Understanding Physical Fitness and Terminology
In this unit of Nutrition and Wellness, students will learn about physical fitness and the various terms associated with it. They will become knowledgeable about aerobic and anaerobic activities, which help maintain cardiovascular health
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About Understanding Physical Fitness and Terminology
PowerPoint presentation about 'Understanding Physical Fitness and Terminology'. This presentation describes the topic on In this unit of Nutrition and Wellness, students will learn about physical fitness and the various terms associated with it. They will become knowledgeable about aerobic and anaerobic activities, which help maintain cardiovascular health. The key topics included in this slideshow are . Download this presentation absolutely free.
Slide1Nutrition and WellnessUnit 4 Your Active Lifestyle Tonja Bolding Lakeside High School Revised Frameworks 2008
Slide24.1 Define terms related to physical fitness1. aerobic activity – physical activity that works your heart and lungs 2. anabolic steroid -an artificial hormone used to build a more muscular body 3. anaerobic activity -an activity in which the muscles are using oxygen faster than the heart and lungs can deliver it 4. balance -being able to control the muscles and stay upright as one moves his body; same as coordination 5. body composition –the percentage of different types of tissues in the body such as fat, muscle and bone 6. Body Mass Index (BMI) – a calculation of body weight and height used to define if one is underweight, healthy weight, overweight, or obese 7. carbohydrate loading – a technique used by endurance athletes to trick the muscles into storing glycogen for extra energy
Slide38. cardio-respiratory endurance – how well your heart and lungs can keep up with your activity 9. coordination – being able to control the muscles and stay upright as one moves the body; same as balance 10. electrolytes – sodium, chloride, and potassium which work together to help maintain your body’s fluid balance 11. endurance – the ability to keep working your muscles without becoming overly tired 12. energy balance – the point at which the energy from the food you eat equals the energy your body uses 13. fad diets – weight loss plans that are popular for a short time and often are based on misinformation, unusual requirements, and promise immediate weight loss 14. flexibility – the ability to move your muscles and joints through their full range of motion
Slide415. intensity – the speed and power of movement during physical activities 16. physical activity – using your muscles to move your body 17. physical fitness – having all the energy and ability to do everything you want and need to do in daily life 18. sedentary – being physically inactive 19. strength – power to work your muscles against resistance 20. target heart rate – the range of heartbeats per minute at which the heart muscles receive the best workout;60-90% of maximum heart rate
Slide54.2 Explain the six components of physical fitness (having all the energy and ability to do everything you want and need to do in daily life) 1. Body composition (the percentage of different types of tissues in the body such as fat, muscle and bone) body fat percentage muscle mass bone density Along with a low fat diet, exercise is a key factor in achieving and maintaining a healthy body composition.
Slide62. Cardio-respiratory endurance (is how well your heart and lungs can keep up with your activity) Aerobic activity (physical activity that works your heart and lungs) is especially good for building cardio respiratory fitness. The goal of aerobic exercise is to increase your heart and breathing rate to safe levels for an extended time. Most experts recommend holding these raised levels for 20-60 minutes. walking, jogging, in-line skating, bicycling, swimming laps
Slide73. Balance/Coordination (being able to control the muscles and stay upright as one moves his body) A good sense of balance can help avoid falls. Activities include: ice skating, roller skating, bicycling, pilates, yoga
Slide84. Flexibility (is the ability to move muscles and joints through their full range of motion) A high degree of flexibility helps prevent injury to muscles that control movement of the joints Females generally have the potential for greater flexibility than males. Stretching exercises can help increase flexibility.
