Rome and the Roman Empire1,000 BCE – 476 AD KPE 260 – Winter, 2001 Dr. D. Frankl
The Empire Map source: http://library.thinkquest.org/
Rome 2000-1000 BCE Indo-European immigrants slowly inhabit Italy by way of the Alps. They bring the horse, the wheeled cart, and artistic knowledge of bronze work to the Italian peninsula. Two different groups, the Greeks and the Etruscans, occupy different regions of the peninsula during the eighth century. Source: http://eawc.evansville.edu/chronology/
Rome 753 BCE • Archeological research indicates that the founders of Rome itself are Italic people who occupy the area south of the Tiber River. By the sixth century BCE, Rome will have become the dominant power of most of its surrounding area. Their conservative government consists of a kingship, resembling the traditional values of the patriarchal family; an assembly, composed of male citizens of military age; and a Senate, comprised of elders who serve as the heads of different community sects.
Rome 600 BCE • The Etruscans, believed to be natives of Asia Minor, establish cities stretching from northern to central Italy. Their major contributions to the Romans are the arch and the vault, gladiatorial combat for entertainment and the study of animals to predict future events. http://www.dia.org/collections/ancient/theetruscans/
Rome 600 BCE • The Greeks establish city-states along the southern coast of Italy and the island of Sicily. Their contributions to the Romans are the basis of the Roman alphabet, many religious concepts and artistic talent as well as mythology.
Rome 509 BCE The Roman monarchy is overthrown and replaced with a republic. For more than two centuries following the establishment of the Roman Republic, Rome is constantly at war with the other inhabitants of Italy (the Etruscans and the Greeks).
Rome 494 BCE • The first victory of the plebeian class over the patricians results in agreement between the two classes to allow the plebeians to elect officers, tribunes, with the power to veto any unlawful acts of the magistrates.
Rome 450 BCE • The Law of the Twelve Tables is established allowing the plebeians to have knowledge of their relationship to the law. The plebeians are primarily farmers, craftsmen and tradesmen with foreign background. The patricians make up an aristocracy.
Rome 367 BCE • The first plebeian consul is elected to the assembly, and plebeians become eligible to serve as lesser magistrates, formerly a position only granted to the aristocratic class. Because an ancient custom allows promotion from magistracy to the Senate, the patrician-dominated Senate is broken.
Rome • 287 BCE: The plebeians pass a law which allows the decisions of the assembly to override the Senate. • 269 BCE: The Roman system of coinage is established.
Rome 265 BCE • Rome completes its domination of the entire Italian peninsula and begins its pursuit of a larger empire. The pursuit results in a series of wars with other nations.
Rome 264 BCE Rome initiates the Punic Wars with Carthage, an oligarchic empire stretching from the northern coast of Africa to the Strait of Gibraltar. The primary cause of these Wars is Carthaginian expansion into the Greek cities of Sicily. Carthage is forced to surrender its control over the western region of Sicily, which marks the end of the First Punic War.
Rome 218 BCE • The Romans renew their efforts against Carthage due to Carthaginian expansion in Spain, which lasts 16 years. At the end of the Second Punic War, Carthage is forced to surrender all Carthaginian territory to Rome with the exception of their capital city in northern Africa.
Rome 149-146 BCE • The Third Punic War results in the total loss of Carthaginian territory. Its inhabitants are sold into slavery and the capital city is burned. The total accumulation of territory as a result of these wars is a Roman empire including Spain, northern Africa, Greece, Asia Minor and rule over Egypt.
Rome 146-30 BCE • As a result of the Punic Wars, Roman civilization witnesses a series of cultural conflicts ranging from class conflicts and assassinations to slave retaliation in Sicily in 104 BCE and 73 BCE.
Rome 146-30 BCE • The class conflicts begin with the two tribunes Tiberius Gracchus (elected in 133 BCE) and Gaius Gracchus (elected in 123 BCE). The Gracchi brothers both strive for reforms of the Roman Republic, but fail due to the conservative customs of the upper class and their resistance to change. Following the attempts of the Gracchi brothers are those of two military leaders, Marius and Sulla.
Rome 140 BCE • The introduction of STOICISM into Rome is a major influence on Roman leaders. Cicero, "the father of Roman eloquence," derives the bulk of his thought from the Stoics, though he is well read in both PLATO and ARISTOTLE. Cicero's prose is primarily a fusion of Roman political thought and Stoicism's basic beliefs that happiness is attained by way of the virtuous life and the highest good is tranquility of mind.
Rome 98 BCE • Lucretius, author of On the Nature of Things, is the most renowned of the Roman Epicureans. • Epicureanism is one of the most notable influences the Greek world bestows on Roman civilization. Lucretius‘ poetry explains the Epicurean beliefs of obtaining the "good life" through peace of mind and disbelief in the fear of the supernatural and any afterlife. He dies in 55 BCE.
Rome 82 BCE • Following the death of Marius, the ruthless aristocrat Sulla is appointed dictator and retires after three years. Because Sulla grants full control of the Roman empire to the aristocracy, his efforts are challenged by two leaders in defense of the Roman people, Julius Caesar and Pompey. These two leaders join their efforts to seize the Roman government but soon become rivals.
Rome 52 BCE • Pompey is elected as sole consul by the Senate, and Caesar is declared an enemy of the Roman Republic. • Caesar, at first stationed in Gaul, marches into Rome in 49 BCE, and in 48 BCE, the two men war at Pharsalus in Greece. With the defeat of Pompey, Caesar campaigns in Egypt and Asia Minor before returning to Rome.
