# Steps of the Scientific Method: Problem Question 1

This article provides an example of a problem question that can be solved through experimentation using the scientific method. The problem question presented is "What effect does the amount of sugar used in

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Slide2Steps of theScientific Method Problem/Question 1.  Problem/Question :  Develop a question or problem that can be solved through experimentation.

Slide3Problem/QuestionJohn watches his grandmother bake bread. He ask his grandmother what makes the bread rise. She explains that yeast releases a gas as it feeds on sugar.

Slide4Problem/QuestionJohn wonders if the amount of sugar used in the recipe will affect the size of the bread loaf?

Slide5Caution!Be careful how you use  effect  and affect . Effect  is usually a noun and  affect , a verb. “ The  effect  of sugar amounts on the rising of bread.” “How does sugar  affect  the rising of bread?”

Slide6Create the  problem  or  state the  question? Create  the  problem  or  state the  question?

Slide7Problem/Question(cm 3 ). How much sugar in mass  (g)  will affect the size of the bread loaf in volume  (cm 3 ).

Slide8Steps of theScientific Method Observation/Research 2.  Observation/Research :  Make observations and research your topic of interest.

Slide9Observation/ResearchJohn researches the areas of baking and fermentation and tries to come up with a way to test his question. He keeps all of his information on this topic in a journal.

Slide10How will John set up hisinvestigation? What 3 important questions he will need to research?

Slide11Steps of theScientific Method Formulate  a  Hypothesis 3.  Formulate  a  Hypothesis : Predict a possible answer to the problem or question. Example:  If  soil temperatures rise, then  plant growth  will increase.

Slide12Create the  hypothesis? Create  the  hypothesis?

Slide13Formulate a HypothesisAfter talking with his teacher and conducting further research, he comes up with a hypothesis. “If more sugar is added, then the bread will rise higher.”

Slide14Hypothesis  The hypothesis is an educated guess about the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Note: These variables will be defined in the next few slides.

Slide153a. Independent Variable  The independent, or manipulated variable, is a factor that’s intentionally varied by the experimenter.

Slide16Independent VariableJohn is going to use  25g., 50g., 100g., 250g., 500g. of sugar in his experiment. The amount of sugar is the independent variable.

Slide173b. Dependent Variable  The dependent, or responding variable, is the factor that may change as a result of changes made in the independent variable.

Slide18What is  the  dependent variable? What  is  the  dependent variable?

Slide19Dependent VariableIn this case, it would be the size of the loaf of bread. (Length in cm x width in cm x height in cm)

Slide203c. Control Variables  The control variables in an experiment are all the factors that the experimenter attempts to keep the same.

Slide213c. Control VariablesJohn’s teacher reminds him to keep all other factors the same so that any observed changes in the bread can be attributed to the variation in the amount of sugar.

Slide22Can you  think  of  some control  variables  for  this experiment? Can  you  think  of  some control  variables  for  this experiment?

Slide23Control VariablesThey might include: Other ingredients to the bread recipe, oven used, rise time, brand of ingredients, cooking time, type of pan used, air temperature and humidity where the bread was rising, oven temperature, age of the yeast…

Slide24Steps of theScientific Method Experiment 4.   Experiment :  Develop and follow a  procedure . Include a detailed  materials  list. The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable).

Slide25ExperimentHis teacher helps him come up with a procedure   and list of needed  materials . She discusses with John how to determine the  control group .

Slide26Can you  create  procedures for  this  experiment? Can  you  create  procedures for  this  experiment?

Slide274d. Control Group  In a scientific experiment, the control is the group that serves as the standard of comparison. The control group may be a “no treatment" or an “experimenter selected” group.

Slide284d. Control Group  The control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the variable being tested. All  experiments should have a control group.

Slide29What is  the  control  group  for this  experiment? What  is  the  control  group  for this  experiment?

Slide304d. Control Group  Because his grandmother always used 50g. of sugar in her recipe, John is going to use that amount in his control group.

Slide31ExperimentJohn writes out his procedure for his experiment along with a materials list in his journal. He has both of these checked by his teacher where she checks for any safety concerns.

Slide32TrialsTrials refer to replicate groups that are exposed to the same conditions in an experiment. John is going to test each sugar variable 3 times.

Slide33Steps of theScientific Method Collect  and  Analyze Results 5a.  Collect  and  Analyze Results :  Modify the procedure if needed. Confirm the results by retesting. Include tables, graphs, and photographs.

Slide34Collect and Analyze ResultsJohn comes up with a table he can use to record his data. John gets all his materials together and carries out his experiment.

Slide35What will  you  need  to  create to  analyze  data  for  this experiment? What  will  you  need  to  create to  analyze  data  for  this experiment?

Slide36Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm3 Amt. of Sugar (g.) 1 2 3 Average Average Size  (cm 3 ) Size  (cm 3 ) 25 768 744 761 758 50 1296 1188 1296 1260 100 1188 1080 1080 1116 250 672 576 588 612 500 432 504 360 432 Size  of  Bread  Loaf  (cm 3 ) Size  of  Bread  Loaf  (cm 3 ) Trials Trials Control group

Slide37Graph• 5a. What patterns do you observe? • 5b. What is wrong with the experiment? • 5c. How can we correct it? Control group

Slide38Collect and Analyze ResultsJohn examines his data and notices that his control worked the best in this experiment, but not significantly better than 100g. of sugar.

Slide39Analyze DataJohn rejects his hypothesis, but decides to re-test using sugar amounts between 50g. and 100g.

Slide40ExperimentOnce again, John gathers his materials and carries out his experiment. Here are the results.

Slide41Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm3 Amt. of Sugar (g.) 1 2 3 Average Average Size  (cm 3 ) Size  (cm 3 ) 50 1296 1440 1296 1344 60 1404 1296 1440 1380 70 1638 1638 1560 1612 80 1404 1296 1296 1332 90 1080 1200 972 1084 Size  of  Bread  Loaf  (cm 3 ) Size  of  Bread  Loaf  (cm 3 ) Trials Trials Control group

Slide42Graph• What patterns do you observe? • Does this new experiment correct the previous errors? • What is the best amount of sugar to use? Control group

Slide43Collect and Analyze ResultsJohn examines his data and notices that 70 g of sugar worked the best in this experiment. Also, it is better than his control which proves his experiment works.

Slide44Steps of theScientific Method Conclusion 6a.  Conclusion :  Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis. Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure.

Slide45ConclusionJohn finds that 70g. of sugar produces the largest loaf in the data analysis. 6a. Explain why this is true using research.

Slide46Conclusion6b. Describe some errors that happened and how John improved it.

Slide47Conclusion6c. What could John do in another experiment to get an even bigger loaf of bread?

Slide48Communicate the ResultsJohn tells his grandmother about his findings and prepares to present his project in Science class.

Slide49Steps of theScientific Method Communicate  the  Results 7.  Communicate  the  Results :  Be prepared to present the project to an audience. Expect questions from the audience.

Slide507. Communicate the ResultsJohn creates a display board about his findings and prepares to present his project in Science class to the other students.