Slide95. Muscle endurance (the ability to keep working the muscles without becoming overly tired) It is important to develop all your muscle groups. Muscle burns fat. 6. Muscular strength (power to work your muscles against resistance) usually measured in terms of how much weight you can lift strong muscles allow you to move more efficiently weight training develops strength and lean muscles can help you avoid some sport related injuries
Slide10 Anaerobic activities (an activity in which the muscles are using oxygen faster than the heart and lungs can deliver it) build muscles need to perform tasks such as lifting and running. Helps with symptoms of arthritis and osteoporosis They cannot be sustained long enough to help increase cardio respiratory fitness. They are used to build power and speed . heavy weight-lifting, sprints, jumping rope
Slide11Get fit with F.I.T. Gaining physical fitness involves 3 key factors: 1. F requency-how often you exercise start 3 days a week increase to 5-7 days a week 2. I ntensity - (the speed and power of movement) how hard you exercise in the beginning keep your pulse at about 60% of your maximum heart rate build up your heart rate to 70-80% of your max 3. T ime (duration)-how long the exercise sessions last about 20 minutes when beginning work up to 60 minutes
Slide124.3 Describe how physical activity (using your muscles to move your body) promotes fitness Most experts agree physical activity plays a key role in achieving and maintaining good health. Exercise can affect your appearance by altering your posture, movement and weight. Exercise can help reduce the risk of developing several diseases including osteoporosis, some cancers, diabetes and stroke. Teens who exercise have improved self- control, self-esteem and body image, greater alertness and better school performance. Worksheet-Assessing Activity Goals
Slide134.4 Identify different types physical activity as aerobic or anaerobic walking running weight lifting sprints power lifting bicycling skating volleyball swimming jumping rope basketball football push ups sit ups baseball tennis a e r o b i c a n a e r o b i c a e r o b i c a e r o b i c a e r o b i c a e r o b i c a e r o b i c a n a e r o b i c a e r o b i c a e r o b i c a e r o b i c a e r o b i c a n a e r o b i c a n a e r o b i c a n a e r o b i c a n a e r o b i c Worksheet-Physical Activity for Physical Fitness
Slide144.5 Describe excuses people give for being sedentary (being physically inactive) Excuse: no time/too busy Solution: find a convenient time, work into schedule Excuse: gym too expensive Solution: slowly acquire home gym equipment, walk, run, ride bike Excuse: no room for home gym equipment Solution: community resources-church, work, school Excuse: too tired Solution: exercise will provide energy, get more sleep Excuse: hate exercise Solution: do something you like
Slide154.6 describe factors to consider when choosing physical activities1.Types of activities outdoor recreation: biking, in-line skating, running, walking, hiking, canoeing indoor recreation: dancing, stair climbing, videos and classes, jump rope team sports: football, basketball, volleyball individual and partner sports: tennis, handball, racquetball, swimming, rowing lifestyle activities: walking to work or school, mowing the lawn, vacuuming, raking leaves
Slide162. Age Weight lifting is not recommended for younger teens because it can damage the growing bones. Muscle strength and endurance can be achieved by using your own weight as resistance. Ex. push ups
Slide173. Fitness Level Before you begin an exercise program, measure your level of fitness in each of the health components. You should consult your physician before beginning a strenuous activity. Target heart rate (the range of heartbeats per minute at which the heart muscles receive the best workout;60-90% of maximum heart rate) let you measure your initial fitness level and monitor your progress in a fitness program.
Slide18Finding Your Target Heart Rate1. Use the formula to calculate your Maximum Heart Rate (MHR), which is the highest speed at which your heart muscles are able to contract: 220 minus your age= maximum heart rate You should never try to reach your MHR.
Slide192. Use this formula to determine your targetheart rate: MHR times .6 (60%)=_____ beats per minute MHR times .9 (90%)=_____ beats per minute This is the range will help you to maintain physical fitness.
Slide20Measuring YourHeart Rate/Pulse Your heart rate or pulse is the number of times your heart beats per minute. Find your pulse with your index finger. Count the beats for 15 seconds. Multiply this number by 4 This is your resting heart rate. An average resting heart rate for a moderately fit teen or adult is about 70 beats per minute. Someone who has been training for several months may have a resting heart rate of about 60 beats per minute
Slide214.7 summarize ways to fit physical activity into your daily life 1. Choose activities you enjoy. You will be more likely to stick to your exercise program if you enjoy it. Variety can help keep an exercise program enjoyable. Different activities also help develop different components of fitness. 2. Choose a convenient time. This will increase your likelihood of following through with your exercise program. Make it a part of your daily schedule. Worksheets-I’d Like to be more Active Worksheet-Words to Exercise By
Slide224.8 identify ways to keep physical activity safe and healthy Your exercise program should include 3 phases for each session. 1. Warm-up: prepares the muscles and increases the heart rate lasts 5-10 minutes gradually increase your heart rate ex. stretching, walking
Slide232. Work-out: the main part of the activity Should last at least 20 minutes Vary so you don’t get bored 3. Cool down: helps the body get ready to stop exercising last about 20 minutes stretching can increase flexibility and prevent stiffness and soreness allows the heart rate to slow down allows the muscles to push more blood toward the heart to prevent dizziness
Slide24 Nearly everyone can be at least moderately active, regardless of age or physical limitations. Many activities that promote good health are free and require no special equipment. To achieve good health in the teen years try to accumulate at least 60 minutes of moderate activity daily.
