Discoveries of Eighteenth Century

Discoveries of Eighteenth Century

The Eighteenth Century was a period of great scientific discoveries and innovations. Among them, Gabriel Fahrenheit invented the first mercury thermometer, which led to more accurate temperature measurements. Ben Franklin introduced bifocals

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Slide1Discoveries of EighteenthCentury 1 Average Life Span: 40 to 50 years

Slide2Gabriel Fahrenheit(1686-1736) • created 1 st  mercury thermometer Ben Franklin  (1706-1790) • invented bifocals for eyeglasses   Dr. Jessee Bennet • Performs 1 st  successful C-section in 1794 2 18 th  Century (cont)

Slide3Edward Jenner (1749-1823) • Country doctor in England • Developed a vaccination for smallpox  in 1796 • How did he find this? … page 3

Slide4Jenner observed that individuals who had caught the less serious cowpox generally did not catch smallpox. • This led him to discover technique of vaccination when he deliberately infected a small boy with cowpox. • He found that this gave the child immunity against deadly smallpox . 4


Slide6The word “ vaccination”,  made up by Jenner for his treatment (comes from Latin  vacca , a cow ). Word was later adopted by Pasteur for immunization against any disease . 6

Slide710. The word vaccination  is derived from a Latin word, which means . . ? . CheckPoint 7

Slide8Discoveries of 19th  Century 8 Average Life Span: 40 to 65 years

Slide919th  Century (cont) 9 • Period known as the “industrial revolution” • Major progress in medical science occurred • due to development of machines • ready access to books

Slide10Rene Laënnec (1781-1826) • French physician • Invented stethoscope (1816) – Cylinder originally made from  paper , then made from hollow wooden tube • Hailed as  Father of Thoracic Medicine 10

Slide11before stethoscope, doctors put ear directly to body. 11


Slide13Evolution of Laennec’ s stethoscope 13

Slide1419th  Century(cont) 14 Florence Nightingale (1820 – 1910) Pioneer of Nursing • Established efficient and sanitary nursing care units for injured soldiers during the Crimean War • Began professional education of nurses

Slide15Florence Nightingale tending the ill15 • Often called the “Lady with the Lamp” after her habit of making rounds at night

Slide16Although bedridden for many years, she campaigned tirelessly to improve health standards – published 200 books, reports & pamphlets • In recognition of her work Queen Victoria awarded Miss Nightingale the Royal Red Cross in 1883. • She died at age 90. 16

Slide1719th   Century (cont) 17 Major Developments • Infection Control • Associated microscopic organisms with disease • Methods developed to stop the spread of organisms • Women became active participants in medical care • Elizabeth Blackwell  – 1 st  female physician in US • Dorothea Dix  – appointed Superintendent of Female Nurses of the Army • Clara Barton  – founded the American Red Cross

Slide1811. Laennec’ s first stethoscope was made of:   a. paper b. wood c. tree bark . CheckPoint 18

Slide19CheckPoint cont.12. Before Laennec ’ s stethoscope, how did physicians listen to heart & lung sounds? . 19

Slide20James Blundell (1790-1877) • 1818- performed 1st successful human blood transfusion – transfused blood from husband to his wife by means of syringe 20

Slide21Blundell performed 10 transfusions up to 1830 – about half were successful • At this point, blood typing had not been developed & transfusions were risky. • In 1870's, doctors began  using milk from cows, goats & humans, as blood substitute • This was  replaced with saline solution in 1880's. 21

Slide22William Morton (1819-1868) • developed  anesthesia  techniques that made surgery painless 22

Slide23MATCHING: 13. Reformed hospitals; pioneered nursing 14. Successful blood transfusions 15.  Developed anesthesia techniques . CheckPoint a. Morton b. Nightingale c. Blundell 23

Slide24Louis Pasteur  (1822-1895) • Father of Bacteriology • Discovered that microorganisms were everywhere • Proved that microbes caused disease . 24

Slide25the process of boiling a liquid to destroy bacteria isstill used today; most dairy products are pasteurized. Discovered that heating of milk killed germs--hence the term  “ pasteurization ” . 25

Slide26Pasteur also developed vaccinesagainst anthrax & rabies. Louis's pupil, Emile Roux, inoculating boy against rabies at Pasteur Institute 26

Slide27Sir Joseph Lister  ( 1827-1912) • Used  asepsis  in surgery • Discovered that carbolic acid killed germs . Carbolic acid sprayer 27

Slide28Lister Introduces Antisepsis• For six weeks, Lister had treated a boy's compound fracture wound with carbolic acid. • When Lister removed dressings from fracture, he found wound had healed without infection-- something unheard of at that time! 28

Slide29Wilhelm Roentgen (1845-1923) • German physicist • Discovered x-rays in 1895 • 1 st  X-ray was of his wife’s hand 29

Slide30Roentgen’ s wife & X-ray of her hand 30

Slide31MATCHING: 16. Discovered x-rays 17. Developed rabies vaccine 18. Used  carbolic acid to kill germs . CheckPoint a. Lister b. Pasteur c. Roentgen 31