Rome 46 BCE • Caesar is appointed dictator and assumes total control from the Senate. On a charge that he intends to make himself king, he is assassinated on the Ides of March (44 BCE) by a group leadership led by Brutus and Cassius.
Julius Caesar • Among Caesar's contributions to Rome are the 365 day calendar with an extra day every four years, agricultural wealth for Rome and urban culture in the West due to his efforts to expand westward, and the cultural assimilation of the various regions under Roman rule.
Rome 42 BCE • Having learned of Caesar's death while stationed in Gaul, Octavian returns to Rome to collect his inheritance as sole heir to his granduncle's empire. Upon his arrival he aligns himself with two of Caesar's friends, Mark Antony and Lepidus, in an attempt to overthrow the aristocratic group responsible for Caesar's murder.
Rome 42 BCE • Octavian and his allies defeat Brutus and Cassias near Philippi. Following the victory, a quarrel develops between Octavian and his forces in the west and Mark Antony and his new ally, Cleopatra.
Rome 31 BCE • Antony and Cleopatra are defeated by Octavian, ensuring the prosperity of Greek ideals without threat from the eastern principles of despotism. His victory begins a new Roman era, called the Principate or Early Empire.
Rome 31 BCE • The Senate and army bestow the name of Augustus and emperor ("victorious general") upon Octavian, and he is commonly referred to as Augustus. Having gained more land for Rome than any other ruler before him, Augustus dies in 14 CE with his rule having lasted 44 years.
Rome 1 CE • Though the exact year is not known, a sixth century monk attributes this time to the birth of Jesus of Nazareth in Judea. The first four books of the New Testament (written later) are the only surviving account of Jesus' career which consists of preaching love of God and one's neighbor, healing the sick, teaching humility by example and professing the end of the world and the establishment of heaven. Augustus is in military dress idealized as Godlike and human. Image source: http://www.tulane.edu
Rome 1 - 50 CE Rome's first emperor is idealized with a youthful image which harks back to the representation of athletes and heroes of 5th-century B.C. Greece. The statue may have served as the cult figure in a temple to the deified emperor, or stood in a public or private place of honor. Head of Emperor Augustus Image source:http://www.dia.org/collections/ancient/rome/
Rome 10 CE • The Apostle Paul, a Hebrew from the city of Tarsus in Asia Minor, follows Jesus and forms a Christian Theology (10 CE). He declares Christianity a universal religion and spreads the Gospel throughout the Mediterranean region. Paul fashions the foundations of personal salvation through Jesus Christ. He dies in 67 CE. Roman Aqueduct Image source: http://www.Tulane.edu/
Rome 11 - 13 CE • The Theatre of Marcellus, was started by Caesar and completed by Augustus in the year 11 or 13. It stands on level ground and is supported by radiating walls and concrete vaulting. An arcade with attached half-columns runs around the building. The columns are Doric and Ionic. Theater of Marcellus
Rome 30 - 70 CE • With the exception of Claudius' rule (41-54 CE) and his conquest of Britain in 43 CE, the period between the death of Augustus and the rule of Nerva is a period without competent rulers. Caligula (37-41 CE) and Nero (54-68) are two brutal tyrants who contribute to the violence in Rome. Caligula Image Source: http://history.idbsu.edu/
Rome 20 - 200 CE (I) • For almost two centuries, philosophy, literature, architecture, art and engineering thrive in the Roman world. • The most influential thought during the Principate is a form of STOICISM very different from the original Hellenistic thought. The Roman Stoics are interested in politics and ethics with a heavy emphasis on religious values, rather than physical theories.
Rome 20 - 200 CE (II) • The three most important Stoics of the Roman world are Nero's advisor, Seneca (4 BCE-65 CE); a slave named Epictetus (60-120 CE); and the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (121-180 CE). • The ultimate goal of Roman Stoicism is inner peace and an awareness that true happiness is found only in submission to the order of universe.
Stoicism • A later philosophical movement of the Hellenistic period. Named after the porch (stoa poikilê) in the Agora at Athens where the members congregated for lectures. To Stoics, emotions like fear or envy (or impassioned sexual attachments, or passionate love of anything whatsoever) either were, or arose from, false judgments and that the sage--a person who had attained moral and intellectual perfection--would not undergo them. Source: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/stoicism/
Roman Architecture • Hadrian's immense country house was laid out over seven square miles Source: http://www.tulane.edu/
The decline of the Roman Empire (180 CE) • Commodus replaces the deceased Stoic Emperor Marcus Aurelius. This period is considered the beginning of the decline of the Roman Empire. • Commodus rules as a brutal tyrant and is strangled in 192 CE by a group of private conspirators. • With no chosen successor, different sects of the Roman army raise their own candidates and civil war breaks out. Source: http://eawc.evansville.edu/chronology/
Emperor Diocletian (284 CE) • Diocletian begins the reorganization of the Roman Empire and rules from Nicomedia (modern-day Turkey), rather than from Rome, and accepts the title of dominus (lord). • His reforms include the separation of military and civilian administration, division of the Empire into halves, and the introduction of new agricultural legislation and a new tax system. • The Empire redistributes the wealth to the East and refashions Roman government into an imperial bureaucracy.
284 –610 CE: Rome The period from the beginning of Diocletian's rule until 610 is commonly referred to as the age of late antiquity, rather than primarily Roman or Medieval. This period witnesses the rise of CHRISTIANITY and the decline of the Roman Empire. Source: http://eawc.evansville.edu/chronology/