Essentials of Powder Metallurgy: Production, Processing, and Design

Essentials of Powder Metallurgy: Production, Processing, and Design

This lecture delves into the fundamental aspects of powder metallurgy, covering topics such as production of metallic powders, pressing and sintering techniques, materials and products for PM, and design considerations. The lecture also provides insight into the PM production sequence, which involves compressing powders into desired shapes and heating them to bond the particles into a hard, rigid mass.

  • Uploaded on | 6 Views
  • jomon jomon

About Essentials of Powder Metallurgy: Production, Processing, and Design

PowerPoint presentation about 'Essentials of Powder Metallurgy: Production, Processing, and Design'. This presentation describes the topic on This lecture delves into the fundamental aspects of powder metallurgy, covering topics such as production of metallic powders, pressing and sintering techniques, materials and products for PM, and design considerations. The lecture also provides insight into the PM production sequence, which involves compressing powders into desired shapes and heating them to bond the particles into a hard, rigid mass.. The key topics included in this slideshow are Powder Metallurgy, PM, Metallic Powders, Sintering Techniques, Design Considerations,. Download this presentation absolutely free.

Presentation Transcript

1. Lecture # 6 POWDER METALLURGY 1. The Characterization of Engineering Powders 2. Production of Metallic Powders 3. Conventional Pressing and Sintering 4. Alternative Pressing and Sintering Techniques 5. Materials and Products for PM 6. Design Considerations in Powder Metallurgy

2. Powder Metallurgy (PM) Metal processing technology in which parts are produced from metallic powders Usual PM production sequence: 1. Pressing - powders are compressed into desired shape to produce green compact Accomplished in press using punch-and-die 2. Sintering green compacts are heated to bond the particles into a hard, rigid mass Temperatures are below melting point

3. Why Powder Metallurgy is Important PM parts can be mass produced to net shape or near net shape , eliminating or reducing the need for subsequent machining PM process wastes very little material - ~ 97% of starting powders are converted to product PM parts can be made with a specified level of porosity, to produce porous metal parts Filters, oil impregnated bearings and gears

4. More Reasons Why PM is Important Certain metals that are difficult to fabricate by other methods can be shaped by powder metallurgy Tungsten filaments for incandescent lamp bulbs are made by PM Certain alloy combinations and cermets made by PM cannot be produced in other ways PM compares favorably to most casting processes in dimensional control PM production methods can be automated for economical production

5. Limitations and Disadvantages High tooling and equipment costs Metallic powders are expensive Problems in storing and handling metal powders Degradation over time, fire hazards with certain metals Limitations on part geometry because metal powders do not readily flow laterally in the die during pressing Variations in density throughout part may be a problem, especially for complex geometries

6. PM Work Materials Largest tonnage of metals are alloys of iron, steel, and aluminum Other PM metals include copper, nickel, and refractory metals such as molybdenum and tungsten Metallic carbides such as tungsten carbide are often included within the scope of powder metallurgy

7. Collection of PM Parts (photo courtesy of Dorst America, Inc.

8. Engineering Powders A powder can be defined as a finely divided particulate solid Engineering powders include metals and ceramics Geometric features of engineering powders: Particle size and distribution Particle shape and internal structure Surface area

9. Measuring Particle Size Most common method uses screens of different mesh sizes Mesh count - refers to the number of openings per linear inch of screen A mesh count of 200 means there are 200 openings per linear inch Since the mesh is square, the count is equal in both directions, and the total number of openings per square inch is 200 2 = 40,000 Higher mesh count = smaller particle size

10. Screen Mesh for Sorting Particle Sizes

11. Particle Shapes in PM

12. Interparticle Friction and Powder Flow Friction between particles affects ability of a powder to flow readily and pack tightly A common test of interparticle friction is the angle of repose Angle formed by a pile of powders poured from a narrow funnel Larger angles mean greater interparticle friction

