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History of the English Language

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  1. History of the English Language WS 2005/6

  2. Topics • Linguistic changes: grammar and lexicon • Social and political events that influenced the development of the English language • English varieties • Mechanisms of language change

  3. Course script Digitale Bibliothek Thüringen Search: Diessel – History of the English Language

  4. What you will learn: • Why the English spelling is so odd • Why English does not have case marking • Why English developed a rigid word order • Why there are regular and irregular verbs forms • Why many English words are similar to words in German • Why many English words are similar to words in French • Why questions require the use of ‛do’ • Why English has become a world language

  5. Requirements Short exam for student who started last year. 1 5% 2 10% 3 5% 4 20% 5 60%

  6. Readings Barber, Charles. 2000. The English Language. A Historical Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Baugh, A.C. and T. Cable. 2002. A History of the English Language. London: Routledge. [fifth edition] Jucker, Andreas H. 2004. History of English and English Historical Linguistics. Stuttgart: Klett. Millward, C.M. 1996. A Biography of the English Language. Boston: Heinle. [second edition] The Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. I-V. 1992. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  7. Readings Aitchison, J. Language Change. Progress or Decay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Trask, R.L. 1996. Historical Linguistics. London: Arnold. McMahon, A.M.S. 1995. Understanding Language Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hock, H.H. 1991. Principles of Historical Linguistics.Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Croft, W. 2000. Explaining Language Change. An Evolutionary Approach. Harlow: Longman.

  8. Time periods 450-1100 Old English 1100-1500 Middle English 1500-1800 Early Modern English 1800-present Present Day English

  9. Germanic Germanic West Germanic North Germanic East Germanic English Swedish Gothic Frisian Danish Vandal German Norwegian Burgundian Yiddish Icelandic Dutch Afrikaans

  10. English German Swedish sun Sonne sol house Haus hus cat Katze kat apple Apfel äpple father Vater fader hand Hand hand go gehen gar see sehen sar hear hören höra run rennen rännar dream träumen drömar

  11. English loan words in German English German computer Computer email Email internet Internet jeans Jeans event Event laptop Laptop cool cool mountain bike Mountain Bike absolutely absolut

  12. Loan words in English take Old Norse give Old Norse they Old Norse paper French story French force French wall Latin street Latin school Latin kindergarten German

  13. English-German sound correspondences English German time Zeit tongue Zunge ten zehn tame zahm tent Zelt to zu two zwei twins Zwillinge

  14. English-German sound correspondences that das there da through durch thirsty durstig think denken

  15. English-German sound correspondences pan Pfanne path Pfad pole Pfahl pepper Pfeffer pipe Pfeife plant Pflanze

  16. English-German sound correspondences hate hassen eat essen let lassen grip greifen deep tief sleep schafen

  17. IE reconstructed word forms *pe:s- ‘foot’ *ed- ‘eat’ *ghebh- ‘give’ *aug- ‘increase’ *wed- ‘water’

  18. English-German sound correspondences cheese child chin cheery church king Käse Kind Kinn Kirsche Kirche König

  19. Loan words from French crime crime prison prison letter lettre justice justice contract contrat music musique demand demander pronounce prononcer propose proposer responsible responsable

  20. Cognates: English-French one un, une two deux three trois four quatre five cinq six six seven sept eight huit nine neuf ten dix

  21. Romance French Catalan Italian Galician Spain Sardinian Portuguese Provencal Romanian Rhomansh

  22. Sound correspondences in Romance

  23. Indo-European Germanic Greek Romance Iranian Slavic Indian Baltic Albanian Celtic Armenian

  24. Balto-Slavic Balto-Slavic Baltic Slavic Latvian Lithuanian East Slavic West Slavic South Slavic Old Prussian Russian Polish Serbo-Croatian Russian Czech Slovene Belarusian Slovak Bulgarian Sorbian Macedonian

  25. Cases in Indo-European

  26. Celtic Celtic Gaelic Irish Scottish Welsh Manx Cornish Breton

  27. Sanskrit

  28. 700 English 500 Armenian 400 Gothic 0 200 Latin 400 Classical Sanskrit 800 Greek 1000 Old Persian 1200 Hittite 1500 Vedic Sanskrit 3000 Proto Indo-European

  29. Second Germanic sound shift time Zeit tongue Zunge ten zehn that das there da through durch pan Pfanne path Pfad pole Pfahl hat hassen eat essen let lassen grip greifen deep tief sleep schlafen

  30. Numerals in Indo-European and non-Indo-European languages

  31. Sound correspondences in IE

  32. Sound correspondences across unrelated languages

  33. Sir William Jones