Understanding Psychology: Behavioral Science and the Mind
This slide discusses the definition of psychology as both a science of behavior and the mind. It further elaborates on behavior as observable actions and the mind as subjective experiences such as thoughts, feelings
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About Understanding Psychology: Behavioral Science and the Mind
PowerPoint presentation about 'Understanding Psychology: Behavioral Science and the Mind'. This presentation describes the topic on This slide discusses the definition of psychology as both a science of behavior and the mind. It further elaborates on behavior as observable actions and the mind as subjective experiences such as thoughts, feelings. The key topics included in this slideshow are . Download this presentation absolutely free.
Slide1What is Psychology?z The science of behavior and the mind y behavior - observable actions of a person or animal y mind - thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives and other subjective experiences y science x an objective way to answer questions x based on observable facts / data and well described methods
Slide2What is Psychology?z A set of theories and procedures for asking and answering questions y the scientific method y evolved over centuries, first in physics z A product of history y philosophy asked many of the basic questions y physiology used similar methods
Slide3What is Psychology?z A set of questions about mental functioning y trace back to philosophy y Socrates (c. 470-399 B.C.) & Plato (c. 427-347 B.C)viewed mind as separate from the body & continuing after death; some ideas are inborn; x “ The unexamined life is not worth living. ” y Aristotle (c. 384-322 B.C.) viewed mind and body as connected ; asked about memory, personality, emotions, etc.; established the Lyceum; developed “ deductive logic ” through a system of “ syllogism. ”
Slide4Philosophical Developmentsz A Question: How are mind and body related? z Dualism - body and soul are separate but interrelated y origins in medieval religion y soul is seat of intellectual function and will y mind is product of the soul x mind not subject to scientific inquiry y to challenge this was punishable by death
Slide5Philosophical Developmentsz A Question: How are mind and body related? z Rene Descartes (1596-1650) - modified dualism y since animals have no soul, much behavior does not require soul y the body can therefore control much behavior x led him to study reflexes x Dissected animals & identified “ animal spirits ” flowed through the body and provoked movement y the soul ’ s main function is thought, a uniquely human attribute
Slide6Philosophical Developmentsz Empiricism: y knowledge and intellect are acquired y John Locke (1632-1704) the mind at birth is a “ white paper ” or blank slate (equal at birth…The Declaration of Independence!) y sensory experiences produce elementary ideas y Science should rely on observation & experimentation z A Question: How are mind and body related?
Slide7Philosophical Developmentsz Another Question: Empiricism vs. Nativism z Nativism is the view that elementary ideas are innate z If knowledge is innate y What is the purpose of education? y Can intellect be changed by experience? z Are abilities determined by our genes or our experiences? z This is known as Nature vs. Nurture y appears throughout modern psychology
Slide8Foundations of ModernPsychology z Charles Darwin (1809-1882) z Theory of natural selection (1859) y physical characteristics evolve through natural selection y behavioral patterns also influence selection y inborn knowledge and behavioral tendencies with survival value are passed on z Human beings are part of nature and can be understood through the methods of science
Slide9Foundations of ModernPsychology z Darwin ’ s theory encouraged scientific inquiry z 19th century developments in physiology demonstrated the approach to use y based on scientific methods, controlled laboratory experiments y influential beliefs from early physiology x reflexology - all human behaviors occur through reflexes x localization of function - specific structures of the brain serve specific functions in the control of mental experiences and behavior x The division from physiology begins in the 19 th century, yet connections remain today.