Slide25You don’t have to set aside a 60 minutes exercise period. 4-15 minute time slots ride your bike, shoot baskets, sweep, mop, rake leaves Once you start feeling the benefits you will want to be more active. You can change your goal to try to achieve total fitness which includes and exercise program, eating nutritious foods and healthful lifestyle behaviors.
Slide264.9 describe how physical activity affects nutrient needs Most athletes can meet their energy needs by eating extra calories from a wide selection of nutritious foods. 50-60% of calories from carbohydrates no more than 30% of calories from fat the remaining 10-15% from protein An athlete who burns more calories through exercise than he or she takes in through food will lose weight. It is important for athletes to maintain an energy balance (the point at which the energy from the food you eat equals the energy your body uses)
Slide27Maintain Current Weightfood intake physical activity
Slide28Gain Weightfood intake physical activity
Slide29Lose Weightfood intake physical activity Worksheet-Calorie Counting Worksheet-Keep Energy Intake and Output in Balance
Slide304.10 discuss food and beverage strategies for peak performance bagel banana peanut butter orange & apple juice low fat milk, cheese, yogurt fruit salad wheat toast w/jelly grilled cheese sandwich baked potato w/ broccoli and cheese Foods: Athletes need to choose foods high in carbohydrates, moderate in protein and low in fat. Video- Eat to Win: Nutrition for Athletes
Slide31Some athletes need more energy than they can comfortably take in though food. Some try carbohydrate loading (a technique used by endurance athletes to trick the muscles into storing glycogen for extra energy) Athletes eat a diet moderate in carbohydrates for a few days. During the 3 days prior to an event a high carbohydrate diet is consumed coupled with a decrease in training intensity. Problems such as water retention, digestion distress, muscle stiffness and sluggishness are common with this practice.
Slide32Athletes that are diabetic are especially likely to have problems. For most athletes, attempts to increase glycogen stores are NOT needed. The best advise is to continue daily vigorous exercise, eat carbohydrate rich foods, and include a rest day now and then. The rest will help build up the glycogen you need.
Slide33Beverages Drinking enough liquid may be the most important critical aspect of sports nutrition. Dehydration can cause increases in body temperature and heart rate. Performing athletes may not feel thirsty because exercise masks the sense of thirst. Sweating during moderate exercise causes you to lose 1 quart of water per hour. Vigorous workouts can cause a 2-3 quart loss of water per hour.
Slide34Athletes should drink even if they are not thirsty. To avoid dehydration, drink water before, during and after an event. The American Dietetics Association suggests the following plan for fluid intake: 2 hrs. before event: 3 c (24 oz) water 10-15 min. before: 1-2 c (8-16 oz) water 10-15 min. intervals during: ½-1 c (4-8 oz) water after the event: 2 c (16 oz) water for every pound of body weight lost during the event
Slide35Water is the preferred liquid for fluid replacement. Cold water (40%) helps lower body temp and empties from the stomach more quickly. The carbohydrates in some sweetened drinks can pull water from the body into he digestive tract, causing cramps. The carbohydrates in most sports drinks are designed to be easily absorbed to prevent such cramping. Caffeine and alcohol increase body water loss and should be avoided.