Slide3232• Most rapid growth in health care Twentieth Century Average Life Span: 60 – 80 years

Slide33Development of RehabilitationProfessions   33 Physical Therapy Occupational Therapy Orthotics and Prosthetics Audiology Art Therapy Kinesiotherapy

Slide34Physical Therapy1894 Originated in England • Nurses were 1st Physical Therapists • RN using a Current impulse stimulator 34

Slide35Another type of physical therapyUsing a “shoulder wheel” which was used after arm & shoulder injuries 35

Slide36Occupational Therapy - 1917 • Developed in response to injured veterans returning from WWI. • Needed rehab in order to get back to work. Occupational Therapy Ward 36

Slide37Depiction ofwounded soldier weaving belt with aid of apparatus designed to exercise his injured arm. 37

Slide38WWII - physical therapy in usefollowing surgery 38

Slide39Orthoticsand Prosthetics • Began with ancient art of splinting • Associated with amputation surgery after wars • Grew after WWI and WWII and the polio epidemics in late 1940 ’ s & early 1950 ’ s 39

Slide40Audiology - 1920 ’ s • Origin in 1920 ’ s when audiometers were 1st designed to measure hearing • Profession surged after WWI & II from noise induced hearing loss 40

Slide41Art Therapy - 1940 ’ s • Patient ’ s creations were thought to reveal hidden feelings & emotions. 41

Slide42Kinesiotherapy -  "Corrective Therapy" • Rehab programs developed during WWII to expedite return of soldiers to active duty following battle injuries. 42

Slide4319. Many rehab professions developed inresponse to _______ injuries.   CheckPoint a. industrial b. farm c. polio d. war . 43

Slide44Other new developments duringthe 20 th  Century • Use of new machines, i.e. X-Rays, MRI, ultrasound, CT scans, PET scans • New medicines and vaccines were developed • Causes of many diseases were identified • Physicians were able to treat the  cause   of the disease to cure the patient 44

Slide45X-Ray / MRI Scanner45

Slide46Ultrasound of fetus46

Slide47Walter Reed47 • Demonstrated that mosquitoes carry yellow fever (1900)

Slide48Sir Alexander Fleming48 • Accidently discovered penicillin in 1928 • Became known as the “Wonder Drug” • Penicillin is a broad- spectrum antibiotic since it kills a wide range of bacteria

Slide49Dr. Michael DeBakey49 Well-renowned Houston cardiologist 1937 -   Linked  Lung cancer  to cigarette smoking 1950s – One of the first to perform Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery 1953 – Performed the 1 st  successful Carotid Endarterectomy (plague removal and stent placement) Pioneer in development of artificial heart. First to use an external heart pump successfully – a “ left ventricular bypass pump” .

Slide5020th  Century (cont) 50 Jonas Salk • Discovered a killed polio virus would afford immunity to poliomyelitis. • Developed the polio vaccine in 1952 Albert Sabin • Developed an oral live-virus polio vaccine in mid- 1950s

Slide5120th  Century (cont) 51 Francis Crick and James Watson • Described the structure of DNA – “double helix” - in 1953 and how it carries genetic information

Slide52Dr. Christiaan Barnard52 • South African doctor performed the 1 st  successful heart transplant in 1967 Louis Washkansky was the recipient of the world's first human heart transplant. 1922-2001

Slide53Dr. William DeVries53 American doctor who implanted the 1st artificial heart, Jarvik-7, into a patient in 1982        Dr. DeVries Barney Clark    “Jarvik-7”

Slide5420. ______________ performed the firstsuccessful heart transplant in 1967.   CheckPoint a. Barney Clark b. Christiaan Bernard c. Jonas Salk . 54

Slide5521. He discovered mosquitoes carriedyellow fever .   CheckPoint a. William DeVries b. Albert Sabin c.  Walter Reed . 55

Slide5622. Who accidently discovered penicillin ?  CheckPoint a. Sir Alexander Fleming b. James Watson c. Francis Crick . 56

Slide5720th  Century (cont) 57 Other  “Firsts” • 1 st  successful arm reattachment at the shoulder 1962 • 1 st  liver transplant in 1963 • 1 st  lung transplant in 1964 • 1 st  Hospice founded in England in 1967 • 1 st  “test tube” baby born in England in 1978 • AIDS is identified in 1981 • 1 st  gene therapy to treat disease in 1990

Slide5821st  Century 58 • Stem cells used in the treatment of disease  - 2000s • HIPAA, Privacy act of 1996, put into effect in 2003 • Human Genome project completed in 2003 • Able to identify all of approx. 20000 – 25000 genes in human DNA • 1 st  Face transplant in France in 2005 • New vaccines in 2006  – Gardasil (cervical cancer), Zostavax (shingles)

Slide59Onward to newmedical advances  . . . 59

Slide60Future?????60 • Cure for AIDS, cancer, heart disease? • Genetic manipulation to prevent inherited diseases? • Eliminate paralysis by regenerating brain and spinal cord? • Transplants of all organs, including the  brain ? • Development of antibiotics that do not allow pathogens to become resistant? What will  your  part be in this????