13. Observations About Interparticle Friction Smaller particle sizes generally show greater friction and steeper angles Spherical shapes have the lowest interpartical friction As shape deviates from spherical, friction between particles tends to increase Easier flow of particles correlates with lower interparticle friction Lubricants are often added to powders to reduce interparticle friction and facilitate flow during pressing

14. Particle Density Measures True density - density of the true volume of the material The density of the material if the powders were melted into a solid mass Bulk density - density of the powders in the loose state after pouring Because of pores between particles, bulk density is less than true density

15. Packing Factor Bulk density divided by true density Typical values for loose powders are 0.5 to 0.7 If powders of various sizes are present, smaller powders fit into spaces between larger ones, thus higher packing factor Packing can be increased by vibrating the powders, causing them to settle more tightly Pressure applied during compaction greatly increases packing of powders

16. Porosity Ratio of volume of the pores (empty spaces) in the powder to the bulk volume In principle, Porosity + Packing factor = 1.0 The issue is complicated by possible existence of closed pores in some of the particles If internal pore volumes are included in above porosity, then equation is exact

17. Chemistry and Surface Films Metallic powders are classified as either Elemental - consisting of a pure metal Pre-alloyed - each particle is an alloy Possible surface films include oxides, silica, adsorbed organic materials, and moisture As a general rule, these films must be removed prior to shape processing

18. Production of Metallic Powders In general, producers of metallic powders are not the same companies as those that make PM parts Any metal can be made into powder form Three principal methods by which metallic powders are commercially produced 1. Atomization 2. Chemical 3. Electrolytic In addition, mechanical methods are occasionally used to reduce powder sizes

19. High velocity gas stream flows through expansion nozzle, siphoning molten metal and spraying it into container Gas Atomization Method

20. Iron Powders for PM Produced by decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl (photo courtesy of GAF Chemical Corp); particle sizes range from ~ 0.25 3.0 microns (10 to 125 -in)

21. Conventional Press and Sinter Conventional PM part-making sequence consists of: 1. Blending and mixing of powders 2. Compaction - pressing into desired shape 3. Sintering - heating to temperature below melting point to cause solid state bonding of particles and strengthening of part In addition, secondary operations are sometimes performed to improve dimensional accuracy, increase density, and for other reasons

22. Conventional PM Production Sequence (1) Blending, (2) compacting, and (3) sintering

23. Blending and Mixing of Powders For successful results in compaction and sintering, the starting powders must be homogenized Blending - powders of the same chemistry but possibly different particle sizes are intermingled Different particle sizes are often blended to reduce porosity Mixing - powders of different chemistries are combined

24. Compaction Application of high pressure to the powders to form them into the required shape Conventional compaction method is pressing , in which opposing punches squeeze the powders contained in a die The workpart after pressing is called a green compact , the word green meaning not fully processed The green strength of the part when pressed is adequate for handling but far less than after sintering

25. Conventional Pressing in PM Pressing in PM: (1) filling die cavity with powder by automatic feeder; (2) initial and (3) final positions of upper and lower punches during pressing, (4) part ejection

26. 450 kN (50 ton) hydraulic press for compaction of PM parts (photo courtesy of Dorst America, Inc.). Press for Conventional Pressing in PM

27. Sintering Heat treatment to bond the metallic particles, thereby increasing strength and hardness Usually carried out at 70% to 90% of the metal's melting point (absolute scale) Generally agreed among researchers that the primary driving force for sintering is reduction of surface energy Part shrinkage occurs during sintering due to pore size reduction

28. Sintering Sequence on a Microscopic Scale (1) Particle bonding is initiated at contact points; (2) contact points grow into "necks"; (3) pores between particles are reduced in size; (4) grain boundaries develop between particles in place of necked regions

29. (a) Typical heat treatment cycle in sintering; and (b) schematic cross section of a continuous sintering furnace Sintering Cycle and Furnace

30. Densification and Sizing Secondary operations are performed on sintered part to increase density, improve accuracy, or accomplish additional shaping Repressing - pressing in closed die to increase density and improve properties Sizing - pressing to improve dimensional accuracy Coining - pressing details into its surface Machining - for geometric features that cannot be formed by pressing, such as threads and side holes