Slide10The Father of Psychologyz Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) y Leipzig, Germany (1879) y wrote the first psychology textbook y applied laboratory techniques to study of the mind y structuralism – identify ‘ atoms ’ of the mind x focused on basic sensory and perceptual processes x measured reaction times
Slide11Other Pioneersz Edward Titchener (1867-1927) y Wundt ’ s student, professor at Cornell University y Introspection - looking inward z William James (1842-1910) y started psychology at Harvard in 1870s y opposed Wundt and Titchener ’ s approach y functionalism – how people (animals) adapt to their environment; influenced by Darwin
Slide13GestaltPerception is more than the sum of its parts- it involves a “ whole pattern ” z Max Wetheimer (1880-1943) z Wolfgang Kohler (1887-1967) z Disagreed with structuralism & behaviorism z Ex: you recognize a chair, not the individual components
Slide14Perspectivesz Perspective is a way of viewing phenomena z Psychology has multiple perspectives y biological y psychoanalytic y cognitive y cross- cultural y social
Slide15Sigmund Freud(1856-1939) Psychoanalytic Psychology y -Austrian physician that focused on illness y -interest in the unconscious mind y -psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders y - free association: list without filter or logic y Believed dreams are expressions of our unconscious urges
Slide16Behaviorismz Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) y Russian physiologist y discovered conditioned reflexes , Pavlov ’ s dog z John B. Watson (1878-1958) z Focus on observable behavior z All behavior is conditioned; A-B-C z Little Albert experiment z B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) y American psychologist at Harvard y studied learning and effect of reinforcement y behaviorism
Slide17Pavlov’ s Dog Pavlov ’ s Dog B.F. Skinner B.F. Skinner
Slide18Phrenology: examining bumps on the skull to make predictions about behavior & intellect & character (19 th century)
Slide19Biological Perspectivez Study the physiological mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that organize and control behavior z Focus may be at various levels y individual neurons y areas of the brain y specific functions like eating, emotion or learning z Interest in behavior distinguishes biological psychology from many other biological sciences
Slide20Cognitive Perspectivez How is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior ? z Influences include y Piaget - studied intellectual development y Chomsky - studied language y Cybernetics - science of information processing
Slide21zAbraham Maslow & Carl Rogers 1960s x behavior reflects innate ‘ actualization ’ x focus on conscious forces and self perception y More positive view of basic forces than Freud ’ s y Individuals have freedom in directing his/her future and achieving personal growth Humanistic Perspective
Slide22Sociocultural Psychologyz The study of psychological differences among people living in different cultural groups (ethnicity, gender, culture, socioeconomic status, etc…) z How are people ’ s thoughts, feelings and behavior influenced by their culture? z What are the common elements across culture? Are these innate?
Slide23The Profession ofPsychology z American Psychological Association had 52 divisions in 1998 z Some represent areas of training and specialization (e.g., developmental, clinical) z Some are applied (i.e., teaching in psychology, psychology and the law)
Slide24Areas of Specializationz Clinical y abnormal behavior and psychological disorders y psychologist vs. psychiatrist z Health psychology y psychological factors in physical health z Counseling y dealing with normal life situations y provide guidance Other Psychology 15% Developmental 6% Clinical 36% Biological and Experimental 16% Industrial/Organizational 3% Social and Personality 8% Educational 3% School 3% Counseling 10%
Slide25Areas of Specializationz Developmental y psychological change over the life span y social, cognitive, personality z School y counseling and guidance in school settings z Educational y learning and teaching Other Psychology 15% Developmental 6% Clinical 36% Biological and Experimental 16% Industrial/Organizational 3% Social and Personality 8% Educational 3% School 3% Counseling 10%
Slide26Areas of Specializationz Psychobiology y brain and behavior y studied at many levels y often uses animals as research model z Experimental y basic laboratory focus y animals or humans y learning, memory, motivation z Cognitive y experimental y human memory, perception, etc. Other Psychology 15% Developmental 6% Clinical 36% Biological and Experimental 16% Industrial/Organizational 3% Social and Personality 8% Educational 3% School 3% Counseling 10%
Slide27Areas of Specializationz Social y social influences on cognition and emotion y attitudes and beliefs z Personality y individual differences y perception by others z Industrial/organizational y people and work y job satisfaction y training and selection Other Psychology 15% Developmental 6% Clinical 36% Biological and Experimental 16% Industrial/Organizational 3% Social and Personality 8% Educational 3% School 3% Counseling 10%
Slide28Professional Work Settingsz Colleges and universities z Clinical settings z Elementary and secondary schools z Business z Government Private Practice Government Universities & College Business & Industry School Employment Settings of Psychologists