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Efforts to establish safety IW-130

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  1. College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education Security Measures IW-130

  2. AF Information Operations INFORMATION SUPERIORITY INFORMATION OPERATIONS INFORMATION IN WARFARE INFORMATION WARFARE defend attack gain exploit COUNTERINFORMATION OFFENSIVE COUNTERINFORMATION PRECISION NAV WEATHER I S R DEFENSIVE COUNTERINFORMATION PSYOP Information Assurance Counter- Intelligence Electronic Warfare OTHER INFO COLLECTION/ DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES (Transmission, Storage, Public Affairs) PSYOP Counter- PSYOP Physical Attack OPSEC Deception Electronic Protection Counter- Deception Information Attack

  3. OPSEC “ … a process of identifying critical information and subsequently analyzing friendly actions attendant to military operations and other activities to: • Identify actions that can be observed systems • Determine indicators that could be interpreted or pieced together to derive critical information • Select and execute measures that eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the vulnerabilities Joint Pub 3-54

  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Unique Characteristic OPSEC is a PROCESS OPSEC is NOT a set of Rules

  5. Most information is classified Usually unclassified Addresses the general threat Addresses specific adversaries Risk applies to all situations Risk decisions are event specific Directed by security regulations Directed by operational CC Countermeasures established Countermeasures often unique Concealment only Eliminates, conceals, disguises, or deceives The Differences Traditional Security OPSEC

  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Five Step OPSEC Process Identify Critical Information Determine Threat Analyze Vulnerabilities Assess Risk Apply appropriate OPSEC Measures

  7. Identify Critical Info 1 2 3 4 5 • Identify the questions the adversary will ask • Where do I get the information? • Who has the information? • When do I need the information? • How do they transfer the information? • How is the information protected? • Is it worth the risk of getting caught?

  8. Critical Info Examples • Impact of industrial base on military mission • Logistic capabilities and constraints • Alert posture • Staging locations • Limitations on equipment • Noncombatant Evacuation Operation Routes • Military support to Law Enforcement Agency

  9. Determine Threat 1 2 3 4 5 • Who is the adversary? • What are the adversary’s goals? • What is the adversary’s opposition strategy? • What critical information is already known? • What are the adversary’s collection capabilities?

  10. Analyze Vulnerabilities 1 2 3 4 5 Indicators & Actions Collection Vulnerability + =

  11. Indicators Signature: Uncommon or unique features Associations: Specific support equipment Profiles: Unit missions (Homepage) Contrasts: Not standard Exposure: Observation Time

  12. Indicators and Actions • Pizza Delivery • DV Suites • Intramural Sports • E-Mail Reply / Router • Government Credit Card • STU-III Usage • Family Support Homepages

  13. CollectionOvert and Clandestine Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) Human Intelligence (HUMINT) Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) Communications Intelligence Electronics Intelligence Foreign Instrumentation Signals (FISINT) Technical Intelligence (TECHINT)

  14. Signature: Uncommon or unique features Associations: Specific support equipment Profiles: Unit missions Contrasts: Not standard Exposure: Observation Time Indicators & Actions + Collection Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) Human Intelligence (HUMINT) Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) Technical Intelligence (TECHINT) VULNERABILITY

  15. Assess Risk 1 2 3 4 5 Cost vs Potential Harmful Effects

  16. The Cost Can Be High

  17. Psychological Operations Counter- PSYOP Military Deception Electronic Warfare Counter- Intelligence Counter Deception Information Attack Physical Attack Apply OPSEC Measures 1 2 3 4 5 • Prevent the adversary from detecting an indicator • Provide an alternative analysis of an indicator • Attack or deny the adversary’s collection system • Use the other Pillars of IW

  18. “Full Victory - Nothing Else” Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower

  19. 1 2 3 4 5 Five Step OPSEC Process Identify Critical Information Determine Threat Analyze Vulnerabilities Assess Risk Apply appropriate OPSEC Measures

  20. Information Operations Condition (INFOCON) … presents a structured, coordinated approach to defend against and react to adversarial attack on DoD computer and telecommunication networks and systems … based on the status of information systems, military operations, and intelligence assessments of adversary capabilities and intent … established by the Secretary of Defense; administered through the Commander JTF-CND

  21. CRITERIA RECOMMENDED ACTIONS INFOCON Level: NORMALNormal Activity No significant activity. - Ensure all mission critical info and info systems (including applications and databases) and their operational importance are identified. - Ensure all points of access and their operational necessity are identified. - On a continuing basis, conduct normal security practices. For example: -- Conduct education and training for users, admin, & management -- Ensure effective password mgmt program is in place -- Conduct periodic internal security review and external vulnerability assessments. -- Conduct normal auditing, review, and file back-up procedures. -- Confirm the existence of newly identified vulnerabilities and install patches.

