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Section 10 The Urban World

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  1. Chapter 10The Urban World

  2. Overview of Chapter 10 • Population and Urbanization • Characteristics of Urban Population • Urbanization Trends • City as an Ecosystem • Environmental Problems in Urban Areas • Environmental Benefits of Urbanization • Urban Land Use Planning • Transportation and Urban Development • Suburban Sprawl • Making Cities More Sustainable

  3. Population and Urbanization • By 2007 or 2008, half of the world’s population will live in urban areas

  4. Population and Urbanization • Urbanization • Process in which people increasingly move from rural areas to densely population cities • Jobs define urban vs. rural, not populations • Rural area occupations involve harvesting natural resources • Urban area occupations involve jobs not connected with natural resources • People are moving to cities due to decrease in employment opportunities in rural areas

  5. Characteristics of Urban Population • Basic characteristics of city populations: • Diverse population in terms of race, ethnicity, religion and socioeconomic status • Younger population than local rural area • More males in developing nation cities • More females in developed nation cities

  6. Urbanization Trends • Urbanization is increasing rapidly • Especially in developing countries • World’s 10 largest cities are in developing countries

  7. Urbanization Trends • Urban Agglomeration • Urbanized core region that consists of several adjunct cities or megacities and their surrounding developed suburbs United States Urban Agglomerations (Population of 50,000 or above)

  8. Substandard Housing • Typically occupied by squatters • Illegally occupy unsafe housing • No city services • Water, sewage, garbage collection, police and fire protection • 1/3 of urban population in developing countries are squatters • Homelessness is present in lower numbers in developed countries

  9. City as an Ecosystem • POET • Population • Number of people • Organization • Social structure of city • Environment • City infrastructure and natural environment • Technology • Human intervention that directly affects the urban environment • Four variables are dependent on each other and interact like parts of a natural ecosystem

  10. Land Use- Park City, Utah Undeveloped Open Space Full Satellite View of City

  11. Environmental Problems in Urban Areas • Growing urban areas affect land use patterns • Fragment wildlife • Encroach wetlands, forests, desert, etc. • Brownfields • Urban areas of abandoned industrial or residential sites that may be contaminated from past use • Impermeable surfaces and urban runoff discharged into waterways • Motor oil, lawn fertilizers, heavy metals

  12. Environmental Problems in Urban Areas • Long commutes • Traffic congested streets • Buildup of airborne emissions due to cars and industry • Noise pollution • Urban heat island • Local heat buildup in an area of high population density • Affect local air currents and weather conditions • Contribute to buildup of pollutants- dust domes

  13. Urban Heat Island Temperature variations on a summer afternoon

  14. Environmental Benefits of Urbanization • Well-planned city can benefit the environment • Reduces pollution • Preserves rural areas • Compact Development • Design of cities where residential buildings are close to shopping, jobs and public transportation • Ex: Portland, Oregon

  15. Urban Land Use Planning • Land use based on economic concerns • From center of city outwards: • City center- Central Business District (highest taxes) • Residential properties (lower taxes than city center) • Land intensive businesses (even lower taxes) • Suburbs (lowest taxes) • Parks and green space are interspersed

  16. Urban Land Use Planning • Land Use Planning • Process of deciding the best use for undeveloped land in a given area • Influenced by political and economic factors • Regulated through zoning • Cities divided into use zones • Commercial • Residential • Industrial • Property owners must meet zoning ordinances

  17. Transportation and Urban Development • Transportation availability affects city’s spatial structure • Ex: An east coast US city • (a) 1700-1850 • (b) 1850-1910 • (c) 20th century

  18. Suburban Sprawl • Suburban Sprawl • Patchwork of vacant and developed tracts around the edges of cities • Problems • Loss of wetlands • Air pollution • Water pollution • Loss of biological habitat • 11 states now have new growth management laws (Smart Growth)

  19. Making Cities More Sustainable • Characteristics of a sustainable city • Clear, cohesive urban growth policies • Efficient use of energy and other resources • Reduction of pollution and waste • Reuse and recycle materials in waste stream • Large areas of green space • Designed to be people-centers, not car-centered • Food grown IN the city (rooftop gardens) • Compact development

  20. Copenhagen, DenmarkA People-centered City

  21. Sustainable CitiesCase in Point- Curitiba, Brazil