the Consciousness Independent Practice Worksheet
Slide29• Watching and listening (completely aware of) a PowerPoint presentation • changing an infant’s sleep-wake cycle • you have one for your sleep-wake cycle, kidney function, and temperature control • Flowers that open and close during the day • a jealous brother keeps loosening the bolts on his brothers bike but cant explain why – even to himself • driving a car on a familiar route and not remembering going through an intersection when you get there
Slide30 CONSCIOUSNESS SUBCONSCIOUS UNCONSCIOUS DEFINE Awareness of, or possibility of knowing, what is happening inside or outside the organism Consciousness just below our present awareness Thoughts or desires about which we can have no direct knowledge EXAMPLES Watching and listening to a PowerPoint presentation (full awareness) Driving a car on a familiar route but not remembering going through an intersection A jealous brother keeps loosening the bolts on his brothers bike but cant explain why – even to himself
Slide31 Biological Clocks Entrainment Circadian Rhythms DEFINE Internal chemical unites that control parts of the body and are regulated by nature The process of altering the free- running cycle to fit a different rhythm Sequences of behavioral changes that occur every 24 hours EXAMPLES You have one for your sleep-wake cycle, kidney function and temperature control Changing an infant’s sleep-wake cycle Flowers that open and close every day
Slide32What actually causes dreams since there isno external stimulation? All memories, thoughts, and actions are controlled by electrical impulses within the brain. Electrical impulses occur in cycles throughout the night from deep within the brain about approx. every 90 minutes, with special cells that turn them on and off. The impulses move upward through the brain firing many different memory circuits.
Slide33The result of this is what we call dreams.These impulses also cause eye movements.
Slide34There are two frightening experiences thatcan occur during sleep. The first occurs during REM and is called a nightmare . These are very infrequent in nature, but remember that dreams are caused by memories, and we all carry around ad memories with us all of the time.
Slide35The second frightening attack is called an incubus attack . These are horrible and realistic dreams. These occur during NREM sleep and as a result are extremely frightening because these occur at a time when your body is not prepared for dreams.
Slide36Sleep patterns will change as people age. Infantsneed a great deal of sleep because of the need to replace brain chemicals. As people get older there is less of a need for deep. The amount of sleep will vary from individual to individual. This will range anywhere from 5 to 8 hours in length. The brain will have difficulty functioning with too much sleep as well as too little sleep
Slide37Sleepwalking or talking occurs because on a side of the brain where these functions are controlled, electrical impulses during sleep trigger movement. It is impossible to communicate with people during this time, but it is not dangerous to wake them unless they are not sitting or lying down. There are 3 forms of sleep disturbance that people may encounter.
Slide38Insomnia which is the ability to not get enough sleep. The most common reasons for this are getting out of the normal cycle or drugs and alcohol. These drugs will tend to block REM sleep and therefore we will tend to feel more depressed and the more depressed we feel the more we need REM sleep and etc. If this occurs over a long enough period, REM rebound will occur during the time that a person is awake. This could lead to hallucinations (drug addiction).
Slide39Narcolepsy is an infrequent disorder in which a person will be able to fall into an “instant” REM anywhere, anytime, even while driving or in the middle of talking to someone.
Slide41Another problem is sleep apnea . In this disorder the person will literally stop breathing hundreds of time during sleep and will keep waking up. Sleep Apnea Video
Slide43There are various states of consciousness otherthan the normal biological rhythms that we all go through. These are states that do not occur naturally, but rather they require effort or training to attain. Hypnosis is a state of consciousness that involves being in a relaxed state with a heightened ability to focus on specific things, while ignoring usual distractions.
Slide44suggestion is a basic part of hypnosis. hypnosis isa state that helps a person focus attention on certain objects, acts, or feelings. Hypnosis is an intense form of relaxation with the person fully conscious.
Slide46Meditation is a form of self-control in which a person can cut off the outside world. They will then focus on some steady rhythm or sound trying to put the brain into neutral in order to feel peaceful and at ease.