Essential Questions • What is science? • What methods do scientists use? • What are the branches of Earth science?
Science is… • A way of learning about the natural world and the knowledge gained through that process. • Science comes from a Latin word that means “knowing”. • Scientific inquiry is the diverse ways in which scientists explore problems and seek to answer questions about the natural world.
Thinking Like a Scientist • Observation involves using sight, hearing, smell, and sometimes taste to gather information. • Inference is an interpretation based on your observation and prior knowledge.
Scientific Methods • Scientific methods generally include posing questions, research, developing and testing hypotheses, and drawing conclusions. Scientists often test hypotheses by conducting controlled experiments. • Posing questions – Which brand of popcorn will have the fewest kernals? • Research – internet, encyclopedias, etc.
Developing Hypotheses • A hypothesis is a possible explanation for observations that relate to a scientific question. • Tested by observation or experiment. • Educated guess - • Use “if” and “then” • If five bags of each brand of popcorn is cooked, then Orville Redenbacher's popcorn will have the fewest kernels.
Designing a Controlled Experiment • Controlled Experiment – how one particular variable affects the outcome of the experiment. • Variable is one of the factors that can change in an experiment. • Microwave 3 brands of popcorn. This will be done with 4 bags each brand.
Testing Hypotheses • “Experimenting” at least 3 times or 14 days. • Earth processes are often observed for millions of years! • “Forever Young” – journals were kept on how Mel Gibson stayed young.
Collecting and Interpreting Data • Data – facts, figures, and other evidence gained through observation • CSI – crime data • Measurements • Analyze the data to see if it supports their hypothesis.
Measuring • Enables scientists to record what they observe in a way that others can understand easily. • Scientist use a worldwide system • International System of Units – SI units • Use metrics – cm, m, mg, liters
Drawing Conclusions • Do not use crayons or markers • Making a conclusion based on the data from your experiment. • Relate to the hypotheses….. • My hypothesis was incorrect. Wal-Mart brand had the fewest kernels and tasted the best.
Models & Simulations • A simulation is a model that imitates something in the real world.
Scientific Theories • A well-tested scientific concept that explains a wide range of observations. • When theory tests fail, scientist change the theory or abandon it.
Laboratory Safety • Symbols alert you to needed precautions, such as wearing goggles to protect your eyes.
Technology and the Internet in Earth Science • Two ways that technology helps scientists • Collect data • Helps them to communicate their discoveries to other scientists and to the public.
Branches of Earth Science • Earth science – knowledge about Earth and its place in the universe. • Geology • Oceanography • Meteorology • Astronomy
Branches • Geology – study of the solid Earth. • Oceanography – study of Earth’s oceans. • Meteorology – study of Earth’s atmosphere. • Astronomy – study of the universe beyond Earth. • Environmental scientists – study the environment and it’s resources.
Websites • http://kids.earth.nasa.gov/archive/career/index.html • http://geology.com/ • http://www.chevron.com/about/careers/career_options/earth_science/ • http://www.classzone.com/books/ml_science_earth/page_build.cfm?content=careers&state=none#item
Websites • http://earthsci.org/ • http://yahooligans.yahoo.com/Science_and_Nature/Careers/ • http://www.khake.com/page86.html • http://www.earthguide.ucsd.edu/ • http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/9-12/career/index.html • http://www.earth.uni.edu/academics.html
Earth Science Websites • http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/ask/askmag.html • http://www.kaibab.org/geology/gc_geol.htm • http://nasajobs.nasa.gov/astronauts/ • http://www.spaceforspecies.ca/space_tech/careers_space_science.htm • http://www.careersmarts.com/science.htm
Earth Science Websites • http://www.eos.ubc.ca/public/careers/index.html • http://www.hrw.com/science/si-science/index.html • http://www.earthsky.org/browse/index.php?c=General+Science • http://scienceforfamilies.allinfo-about.com/subjects/earthscience.html
Earth Science Websites • http://geology.about.com/b/a/2005_08_21.htm • http://www.ncsu.edu/sciencejunction/terminal/imse/lowres/1/earth.htm • http://www.niehs.nih.gov/kids/links.htm • http://www.kiwicareers.govt.nz/lists/jobs/talpfrm.htm
Websites • http://www.route-one.com/teachers/jaymeherbert/index.asp?pageid=106 • http://www.education-world.com/science/ • http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/pages/search.asp?catid=6