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  1. Fighting AIDS Through Education F.A.T.E. American Medical Association Medical Student Section Community Service Committee International Health and Policy Committee Prepared by Students at: University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR Keck School of Medicine, LA, CA

  2. What Is AIDS? • AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome • Acquired: passed from one person to another • Immune: the body’s defense system against disease • Deficiency: lack of or breakdown in • Syndrome: a combination of symptoms and disorders

  3. What Causes AIDS? • AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). That is, HIV is the VIRUS that causes AIDS. • HIV attacks and weakens the body’s immune system by destroying the body’s T-helper white blood cells; white blood cells are those cells in your body that fight infections

  4. Why Talk About AIDS? • The fastest growinggroup of new HIV/AIDS cases is the under twenty-five age group, particularly those who are sexually active and/or IV drug users. • In 1999, HIV was the fifth leading cause of death for Americans between the ages of 25 and 44.* • Among African American men in this age group, HIV infection has been the leading cause of death since 1991. • In 1999, among black women 25-44 years old, HIV infection was the third leading cause of death. • Many of these young adults likely were infected in their teens and twenties. * *CDC, http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/facts/youth.htm

  5. How Do You Test for HIV? • HIV infected persons produce antibodies against this virus that can be detected in the blood or the oral mucosa. These antibodies can be measured by medical testing. Some require blood Others just need a samples quick oral swab • It can take up to six months after exposure to HIV for enough antibodies to develop in the affected person to be detected by laboratory testing.

  6. HIV and AIDS Facts • A person infected with HIV may not show symptoms for five to ten years. People who look completely healthy can still have HIV. • HIV can ALWAYS be passed to others, even if they have no symptoms of AIDS. • Once HIV begins to destroy the body’s immune system, the affected person progresses through different phases of AIDS until they die.

  7. AIDS progression • Once HIV develops into AIDS, there is a rapid decline and weakening of the immune system, and the body becomes vulnerable to multiple infections. Cutaneous Candida Shingles • AIDS patients are vulnerable to germs that are normally present and harmless in healthy people. • There is NO vaccine or cure for HIV/AIDS.

  8. How Is HIV/AIDS Contracted? The BIG FOUR : Exchange of Bodily Fluids • Sexual Contact (vaginal, oral, anal); does not include casual kissing (unless open mouth sores are present) • Sharing Hypodermic Needles through IV drug use • Mother to infant transmission: In utero exchange, during birth, or through breast-feeding after birth 4. Less commonly (and now very rarely in countries where blood is screened for HIV antibodies), through transfusions of infected blood or blood clotting factors.

  9. How Is HIV/AIDS NOT Contracted? • Skin to skin contact (intact skin) • Sharing eating utensils • Mosquito bites • Donating Blood • Toilet Seats • Sweat • Pets • Casual Physical Contact

  10. Who Is at Risk for Contracting HIV/AIDS? • EVERYONE who practices unsafe sex,has a pre-existing STD, or uses IV drugs is at HIGH RISK for contracting HIV/AIDS. • Worldwide, more than 90% of all adolescent and adult HIV infections have resulted from heterosexual intercourse*. • Females are in as much a risk as Males. *http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/womenhiv.htm

  11. How Can You Protect Yourself? • ABSTINENCE • ABSTINENCE is the only certain way to protect yourself against HIV and other STDs. • MUTUALmonogamy in your relationships after you have both been tested. • SAFE sex-Nobody has a body to die for. • If you have sex, LATEX CONDOMS are the most effective protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) . • Natural membranes have small microscopic holes that can let STD’s through. • Novelty condoms (like ones that glow in the dark) should not be used. • Don’t use oil based lubrication because it will cause the condom to tear. • AVOID drug use

  12. Lots of kids are doing it! Don’t you want me? You can prove you love me by having sex with me. It’s not such a big deal. I have to have sex to release the pressure inside. You said yes once before. It makes you more mature. *Packer, Kenneth L. HIV Infection: The Facts You Need to Know. Venture: NY, 1998. **Grunbaum JA et al. Youth risk behavior surveillance, United States 2001. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries 2002; 51(SS-4):1-78. Then you should have an easy time finding a partner. (In 2001, 46% of US high school students reported ever having sex)** I want what is right for the both of us. You can prove you love me by not pressuring me to do something I don’t want to do. Then I want to wait until it is a big deal for me. Go to the bathroom. You don’t need me for that. It’s my right to say NO anytime I want to, even if I said yesbefore! No, mature means making good decisions, and not doing things with serious consequences. Abstinence: Standing StrongIt’s never too late to start*

