Understanding Essential Oils Composition
Essential oils are complex mixtures of hundreds of chemical compounds that can be classified into four major groups: aliphatic compounds, terpene and terpene derivatives, benzene derivatives, and miscellaneous compounds. This article explores the composition of essential oils, using Cananga Odorata as an example.
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About Understanding Essential Oils Composition
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1. Essential Oils Composition KIMIA MINYAK ATSIRI
2. ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION Essential Oils are complex mixture of sometimes hundreds of chemicals compounds. EXAMPLE ; Cananga Odorata (Cananga Oil) : 37 % b-caryophyllene 12.2% farnasene 10.5% a-caryophyllene 7.6% g-cadinene 5.4% benzyl benzoate 1.8% geranyl acetate 1.7% linalool 1.1% (Z.E)-farnesol 1.1% nerolidol 0.6% geraniol 0.1% benzyl salicylate
3. Essential Oils Composition Component of Essential Oils can be classified into 4 major groups : ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS TERPENE AND TERPENE DERIVATIVES BENZENE DERIVATIVES MISCELLANEOUS COMPOUNDS
4. ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS Aliphatic Compounds are non-aromatic organic compounds. The chain of C-atoms may be straight, branched, saturated, or unsaturated. Aliphatic Compounds : Aliphatic of Hidrocarbon, alcohol, aldehydes, ketones, or ester Hidrocarbon compounds occur abundantly in foodstuffs such as fruit, but contribute to their odour to a limited extent only. The highly unsaturated hydrocarbons contribute significantly to the odour of essential oils, example: 1,3-trans-5-cis-undecatriene and 1,3-trans-5-trans undecatriene in galbanum oil
5. Aliphatic Alcohol The odour of most aliphatic alcohols is weak and their role as components in fragrance compositions is limited Aliphatic Alcohol Origin Aroma Cis-3-hexen-1-ol Mulberry, green tea Freshly cut grass Cis-2-hexen-1-ol fruits Sweet aroma 1-octen-3-ol Lavender oil Earthy-forest 3-0ctanol mushroom mushroom
6. Aliphatic Aldehydes / Keton Aliphatic Aldehydes are important compounds in perfumery and flavouring, but keton have limited role in odour. Aliphatic Aldehydes/Ketones origin Odour n-octanal, n-nonanal, n-decanal, n- undecanal, Citrus oil Trans-2-hexenal many Leaf oils Sharp-herbal 3-hydroxy-2-butanon (acetoin) and diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) buttery
7. Aliphatic Esters Aliphatic Esters are important flavour and fragrance compounds occuring widely in nature. Ester Fragrance Acetate of alcohol up to C6 Fruity C8-C12 Blossom
8. TERPENES AND ITS DERIVATIVES Terpenes, or terpenoids, are the largest group of secondary products (metabolites). They are all formed from acetyl CoA or glycolytic intermediates.
9. CLASSIFICATION OF TERPENES All terpenes are formed from 5-C elements Isoprene is the basic structural element.
10. CLASSIFICATION OF TERPENES Terpenes are classified by the number of 5-C atoms they contain 10-Carbon terpenes (contain 2 C-5 units) monoterpenes 15- Carbon terpenes (3 C-5 units) are called sesquiterpenes. 20-carbon terpenes (4 C-5 units) are diterpenes. Larger terpenes (30 Carbons) are called triterpenes (triterpenoids), 40 Carbons called tetraterpenes and polyterpenoids.
11. TERPENOIDS Terpenoids contain only the most volatile terpenes (i.e. molecular weight is not too high) mono and sesquiterpenes May occur as oxygenated derivatives, e.g. alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, oxides & esters.
12. Monoterpene Monoterpene can be acyclic, monocyclic, or bicyclic (sometimes tricyclic). Acyclic monoterpenes unstable, and some have aslightly aggressive odour and taste of essential oils to a limited extent only. Ex: myrcene , ocimene
13. Cyclic Monoterpenes Cyclic Monoterpenes occurs in considerable amount, but generally contribute relatively little in odour and often serve as starting material for the biological and chemical synthesis. A-terpinene, limonene, terpinolene
14. Bicyclic Monoterpene There are 5 bicyclic monoterpenes : thuyene, carene, pinene, camphene, and fenchene.
15. sesquiterpenes Sesquiterpenea are compounds generated from 3 isoprene unit and conforming to the formula C15H24. Sesquiterpenen can be a acyclic (ex.farnesene), bicyclic ( two C6-ring or C6 and C5 ring) or monocyclic (ex. Humulene, C11 ring)
17. EXAMPLES OF TERPENES i. LIMONENE ii. MENTHOL iii. SESQUITERPENES
18. i. LIMONENE Structural classification: Monocyclic terpene Functional Classification: Unsaturated HC Occurrence: Citrus fruit
19. ii. MENTHOL Structural classification: Monocyclic with hydroxyl group Functional classification: Alcohol Occurrence: Peppermint
20. iv. SESQUITERPENES (Contain 3 isoprene units) Acyclic E.g. Farnesol Monocyclic E.g. Bisobolol Bicyclic e.g. Chamezulene (Chamomile)
21. TERPENOID BASED ON SKELETON OF C CHAIN: ACYCLIC TERPENOID TERPRENE ALCOHOL, EX GERANIOL ACYCLIC TERPENE ALDEHYDES/KETONE, EX GERANIAL CYCLIC TERPENOID (ALCOHOL, KETONE) BASED ON FUNGTIONAL GROUPS: ALCOHOL KETON/ALDEHYDE ESTER
22. B. BENZENE DERIVATIVES (AROMATIC COMPOUNDS) The Compounds containing benzene ring E.g. Vanillin
23. BENZENA DERIVATIVEs
24. MISCELLANEOUS COMPOUNDS
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