U. S. Foreign Policy Before and after 9/11
Who we support and why is based on American National Interest • Iraq war (Iraqi Freedom) • AfghanistanTaliban • Iraq Persian Gulf War(Desert Storm) • Iraq/IranWar • Afghanistan/Soviet War
Gulf War 1990 - 1991: Reasons for Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait • Iraq had long considered Kuwait to be a part of itself. (Saddam rebuilding the Babylonian Empire) • With Iraq’s unsuccessful invasion of Iran, it thought Kuwait was an easy target • Iraq claimed that Kuwaiti oil rigs were illegally tapping into Iraqi oil fields.
US policy before the Gulf War • A week before the war broke out, US ambassador April Glaspie met Hussein and told him: “We have no opinion on your Arab - Arab conflicts, such as your dispute with Kuwait. Secretary (of State James) Baker has directed me to emphasize the instruction, that the Kuwait issue is not associated with America.”
US policy during Gulf War • US changes its position abruptly, and condemns Iraqi invasion • US launches offensive, defeats Iraq stopping at Bagdad • Saddam is allowed to stay in charge to avoid sectarian violence. • Forced to disarm his weapons and comply with UN restrictions (Reason we invaded in current war. He did not comply with all restrictions)
Operation Iraqi Freedom Current Military Action 2003 - Reasons for the USA for the invasion of Iraq • Iraq violated several UN resolutions • Weapons of Mass Destruction • Saddam Hussein was a tyrant who had to be removed • Iraq has a history of employing WMDs on neighbors
Iran – Iraq War1980 - 1988 • US backs Saddam. Why? Iraq had a secular government and saw him more moderate and easy to work with. • To fight the Iranian Ayatollah Khomeini’s regime who created a Islamic theocracy taking over our US embassy and keeping American hostages over 400 days.
US supports Iraq throughout the Iran-Iraq War • US approves sale to Iraq of 5 Boeing Jetliners • Removes Iraq from its list of “nations supporting terrorism” • Washington extends $400 million credit guarantee for US exports to Iraq • CIA establishes direct Washington-Baghdad link to provide military intelligence • US “condemns” Iraq’s use of chemical weapons but doesn’t support any Council action against Iraq.
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan 1978 - 1988 : • 1979 : Soviet Union invades Afghanistan • 1980 : Soviet establishes puppet regime (Run by Soviets) • 1986 : US begins supplying Mujahideen Stinger missiles, enabling them to shoot Soviet helicopters (Osama bin Laden’s Group) We were in the “Cold War” with the Soviets and it was in our interest not let them expand territory and influence. • 1988 : Soviet Union begins pulling out troops. We leave too!! Our leaving allowed the Taliban to take over instead of us trying to improve the lives of those people. 1989: Soviet Union Collapses: Communism fails! • 1996 : Taliban seize control of Kabul, introduce hardline Islamism • 2001 : Following 9/11, US invades Afghanistan to remove the Taliban • for not handing over Osama bin Laden.
CIA : Coordinating In Afghanistan CIA supplied : • Assault rifles, grenade launchers, mines and SA-7 light antiaircraft weapons, tons of C-4 explosives, long-range sniper rifles, anti-tank missiles • Extensive satellite reconnaissance data of Soviet targets, military plans, Communications devices, targeting devices directly links to US-Navy satellites
Osama bin Laden and the Taliban • One of the first non-Afghan volunteers to join the ranks of the mujahideen was Osama bin Laden. Osama was from Saudi Arabia. • Bin Laden recruited about 4,000 volunteers and worked closely with the CIA • In ’88 bin Laden created Al Qaeeda, a group of Islamic terrorist cells spread across at least 26 countries • In ’94, a new group, the Taliban (Pashtun for "students"), emerged. • The Taliban swept across most of the exhausted country finally capturing Kabul 1996 US aware of Taliban’s policies.
Remember the Taliban? Woman No Rights, Destruction of the Buddha, No Music, No white shoes, Barbaric acts of inhumanity
Why Did Osama bin Laden turn on the US? • Bin Laden and the mujahideen defeated the Soviets in Afghanistan. When Saddam was planning on invading Kuwait and putting troops on the Saudi border, Osama Bin Laden went to the Saudi’s and said he and his group the mujahideen would fight Saddam in Kuwait and protect Saudi Arabia. He was rejected.
Osama bin Laden did not want the Americans on Saudi Arabian Soil. Saudi Arabia is the home of Mecca and Medina two of the holiest lands of Islam. Bin Laden could not accept infidels (those who are not Muslim) on holy ground.
U.S. support for Taliban continues until ’98, when Bin Laden Bombs the U.S. embassies in Kenya • Taliban's refusal to extradite (Hand over) bin Laden- not its atrocious human rights record- led to UN-imposed sanctions • Following 9/11, US launches war against its former allies, overthrows the Taliban and establishes a democracy in Afghanistan. • Due to Saddam’s refusal to abide by UN resolutions and evidence of WMD’s US turns sight on Iraq and invades in 2003