  22. CRITERIA RECOMMENDED ACTIONS INFOCON Level: ALPHAIncreased Risk of Attack - Indications & Warning (I&W) indicate general threat. - Regional events occurring which affect US interests and involve potential adversaries with suspected or known CNA capability. - Military ops, contingency, or exercise planned or ongoing requiring increased security of information systems. - Information system probes, scans or other activities detected. - Accomplish all actions required at INFOCON NORMAL - Execute appropriate security practices. For example: -- Increase level of auditing, review, and file back-up procedures. -- Conduct internal security review on critical systems. -- Heighten awareness of all info systems users. -- Execute appropriate defensive tactics.

  23. CRITERIA RECOMMENDED ACTIONS INFOCON Level: BRAVOSpecific Risk of Attack - Indications & Warning (I&W) indicate targeting of specific system, location, unit, or operation. - Major military ops, contingency, or exercise planned or ongoing requiring increased security of information systems. - Significant level of network probes, scans or other activities detected. - Network penetration or denial of service attempted with no impact to DoD operations. - Accomplish all actions required at INFOCON ALPHA. - Execute appropriate security practices. For example: -- Increase level of auditing, review, and file back-up procedures. -- Conduct immediate internal security review on critical systems. -- Heighten awareness of all info systems users. -- Execute appropriate defensive tactics.

  24. CRITERIA RECOMMENDED ACTIONS INFOCON Level: CHARLIELimited Attack(s) - Intelligence attack assessment(s) indicate a limited attack. - Information system attack(s) detected with limited impact to DoD operations: -- Minimal success, successfully counteracted. -- Little or no data or systems compromised. -- Unit able to accomplish mission. - Accomplish all actions required at INFOCON BRAVO. - Execute appropriate response actions. For example: -- Maximum level of auditing, review, and file back-up procedures. -- Limit traffic to mission essential communication only. -- Reroute mission-critical communication through unaffected systems . -- Disconnect non-mission-critical networks . -- Execute appropriate defensive tactics.

  25. CRITERIA RECOMMENDED ACTIONS INFOCON Level: DELTAGeneral Attack(s) - Intelligence attack assessment(s) indicate a limited attack. - Successful information system attack(s) detected which impact to DoD operations: -- Widespread incidents that undermine ability to function effectively. -- Significant risk of mission failure. - Accomplish all actions required at INFOCON CHARLIE. - Execute appropriate response actions. For example: -- Designate alternate information systems -- Implement procedures for conducting operations in "stand-alone" mode or manually. -- Isolate compromised systems from rest of network. -- Execute appropriate defensive tactics.

  26. INFOCON Impact Gain Loss Full Connectivity No bandwidth restrictions Normal OPTEMPO • Normal defensive posture; no additional measures taken Normal • 10% improved protection • Increased likelihood intruders will be defeated or caught • If sufficient, no need for higher INFOCON 0% reduction in OPTEMPO 0% reduced connectivity Affected networks may be isolated 0% delay in information access Alpha • 35% improved protection • Increased likelihood intruders will be defeated or caught • If sufficient, no need for higher INFOCON 25% reduction in OPTEMPO 20% reduction in connectivity Affected networks may be isolated 20% delay in information access Bravo • 75% improved protection • Increased likelihood intruders will be defeated or caught • If sufficient, no need for higher INFOCON 50% reduction in OPTEMPO 40% reduction in connectivity Affected networks may be isolated 40% delay in information access Charlie • 90% improved protection • Increased likelihood intruders will be defeated or caught • If sufficient, no need for higher INFOCON 70% reduction in OPTEMPO 60% reduction in connectivity Affected networks may be isolated 60% delay in information access Delta