31. Impregnation and Infiltration Porosity is a unique and inherent characteristic of PM technology It can be exploited to create special products by filling the available pore space with oils, polymers, or metals Two categories: 1. Impregnation 2. Infiltration

32. Impregnation The term used when oil or other fluid is permeated into the pores of a sintered PM part Common products are oil impregnated bearings, gears, and similar components Alternative application is when parts are impregnated with polymer resins that seep into the pore spaces in liquid form and then solidify to create a pressure tight part

33. Infiltration Operation in which the pores of the PM part are filled with a molten metal The melting point of the filler metal must be below that of the PM part Heating the filler metal in contact with the sintered part so capillary action draws the filler into the pores Resulting structure is nonporous, and the infiltrated part has a more uniform density, as well as improved toughness and strength

34. Alternative Pressing and Sintering Techniques Conventional press and sinter sequence is the most widely used shaping technology in powder metallurgy Some additional methods for producing PM parts: Isostatic pressing - hydraulic pressure is applied from all directions to achieve compaction Powder injection molding (PIM) - starting polymer has 50% to 85% powder content Polymer is removed and PM part is sintered Hot pressing - combined pressing and sintering

35. Materials and Products for PM Raw materials for PM are more expensive than for other metalworking because of the additional energy required to reduce the metal to powder form Accordingly, PM is competitive only in a certain range of applications What are the materials and products that seem most suited to powder metallurgy?

36. PM Materials Elemental Powders A pure metal in particulate form Common elemental powders: Iron Aluminum Copper Elemental powders can be mixed with other metal powders to produce alloys that are difficult to formulate by conventional methods Example: tool steels

37. PM Materials Pre-Alloyed Powders Each particle is an alloy comprised of the desired chemical composition Common pre-alloyed powders: Stainless steels Certain copper alloys High speed steel

38. PM Products Gears, bearings, sprockets, fasteners, electrical contacts, cutting tools, and various machinery parts Advantage of PM: parts can be made to near net shape or net shape When produced in large quantities, gears and bearings are ideal for PM because: Their geometries are defined in two dimensions There is a need for porosity in the part to serve as a reservoir for lubricant

39. PM Parts Classification System The Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) defines four classes of powder metallurgy part designs, by level of difficulty in conventional pressing Useful because it indicates some of the limitations on shape that can be achieved with conventional PM processing

40. (a) Class I Simple thin shapes; (b) Class II Simple but thicker; (c) Class III Two levels of thickness; and (d) Class IV Multiple levels of thickness Four Classes of PM Parts

41. Design Guidelines for PM Parts - I Large quantities required to justify cost of equipment and special tooling Minimum quantities of 10,000 units suggested PM is unique in its capability to fabricate parts with a controlled level of porosity Porosities up to 50% are possible PM can be used to make parts out of unusual metals and alloys Materials that are difficult if not impossible to produce by other means

42. Design Guidelines for PM Parts - II Part geometry must permit ejection from die Part must have vertical or near vertical sides, although steps are allowed Design features on part sides like holes and undercuts must be avoided Vertical undercuts and holes are permissible because they do not interfere with ejection Vertical holes can have cross sectional shapes other than round without significant difficulty

43. Side Holes and Undercuts Part features to be avoided in PM: (a) side holes and (b) side undercuts since part ejection is impossible

44. Design Guidelines for PM Parts - III Screw threads cannot be fabricated by PM They must be machined into the part Chamfers and corner radii are possible in PM But problems occur in punch rigidity when angles are too acute Wall thickness should be a minimum of 1.5 mm (0.060 in) between holes or a hole and outside wall Minimum hole diameter ~ 1.5 mm (0.060 in)

45. Chamfers and Corner Radii (a) Avoid acute angles; (b) use larger angles for punch rigidity; (c) inside radius is desirable; (d) avoid full outside corner radius because punch is fragile at edge; (e) better to combine radius and chamfer