  13. I don’t have a condom with me. Putting on a condom breaks the mood. It’s not romantic. Condoms taste terrible But you said you love me? I never use condoms! They are too dry and make sex uncomfortable. * Packer, Kenneth L. HIV Infection: The Facts You Need to Know. Venture: NY, 1998. The supermarket is open all night, or wait until we have one. I think it can be very romantic. Let me show you. Lets try some of the new flavored condoms. I do love you, that’s why I want to protect us. I never have sex without them. Lets use lubricated condoms, and we can add extra K-Y Jelly. Your Partner’s not wanting to use a condom?*

  14. Safe SEX -101!* • Get ready. Make sure your condoms are fresh -- check the expiration date. Throw away condoms that have expired, been very hot, carried around in your wallet, or washed in the washer. If you think the condom might not be good, get a new one. You and your partner are worth it. • The penis has to be hard before you put a condom on it. • Open it. Tear open the package carefully, so you don't rip the condom. • If the penis is uncut (uncircumcised), pull the foreskin back first. • Make sure the condom is right side out. It's like a sock: there's a right side and wrong side. First unroll it about half an inch to see in which direction it is unrolling. Then put it on. *http://www.positive.org/JustSayYes/safesex.html

  15. Hold the top half-inch of the condom between your fingers when you roll it down. This keeps out air bubbles, which can cause the condom to break. It also leaves a space at the end for the semen. • Roll the condom down as far as it will go. It should reach the base of the penis near the balls. • Throw out the used condom right away. Use a condom only once. Never use the same condom for vaginal and anal intercourse. Never use a condom that has been in, or used by someone else. Never ejaculate more than once in the same condom.

  16. Its important to practice so… Guys, practice putting on a condom in a comfortable place where you have plenty of time by yourself. You know what we mean! Practice makes perfect, and you'll impress your partner. Girls, practice putting a condom on a banana. Don’t forget there is also a female condom.. Dental Dams - a flat sheet of latex used by a dentist when operating on a tooth. It can be used during oral sex as a barrier. Don’t forget oral sex can also spread HIV.

  17. SIX More Reasons to Be CAREFUL • Gonorrhea - discharge of white pus (from the penis/vagina) and/or painful and burning sensations, but only 20% of female cases display symptoms. • Chlamydia - the “silent” disease because you can have it and not know it. Symptoms usually appear within 1 to 3 weeks after being infected. Those who do have symptoms may have an abnormal discharge (mucus or pus) from the vagina or penis or experience pain while urinating. These early symptoms may be very mild. • Syphilis - chancre (red spot that breaks down) at the infection site, that lasts 2-5 weeks; it is HIGHLY infectious. Symptoms often absent for 2-3 months • Herpes - painful blistering. Can be oral, genital, or both. It is not curable! You have it forever. It can be controlled by medication, but it is NEVER cured. Untreated infection can result in cervical cancer in women. • HPV- Human Papillomavirus- can cause growth of warts on the genitals, warts can result in cancer if untreated. HPV has the fastest growing incidence of all STD infections. • Chancroids- a bacterial disease causing a tender red bump that will eventually become a painful, irregularly shaped sore

  18. So, What Did You Learn? • AIDS is a FAILURE of your body’s immune system (your body’s ability to FIGHT INFECTION) • ANYONE who is practicing unsafe sex or sharing IV needles is at HIGH RISK for contracting HIV, AIDS or another STD. • ABSTINENCE is the best protection against HIV, AIDS and other STD’s, followed by CONDOMS. • Finally, BE SMART…PROTECT yourself.

  19. AIDS Resources • http://www.iwannaknow.org • http://www.avert.org • Include local resources here. Look at your state’s department of health web site. • List local testing sites (making sure to note that parental consent is not necessary) Pictures of persons in the power point are from http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/hivsti.htm