The Changing Earth: Exploring the Rock Cycle and Formation of Igneous Rocks

The Changing Earth: Exploring the Rock Cycle and Formation of Igneous Rocks

The Earth's surface is constantly changing, and one of the most significant processes that contribute to this change is the rock cycle. This cycle describes how

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About The Changing Earth: Exploring the Rock Cycle and Formation of Igneous Rocks

PowerPoint presentation about 'The Changing Earth: Exploring the Rock Cycle and Formation of Igneous Rocks'. This presentation describes the topic on The Earth's surface is constantly changing, and one of the most significant processes that contribute to this change is the rock cycle. This cycle describes how. The key topics included in this slideshow are . Download this presentation absolutely free.

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Slide1Changes to the Earth’s surface

Slide2The changing Earth• The surface of the Earth is always changing.

Slide3The Rock cycle• The  rock cycle  shows how rocks change back and forth between sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks.

Slide4The rock cycle - Igneous• Igneous rocks form when melted rock cools and solidifies. • The crystal size in an igneous rock is determined by how fast the rock cooled. • How fast the rock cooled is determined by how close to the surface the rock was, and how large the chamber was. • Igneous rocks can be extrusive or intrusive

Slide5The rock cycle - Igneous• Examples of igneous rocks include: – Obsidian – Granite – Basalt – Pumice – Rhyolite

Slide6The rock cycle – Sedimentary• Sedimentary rocks are formed by weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction, and cementation of other rocks.

Slide7The rock cycle – Sedimentary• Examples of sedimentary rocks include: – Sandstone – Limestone – Flint – Shale – Coal – Limestone

Slide8The rock cycle – metamorphic• Metamorphic rocks form when heat and pressure deep beneath earth’s surface cause one type of rock to change into another type of rock.

Slide9The rock cycle – metamorphic• Examples of metamorphic rocks include: – Gneiss (from Granite) – Quartzite (from Sandstone) – Schist – Slate (from Shale) – Marble (from Limestone)

Slide10Energy in the rock cycle• What types of energy are needed to form each type of rock? – Igneous – metamorphic – Sedimentary

Slide11Rock cycle• Heat energy is important in the formation of igneous and metamorphic rocks. • Where does that heat come from?

Slide12Heat energy• The earth gets hotter the deeper down you go, but why? – Radioactive decay

Slide13Kinetic energy• Some of the heat energy in the mantle is transformed into kinetic energy in the form of convection currents that form in the mantle.

Slide14Kinetic energy• Convection currents move the plates of the crust back and forth. • A place where 2 plates meet is called a fault.

Slide15Kinetic energy   Potential energy • Kinetic energy of the moving plates can be converted into potential energy when two plates collide and “stick” together. • The potential energy builds up until it is finally converted back into kinetic energy and the plates “slip”

Slide16Plate boundaries• Plates that pull apart are called  divergent plates • Plates that push together are called  convergent plates • Plates that slide past each other are called  transform plates. • What do you think would happen to the earth at each type of boundary?

Slide17Plate movement• As plates slide over, under, or past each other, they change the surface of the earth.

Slide18Plate movement• Plates that push together can cause the earth to “crumple” and form mountains.

Slide19Plate movement• When continental and oceanic plates collide, they can produce volcanoes.

Slide20Plate movement• When plates “slip”, “smash” or “pull” apart they produce earthquakes. • During an earthquake, potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. • (Remember that this mechanical energy started as heat energy inside the earth.)

Slide21Plate movement• Some of the heat energy from the earth reaches the surface (as in a volcano.) • Some heat energy is transformed into mechanical energy in the form of convection currents, moving plates, earthquake waves, flowing lava, etc…

Slide22Energy   to infinity and beyond! • Earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain formation all occur when the heat energy from inside the earth makes its way to the surface.  (Either as heat energy or mechanical energy.)

Slide23Energy   to infinity and beyond! • Earthquakes and volcanoes can change earths surface very rapidly. • Mountains building is a slow and gradual process that changes earths surface. • These changes  all  occur because energy from earths interior transfers to the earth’s surface.

Slide24Changes to Earth’s surface• Some changes to the Earth’s surface are not caused by energy from the interior of the earth. • These changes can come from weathering, erosion, deposition, gravity, glaciers, and other “agents” of change.

Slide25Weathering• Weathering  occurs when rock on the surface of the earth breaks down into smaller pieces. • Weathering can be mechanical or chemical.

Slide26Mechanical Weathering• Mechanical weathering is when mechanical energy creates weathering.  This mechanical energy could come from: – Moving water/wind (abrasion) – Freezing ice – Burrowing animals – Growing plant roots

Slide27Chemical weathering• Chemical weathering occurs when chemical energy causes weathering to occur. • Things that could cause chemical weathering include: – Acid rain – Oxygen (oxidation) – Living things making acids to break down rock. (like lichens)

Slide28Erosion and deposition• Erosion  occurs when water, wind, or ice move weathered rock particles from one place to another. • Deposition  is when those particles being carried by erosion get laid down somewhere.

Slide29Weathering, erosion, anddeposition • Weathering, erosion, and deposition are important parts in the process of soil formation.

Slide30Gravity• Gravity changes the surface of the earth. Particles that weather and erode in the mountains get carried to the valleys. • Gravity  moves particles and sediment downhill.

Slide31Gravity• Gravity can cause several types of “mass movement” downhill including: – Landslide – Mudflow – Slump – Creep

Slide32Gravity – Mass movement• Landslides  occur when rock and soil move quickly down a slope • Mudflows  occur when water, rock, and soil move downhill. (Usually during heavy rain.)

Slide33Gravity – Mass movement• Slumps  occur when an entire section of a hillside suddenly slides down a slope but stays together. • Creeps  occur when rock and soil moves downhill very slowly.

Slide34Glaciers• Glaciers move slowly across the land.  As they move, they shape the land in many ways.

Slide35Glaciers• Glaciers create features in the earth such as: – U-shaped valleys – Cirques – Horns – Drumlins

Slide36Weathering Erosion andDeposition • Weathering, erosion deposition and gravity can change the surface of the earth gradually or rapidly.

Slide37Rapid change• Flash floods, landslides, mudflows, earthquakes, volcanoes can all change the earth rapidly.

Slide38Gradual change• Mountain formation, mountain destruction, weathering, erosion, creep, and glacial activity are all gradual changes to earth’s surface.

Slide39Mountain building• The average mountain that is actively being built is moving upward at a rate of 6 mm/year and being eroded downward at a rate of 1 mm/year. • A mountain that takes 5 million years to build might take 100 million years to erode away.

Slide40Mountain building• As a mountain erodes away, the roots of the mountain push upward. • For every 5 mm of the mountain that erode away, the roots push up 4 mm. • The taller the mountain, the faster erosion occurs.