  27. AF Information Operations INFORMATION SUPERIORITY INFORMATION OPERATIONS INFORMATION IN WARFARE INFORMATION WARFARE defend attack gain exploit COUNTERINFORMATION OFFENSIVE COUNTERINFORMATION PRECISION NAV WEATHER I S R DEFENSIVE COUNTERINFORMATION PSYOP Information Assurance Counter- Intelligence Electronic Warfare OTHER INFO COLLECTION/ DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES (Transmission, Storage, Public Affairs) PSYOP Counter- PSYOP Physical Attack OPSEC Deception Electronic Protection Counter- Deception Information Attack

  28. COMSEC COMPUSEC EMSEC SATE Information Security Information Protection Information Assurance

  29. AFDD 2-5 Information Assurance … those measures to protect and defend information and information systems by ensuring their availability, integrity, authenticity, confidentiality, and non-repudiation. Availability - resources are available when needed Integrity - resources operate correctly Authenticity - ensures info is trustworthy (fact or actuality) Confidentiality - only those with proper clearance and need-to-know have access to sensitive information Non-repudiation - ability to confirm source of transmission and data

  30. AFDD 2-5 Communications Security (COMSEC) … measures and controls taken to deny unauthorized persons information derived from telecommunications and to ensure the authenticity of such communications.

  31. COMSEC Physical Security of COMSEC Crypto-Security Transmission Security

  32. DISA Study ? 95% of DoD communications is unprotected

  33. Some COMSEC Tools • KG-XX, Encryption Devices • Secure Telephone Unit, 3rd Generation (STU-3) • Electronic Key Management System (EKMS)

  34. Future COMSEC Tools FORTEZZA Card Secure Terminal Equipment (STE) High Speed (128 Kbps) Secure Data KY-68/STU-III Replacement Advanced Crypto Electronic Key Management System Workstation

  35. Emissions Security (EMSEC) “Protection resulting from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from intercept and analysis of compromising emanations from crypto-equipment, information systems, and telecommunications systems.”

  36. COMPROMISING EMISSIONS … are unintentional intelligence-bearing signals which, if intercepted and analyzed, disclose the information transmitted, received, handled, or otherwise processed by any information processing equipment

  37. Warning! What you see here can be seen elsewhere! EMSEC Detection & Collection Warning! What you see here can be seen elsewhere!

  38. EMSEC Prevention The Commission recommends that domestic TEMPEST countermeasures not be employed except in response to specific threat data and then only in cases authorized by the most senior department or agency head.

  39. AFDD 2-5 Computer Security (COMPUSEC) … measures and controls that ensure the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of information processed and stored by a computer.

  40. Why all the hype? “DoD Escalates War Against Poor Computer Security.” “Insiders account for more security compromises than hackers.” “Weak passwords allow easy access for unauthorized personnel.” “The disgruntled employee is our primary concern, not competition.”

  41. AFCERT ASSIST COMPUSEC Roles and Responsibilities HQ AFCIC/SYNI AFCA AFIWC AFMC Acquisition Security MAJCOM IP Office Wing IP Office DAA Base Organizations Computer Systems Manager (CSM) Computer System Security Officer (CSSO) Users Functional OPR

  42. Ultimate Responsibility YOU

  43. VULNERABILITES THREATS RISK MANAGEMENT RISKS COUNTERMEASURES COMPUSEC

  44. THREATS COMPUSEC Natural Environmental Human

  45. Natural Threats • Earthquake • Flood • Hurricane • Snow/Ice • Tornado • Lightning • Severe Storm

  46. Environmental Threats • Power Disruption • Utility Failure • Smoke • Water • Fire • Hardware Failure • Software Failure • Personnel Injury • Explosion

  47. Environmental Threats “Even a foolproof access control system is useless if a toilet overflows one floor above your equipment room.” Information Security Magazine

  48. Human ThreatsIntentional Bomb Threat Compromise Disclosure Sabotage Misuse • Theft • Fraud • Viruses • Alteration • Destruction • Unauthorized Access

  49. Ug, Fix machine! Human ThreatsUnintentional • Deficiency in Policy or Procedure • General Errors • Data Loss • Hardware Failure • Software Failure • Comm Failure • Compromise • Disclosure