Tactics of Terrorism Annual Editions- Unit 2
Starting thoughts • Different ideologies that lead to terrorism • Similar method of violence • Why? • Financing terror
Greenlees and McBeth • Assassinating public figures • Indonesia- Jemaah Islamiya (JI) • 2002- Bali bombings- 202 killed- 164 foreign nationals, 209 injured • 2003- JW Marriott Hotel in Jakarta- 12 killed- 1 foreign national, 150+ injured • Large scale violence versus selected targets • Heavy Muslim casualties, media attention, public support (Punjab case)
Greenlees and McBeth • Hurting Western interests • Economic targets; oil, gas, international chains of restaurants, resorts • 2003- Attack on the expatriate housing complex in Saudi Arabia • Indonesia- targeting doctors, tourists • Afghanistan- South Korean missionaries • Nicholson- Globalization and ease to operate for terror networks- Red Cross phenomenon • 2002- al-Qaeda propaganda materials on US multinationals in Muslim regions- Iraq, Bangladesh. Additionally, Sudan, Niger Delta
Greenlees and McBeth • Weak political will • Weak democratic structure • No clear policy against violence and violation of Human Rights • Tribal and rural justice • Hijacking of IA-814 • Economic interest in the African region • Public policy in the West and Christianity
Greenlees and McBeth • Need to accord global visibility to problems and solutions • Sectarian violence in Iraq, Human Rights violations in Saudi Arabia, • Need to intervene even when there is no direct economic interest • Myanmar? • Need to support more in terms of social and economic welfare rather than strengthening militaries in weak democracies • Accountability? Iraq- $9billion- oil money- 2003-2004 • Healthcare in Iraq • No double standards- ban ALL terrorist outfits (JeM)
David KaplanPaying for Terror • Hybrid of organized crime and terrorism • Efficiency, money overlapping with religious fanaticism • The D-Company/Dawood Ibrahim • March 1993- 11-13 bomb blasts in two hours in Mumbai- 257 killed, 700+ injured • August 2003- 2 taxi bombs- 52 killed, 100+ injured • July 2006- 7 bomb blasts in 11 minutes; 209 killed 700+ injured • LeT, JeM
David KaplanPaying for Terror • OC- normally parasitical, but growing overlap • Chechan- Russian Mafiya • Arms, human trafficking and drug trade • Taliban- al-Qaeda • Opium trade • Columbian cartels • Cocaine trade • Jemaah Islamiya – March 2004, Madrid Bombings- 191 killed, 2050 injured • Funded through Hashish Trade • Bali bombings- Jewelry store robberies
David KaplanPaying for Terror • Big money- low cost- survivability • Madrid bombings- $50K • Other businesses- pirated CDs, ID theft- Nigerian gangs, kidnappings, religious fundraisers • Antiques market • Prison recruits • A plus for the law enforcement?
David KaplanPaying for Terror • Corruption and lack of political will • D-Company- more money than country’s GDPs • Priorities? History of fighting terror? • Reasons for the Iraq war? • Are we in it for the long haul?
The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism -Scott Atran • Most violent, unpredictable and horrifying • More suicide attacks in 2003-2005 than between 1980-2003 • Why has it become the most common method? • Expendability issue?
The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism -Scott Atran • Misconception that “martyrs” are being directed by al-Qaeda • Salafis and Jihadists? • Influence of kin and colleagues • Egyptians killing Westerners and fellow Egyptians • Iranians, Afghanis, Syrians in Iraq • Do terrorists want to annihilate the West?
The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism -Scott Atran • Western political and economic policies • Moral values- 2004 Abu Ghraib prison scandal; 2005 Haditha killings; torture Geneva Convention Article 3; profiling in the US • Need to understand the changing face of terror • Decentralized structure • Diverting sympathy for suicide bombers- role of media? • Embracing complexity • Long term commitment • Global cooperation