Slide36In addition to water, athletes lose sodium when they sweat. Athletes that compete in events lasting 4 or more hours may benefit from sports drinks that contain electrolytes (sodium, chloride, and potassium which work together to help maintain your body’s fluid balance) Salt tablets are not recommended because they worsen dehydration, impair performance, irritate the stomach and may cause severe vomiting Worksheet-Power for Performance Worksheet-Ready for Anything
Slide374.11 Distinguish between facts and myths about sports nutrition Myth: Special foods, drinks and pills will safely make an athlete stronger and/or faster. Fact: A balanced diet and healthy lifestyle can make an athlete stronger and/or faster. Myth: Anabolic steroids (an artificial hormone used to build a more muscular body) are safe to use to add muscle mass. Fact: There is no fast, safe “quick fix” to add muscle mass. Myth: Caffeine increases endurance during exercise. Fact: It increases fluid loss and heart rate, can cause headache insomnia and nervous irritability. Myth: Vitamin B15 will improve efficient use of oxygen in aerobic exercise. Fact: Ruled illegal by the FDA, unsafe for human use. Worksheet-Myths That Can Lose the Game
Slide384.12 explain why suggested body weight varies for individuals There are several ways to determine whether your weight is healthy: 1. Body Mass Index (BMI) (a calculation of body weight and height used to define if one is underweight, healthy weight, overweight, or obese) BMI does not measure bone, fat or muscle Underweight BMI under 18.5 Healthy Weight BMI 18.5-24.9 Overweight BMI 25-29.9 Obese BMI 30+
Slide392. Skin fold test uses calipers to measure the thickness of folds of skins on various places of the body. thickness in mm Age 16-29 4 5 10.8 6 13.3 7 15.3 8 17.2 9 18.8 10 20.2 11 21.5 12 22.8 13 23.9 14 24.9 15 25.9 16 26.8 17 27.7 18 28.5 19 29.3 20 30.0 22 31.4 thickness in mm Age 16-29 24 32.6 26 33.8 28 34.9 30 35.9 32 36.9 34 37.8 36 38.6 38 39.4 40 40.2 45 42.0 50 43.6 55 45.0 60 46.3 65 47.6 70 48.7 75 49.8 80 50.8
Slide403. Bioelectrical impedance measures the body’s resistance to a low energy electrical current. Lean tissue conducts electrical energy fat does not. The measure of resistance is then converted to a % of body fat.
Slide41American College of Sports MedicineBody Fat Chart Female (under 40) 16%-28% Fitness 20%-35% Health Male (under 40) 5%-15% Fitness 8%-22% Health ► If a person falls above these guidelines, he or she would be considered obese. Female (over 40) 16%-33% Fitness 20%-38% Health Male (over 40) 5%-18% Fitness 8%-25% Health
Slide42FAT FACTS You can start seeing the upper row of abdominal muscles with a body fat percentage of 15%. To have “6-pack abs,” one must have a body fat percentage no higher than 9.8%. Men need to maintain a body fat percentage of at least 5% for health reasons. A layer of fat surrounds all the body’s organs in order to protect them. Without this fat, the organs become susceptible to impact injuries. Women need a body fat percentage of 15% to maintain a healthy menstrual cycle. The longer a woman is lower than 15% body fat percentage the less likely it is that she can become pregnant. The hormonal imbalances can cause psychological diseases such as anorexia and bulimia.
Slide43 4. Waist to Hip Ratio: waist measurement divided by hip measurement=ratio Adult women ratio should be no higher than 0.08 Adult men ratio should have no higher than 0.95 Fat stored in the abdomen seems to pose a greater risk than fat stored in the buttock, hips and thighs. Men and older women are more likely to accumulate fat in the abdominal area. “apple shaped” body Younger women more often store excess fat in the hips and thighs. “pear shaped” body Worksheet-Personal Profile Worksheet-Evaluate Your Weight
Slide444.13 describe healthy ways to achieve and maintain appropriate body weight Stay active Remember to change up your workout periodically to prevent boredom Vary food choices Make wise and healthy food choices Moderation is the key
Slide45Avoid crash or fad diets (weight loss plans that are popular for a short time and often are based on misinformation, unusual requirements, and promise immediate weight loss) Atkins Grapefruit Diet Hollywood Diet 3 Day The Zone Diet Cabbage Soup LA Weight Loss Mayo Clinic Diet ► “If it sounds to good to be true, it probably is.”
Slide46Ten Signs of a Fad Diet1. Promises a large or fast weight loss (more than 1-2 lbs/week) 2. Does not include suggestions to consult with your doctor or a registered dietitian 3. Encourages you to eliminate food groups (such as grains) or eat from a limited selection of foods 4. Offers rigid menus that don't consider your likes, dislikes and lifestyles 5. Neglects active living or lifestyle changes 6. Provides far fewer calories than what is needed for an energized, healthy lifestyle 7. Contradicts what most trusted health professionals say 8. Depends on special products, supplements or treatments 9. Has miraculous claims 10. Relies on testimonials and anecdotes rather than scientific evidence
Slide484.14 identify careers related to exercise and fitness Personal trainer Yoga/Pilates instructor Aerobics instructor Health club owner/operator Dietician P.E. teacher Corporate wellness director